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pression is partitive, or designates a class of men. Whether the phrase implies immortal life will be considered hereafter.
OTHER EXPRESSIONS APPARENTLY
“ He asked of thee life, and thou gavest it him, even length of days for ever and ever” (Ps. xxi. 4). “Life for evermore” (Ps. cxxxiii. 3). Immortality or incorruption;- Athanasia (1 Cor. xv. 53, 54; comp. 1 Tim. vi. 16). Aphtharsia, (Rom. ii. 7; 1 Cor. xv. 42, 50, 53, 54; 2 Tim. i. 10. The word also denotes incorruptness, as in Eph. vi. 24; Tit. ii. 7.* King James' translation of the word is not bad.) Incorruptible (Rom. i. 23 ; 1 Cor. ix. 25: xv. 52; 1 Tim. i. 17; 1 Pet. i. 4, 23; iii. 4.)
“Shalt surely die ” (Gen. ii. 17; iii. 4; Ezek. iii. 18; xxxiii. 8, 14). “ He that hateth reproof shall die” (Prov. xv. 10; comp. v. 23 ; x. 21; xix. 16). • The soul that sinneth, it shall die” (i.e. the very person that sins, Ezek. xviii. 4; comp. vs. 18–32). “ That a man may eat thereof and not
(John vi. 50; comp. xi. 26). See also Luke xx. 36 • John viii. 21, 24; Rom. viii. 13.
" He that sinneth against me wrongeth his own soul; all they that hate me love death.” (Prov. viii. 36. This I offer as containing a principle respecting the future life. Comp. X. 2 ; xi. 19; xii. 28; xii. 14; xiv. 12; xvi. 25; xviii. 21 ; Ezek. xviii. 32 ; xxxiii. 11.) “ If a man keep my saying he shall never see death ” (John viii. 51; comp. ver. 52). wages of sin is death ; but the gift of God is eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord” (Rom. vi. 23 ; comp. vs. 16, 21; ch. v. 12, 14, 21; 1 Cor. xv. 21, 26, 54, 55, 56 ; also the
* I have since discovered error in this statement respecting aphtharsia. See it corrected in my Rejoinder, p. 434.
following passages, from which some may argue the metaphorical sense : vii. 5, 10, 13, 24; viii. 2, 6). See also 2 Cor. ii. 16 (“ death unto death "); iii. 7; 2 Tim. i. 10 ( haih abolished death "); Ileb. ii. 14, 15 ; Jas. i. 14; 1 Jolin iii. 14; v. 16, 17; Rev. xxi. 4.
This phrase is put in contrast with “ crown of life,” rection," “ book of life," “ water of life," Rev. ii. 11 ; xx. 6, 14; xxi. 8. It will be further examined.
TO PERISH; TO BE DESTROYED.
These expressions are the same in the original. I select mostly from the New Testament. 6 It is not the will of your Father which is in heaven that one of these little ones should perish ” (Matt. xviii. 14; comp. John iii. 15; x. 28; 1 Cor. viii. 11). “ A sweet savor
in them that perish . of death unto death” (2 Cor. ii. 15, 16; comp. 1 Cor. i. 18; 2 Thes. ii. 10). See also Luke xiii. 3 ; Acts viii. 20; xiii. 41; Rom. ii. 12; 1 Cor. xv. 18; 2 Pet. iii. 9.
“ Shall utterly perish in their own corruption ” (2 Pet. ii. 12).
“ Able to destroy both soul and body in hell” (Matt. x. 28 ; comp. Jas. iv. 12). “ Will destroy those husbandmen,” etc., (Matt. xxi. 41 ; Mark xii. 9; Luke xx. 16.) See also Rom. xiv. 20; (2 Pet. ii. 12; 1 John iii. 8; Jude 5. “Every soul which will not hear that prophet shall be utterly destroyed (exolothreuthesetai) from among the people” (Acts iii. 23 ; comp. Deut. iv. 26).
PERDITION; DESTRUCTION. I discard the conventional sense of the word “perdition” which makes it the same with “ damnation,” remarking that it strictly means perishing or being destroyed. The question whether these words refer to the body alone, or to the being, is not here decided.
"To them an evidence of perdition, but to you of salvation, and that of God” (Phil. i. 28; comp. Heb. x. 39 ; 2 Pet.
iii. 7). “Son of perdition” (John xvii. 12; 2 Thes. ii. 3). 66 Foolish and hurtful lusts which drown men in destruction and perdition” (1 Tim. vi. 9). “The beast . . . that goeth into perdition” (Rev. xvii. 8, 11).
“ Broad is the way," etc., (Matt. vii. 13.) “Vessels of wrath, fitted to destruction” (Rom. ix. 22). “Whose end is destruction” (Phil. iii. 19 ; see context). See also 2 Cor. v.5; x. 8; xiii. 10; 2 Pet. ii. 1; ii. 16. “ Everlasting destruction,” (2 Thes. i. 9; comp. 1 Thes. v. 3 ; Ps. lii. 5; xcii. 7; Isa. X. 25; xiii. 6. Whether this destruction admits a subsequent salvation is to be considered.)
