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the world ; and they follow him that are of his side. But the souls of the just are in the hand of God, and torment may not touch them. In the sight of the unwise they seemed to die, and their exit was reckoned a calamity, and their departure from us utter destruction ; but they are in peace. For though in the sight of men they are punished, their hope is full of immortality."
This passage may be taken as showing how the Jews understood that in Genesis, and my view is supported by an expression in ch. xv. 3 : “ The just live for ever (eis ton aiona), and their reward is in the Lord.”
And two expressions in the New Testament seem to denote that the divine image in man is a moral likeness.
Eph. iv. 24 : “ Put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness.” Col. iii. 10: “And have put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him.” From this we should not infer that actual holiness was concreated in man ; for character can not be created by another. Rather, I should take it, man was made with a capacity and design for godliness, or godlikeness, and thus for immortality. Now that which is moral is primary and ruling ; that which is physical is subordinate. If the godlikeness fails, the immortality may follow.
Gen. ii. 7: “And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life ; and man became a living soul.”
Few of your readers, I presume, need to be told that the Hebrew phrase for “living soul" is in ch. i. 30, applied to the brutes. And in ch. vii. 22, we have a still stronger expression : “All in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of lives (nishmath ruach chajim) died.” In 1 Cor. xv. 45, the phrase is put in a contrast which directly intimates that Adam was not made absolutely immortal: “ The first Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit.”
Eccl. iii. 21 : “ Who knoweth the spirit of man that goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast that goeth downward to the earth ?”
This text would be unworthy of attention in this argument
if it were not so often adduced by many orthodox people. I am happily ignorant of the Universalist treatment of it. Suffice it to say, the previous verse, - “ All go unto one place ; all are of the dust, and all turn to dust again,” —and still more the 19th verse, sustain the view which takes it as a challenge ; q. d. :“ Who knows whether the spirit of man goeth upward ?" etc. It is a piece of Solomon's scepticism, which proves Epicureanism and French atheism if it proves any thing. That it should get Scripture Manual” as a proof-text that man will live as long as God does, shows either a sad state of traditional reasoning, or a great meagreness of orthodox argument.
Eccl. xii. 7 : “ Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was; and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.”
Here the Preacher speaks more as a moralist, and, as the last two verses show, with some sentiment of piety. Yet his whole book yields scarcely a glimpse of immortality. The “judgment" named in verse 14, if after death, proves no eternal life. And the expression “shall return to God who gave it” naturally denotes that the spirit reverts back to the disposal of the power that created it; and it may intimate a return to original nothingness. This view is strongly supported by an expression of Justin Martyr, treating this very question of immortality. He says : “ As the personal man does not always exist, and body and soul are not ever conjoined ; but, whenever this harmony must be dissolved, the soul leaves the body, and the man is no more ; so likewise, whenever it is necessary that the soul should no longer be, the vital spirit leaves it, and the soul is no more, but itself returns again thither whence it was taken.” (Dial. c. Tryph. c. 6.)
$ 3. The General Tenor of Scriptural Language. There are two methods of human thought and investigation : synthesis and analysis; the compiling of facts, and the examination of them singly. Neither of these methods is safe or complete without the other. When, therefore, I offer the
general tenor of scriptural language on this subject, I do not ask the reader to deem it worth a straw without some consideration of what the language means. For it is at least conceivable that after a hundred passages have been recited, sounding as if they supported one side of a question, they should be one by one transferred to the other side, or removed and thrown out as not referring to the subject, - belonging to neither side.
Before giving my list, therefore, or my enumeration, I remark that it includes most of the passages that seem to refer to the future if not the final destiny of man. It also does not include the greater number of passages in the Old Testament that probably denote temporal destructions or deliverances of the Jews. I think not more than a tithe of the number I give could be claimed as of special Jewish application ; and I willingly pay such a tithe in account with the seed of Abraham, with the single remark that if such Old Testament passages signify nothing beyond the grave, then the Jews knew nothing beyond the grave. But then it becomes a fair question whether the passages do not contain a principle, and if the temporal deliverances and destructions were not types of similar results in man's relations to the immortal life. And if it is claimed that
of the passages I count refer to the life or death of the body but not of the soul, I reply that very few passages will be left to be referred to any immortal life. And the question whether they are to be taken literally or metaphorically, will be duly considered. Also the question whether those which speak of everlasting or eternal life, or life eis ton aiona, denote the life of the Christian dispensation, aionian life in some limited sense, or immortal life in the absolute sense.
A very few passages, obviously not referring to man's final destiny (e.g. Isa. xxxviii. 16), are thrown in as suggesting the literal sense of others which may thus refer. Also two or three asserting God's immortality, because they contain phrases apparently denoting the destiny of good men.
I must ask the indulgence of the reader, or rather his assistance, referring as I do to most passages without quoting them. My best apology is that such passages ought to prove nothing
way if they are not read ; and when they are read in their places one has the benefit of the context.
TO LIVE; LIVING.