As part of the general tenor of scriptural language I should name the class of
PASSAGES SUPPOSED TO IMPLY A GENERAL SALVATION.
Luke xx. 38 ; Rom. v. 12–21; and 1 Cor. xv. 12-58, are named above. The others most important are the promises that in Christ should all the nations of the earth be blessed” (Gen. xi. 3 ; xxii. 18; xxvi. 4; Acts iii. 25; Gal. iii. 8; comp. Ps. Ixvii. 2; lxxii. 11, 17; lxxxvi. 9; Isa. ii. 2 ; Mal. iii. 12; Rev. xv. 4). The mission of Christ to seek and save the lost (Matt. x. 6; xv. 24 ; xviii. 11 ; Luke xix. 10). The declaration, “ And I, if I be lifted up, will draw all men unto me” (John xiii. 32). The designation of Christ as the “ Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world” (John i. 29 ; comp. 1 John ii. 2); as the “bread of God that giveth life unto the world” (John vi. 33 ; comp. ver. 51); and as the “ Savior of the world ” (John iv. 42; 1 John iv. 14; comp. 1 Tim. iv. 10; ii. 4). See also Rom. xi. 14. The paternal relation and character of God (Isa. lxiii. 16; lxix. 8 ; Mal. ii. 10; Matt. vi. 9; Luke xi. 2 ; Acts xvii. 26, 28 ; Heb. xii. 9; but see context, and comp. Ps. ciii. 13 ; Ezek. xviii. 4; Matt. v. 45 ; John viii. 41-44; Rom. viii. 15). The character of God as loving and merciful (in manifold passages). The restitution of all things (Acts iii. 21). The promises of Christ's universal dominion (Phil. ii. 9-11; Isa. xlv. 23; 1 Cor. xv.
24–28; Rev. v. 13). The destruction of death, Satan, and his works (1 Cor. xv. 26, 55 ; Gen. iii. 15; Heb. ii. 14; 1 John iii. 8; Rev. xx. 14; xxi. 4).
This list I do not offer as complete, so the reader will not be prejudiced by its brevity. Several passages concerning God's long-suffering with and repeated forgiveness of the Jews, in the Old Testament, might be added as containing a principle.
Yet if passages declaring the mercy of God are brought into the list, those touching the divine anger, whatever that means, might be added ; and, as apparently asserting a limit to the divine forbearance, such a passage as Heb. iii. 7-iv. 11.
I have tried what I shall be proud if I have accomplished, to give this “ general tenor” impartially. I here add that I do not assume that any of the passages apply to man's final destiny. I simply insist that in the absence of all statement of man's immortality this general tenor has great force; and the same silence respecting an immortal nature in man may admit the application of the common remark, that the literal or ordinary sense of words is primâ facie the true sense, overruled only by special considerations. Whether the literal sense shall be applied to physical life and death, or to the question of immortality, is to be considered.
I am very far from asking or expecting that my opponent should examine all these four hundred passages, or even a small fraction of them. If he shows that those which I shall examine do not prove my proposition, I am answered, and that triumphantly, unless I happen to select the weakest passages for proof. For if my chosen texts do not contain my doctrine, there is left an à priori presumption against those I do not select. And if I have failed to present fairly the general tenor of the Scriptures, my opponent may do better.
§ 4. The Exegetical or Analytic Argument.
So much for the general tenor or tone of scriptural language respecting man's destiny. This is the synthetical argument, valuable in its place, but, as I said, indecisive without that
other element of reasoning, - the inquiry what individual expressions mean.
I will now therefore examine a few of these passages more particularly ; partly to meet certain arguments for their metaphorical sense, and partly to show more directly that they contain the literal sense, and apply to a final destiny.
Gen. ii. 17 : “ Of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die.”
This is claimed, 1st, as applying to temporal or physical death only, not that of the soul ; 2dly, as denoting moral or spiritual death only, and not that of the being.
To the first objection it is sufficient to reply for the present that no plain instruction appears to have been given our first parents of a distinction between body and soul as “body mortal” and “soul immortal.” Hence, when they saw the brutes around them dying into nothingness, and heard the sentence, “ Dust thou art, and unto dust thou shalt return” (Gen. iii. 19), it seems to me they must have had small hope of immortality left, unless by a rescue and redemption. And whether the promised deliverance would accrue to their benefit, or to that of their seed only, they were not told particularly, so far as we are aware. And the expression in Gen. iii. 22, “Lest he put forth his hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever," seems a little discouraging in the hour of expulsion from so sweet a paradise. I query whether a Universalist, commissioned to execute the business, using his own words, would have said just so much and then have dropped the subject, to finish his work by guarding the tree of life with forbidding security (ver. 24).
But it is urged, both by the Orthodox and by Universalists, that literal death could not have been intended in the sentence in Gen. ii. 17, because our first parents did not actually die on the day of their sin. It is inferred that the death intended was a moral or spiritual death, commonly called death "in trespasses and sins ;” and to support this view the expressions in Eph. ii. 1, 5; Col. ii. 13; Matt. viii. 22 (“Let the dead bury