“ This do, and thou shalt live” (Luke x. 28; compare Lev. xviii. 5; Neh. ix. 29; Prov. iv. 4; vii. 2; Rom. x. 5; Gal. iii. 12).
“ Man doth not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth man live” (Deut. viii. 3 ; comp. Matt. iv. 4).
6 Incline your ear and come unto me; hear, and your soul shall live” (Isa. lv. 3 ; comp. 1 Sam. i. 26; xvii. 55 ; xxv. 26; 2 Sam. xi. 11; Ps. Ixix. 32; cxix. 175; Jer. xxxviii. 20).
“He is just; he shall surely live” (Ezek. xviii. 9; comp. ch. iii. 21; xviii. 17, 19, 21, 22, 24, 32 ; xx. 11, 13, 21, 25; xxxii. 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 19 ; xxxvii. 3-14). “The just shall live by faith” (Rom. i. 17; comp. Hab. ii. 4; Gal. iii. 11 ; Heb. x. 38). See also Ps. lxxii. 15; cxviii. 17; cxix. 144; Prov. ix. 6; xv. 27 ; Isa. xxvi. 14, 19; xxxviii. 16 ; Luke, xx. 38; John v. 25; vi. 57 (“He that eateth me, even he shall live by me”); xi. 25 ; xiv. 19 (“Because I live, ye shall live also "); Rom. vi. 8; viii. 13; 2 Cor. xiii. 4; Gal. ii. 19, 20; 1 Thes. v. 10; 2 Tim. ii. 11; 1 John iv. 9.
“ Shall be called holy, every one that is written among the living in Jerusalem ” (Isa. iv. 3). See also Ps. xxvii. 13; lii. 5; lvi. 13; lxix. 28; cxvi. 9; cxlii. 5; Matt. xxii. 32; Mark xii. 27; Luke xx. 38.
TO LIVE FOR EVER, (Gk. eis ton aiona, Heb. l'olām.) “ He that eateth of this bread shall live for ever
(John vi. 51, 58). See also Gen. iii. 22 ; Deut. xxxii. 40 (“I[Jehovah] lift up my hand to heaven, and say, I live for ever”); Ps. xxii. 26; xlix. 9.
“ Tree of life” (Gen. ii. 9 ; iii. 22, 24; Prov. iii. 18; Rev. ii. 7; xxii. 14). “ The soul of my lord shall be bound in the bundle of life with the Lord thy God” (1 Sam. xxv.
29). “ Thou wilt show me the path of life” (Ps. xvi. 11 ; comp. Acts ii. 28). “ I have set before you life and death, blessing and cursing; therefore choose life” (Deut. xxx. 19; comp. v.
15; Jer. xxi. 8. This and the following passages, I offer as typical, and as containing a principle: Deut. xxxii. 47; Ps. xxx. 5 ; xxxiv. 12; xxxvi. 9 ; xci. 16; Prov. iii. 2,
iv. 22, 23; v. 6; vi. 23 ; viii. 35 ; x. 11, 16, 17 ; xi. 19, 30 ; xii. 28; xiji. 12, 14 ; xiv. 27 (“ The fear of the Lord is a fountain of life”); xv. 4, 24 (" The way of life is above to the wise, that he may depart from Sheol beneath "); xix. 23; xxi. 21; Eccl. vii. 12). “ Strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, that leadeth unto life; and few there be that find it” (Matt. vii. 14). It is better for thee to enter into life,” etc. (Matt. xviii. 8, 9; comp. Mark ix. 43–45). 6 If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments (Matt. xix. 17). “ Shall not see life” (John iii. 36). “ Resurrection of life (John v. 29). “ Ye will not come unto me, that ye might have life” (John v. 40 ; comp. X. 10; xx. 31). “I am the bread of life” (John vi. 35; comp. vs. 33, 48, 51, 53, 63 ; also ch. i. 4; viii. 12; xi. 25 ; xiv. 6 ; Acts iïi. 15; Col. iii. 4; 1 John i. 1, 2).
“ Book of life” (Phil. iv. 3; Rev. iii. 5; xiii. 8 ; xvii. 8; xx. 12, 15; xxi. 27; xxii. 19). “ Water of life” (Rev. xxi. 6; xxii. 1, 17; comp. ch. vii. 17; John iv. 10; vii. 38). “ Crown of life” (Jas. i. 12; Rev. ii. 10).
See also Rom. v. 17, 18; vii. 10; viii. 6, 10; 2 Cor. ii. 16 (“ Savor of death unto death, and of life unto life”); iii. 6; v. 4 ("Mortality swallowed up of life"); Gal. iii. 21 ; Eph. iv. 18; Phil. ii. 16; Col. iii. 3; 1 Tim. iv. 8 (“Godliness, having promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come ;' comp. 2 Pet. i. 3); 2 Tim. i. 10; Heb. vii. 16; 1 Pet. iii. 7, 10; 1 John v. 12, 16.
ETERNAL OR EVERLASTING LIFE (zõē aiônios.) The phrase is found once in the Old Testament (Dan. xii. 2), and forty-four times in the New Testament, the places easily found by the concordance. In most instances the ex