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CHA P. was fold for eighty shekels of silver, which is computed by 111. fome to be about ten pounds sterling: but however, the city

was then miraculously delivered according to the prediction of the prophet Elisha. It was afterwards taken by Salmanassar King of Assyria, after a fiege of three years. This prince took away the Israelites or ten tribes captive, and instead of them fent a new colony of diverse nations, who patched up a religion out of the Jewish religion and their own heathenish and superstitious rites. In the time of the Maccabees, this city was taken by one of the Maccabean family, and wholly ruined. Herod the Great, being pleased with the situation of it, again rebuilt it in a more stately manner than before, beautifying it with fine marble pillars, and other carved stones, which are in great abundance found amongst the rubbish. He inclosed it also with a strong wall, and beautified it with a temple ; and, in honour of Augustus Cæfar, he named it Sebaste, the Greek word Sebastos being used in that language to answer to the Latin Augustus. Herod Agrippa obtained this city of the Roinan Emperor Caligula, and fiding with the Romans against the Jews under Vefpasian, they then avoided the public calamity of that country. But afterwards, taking other measures, they were, together with the rest of the Jews, extirpated out of Palestine by the Emperor Adrian, and the city has since gone to decay. It is conjectured by Brochard, who traced the ruins of it, to have been bigger than Jerusalem. John the Baptist is faid to be buried here. It was in the time of the Christian Emperors an archbishop's fee; but now there are only a few cottages, and convents inhabited by Greek monks.

The following part of the first Book of Kings (viz. from Of the brook Cherith. chap. xvi. ver. 28. to chap. xxii. ver. 40.) is taken up with

the history of Ahab, son of Omri, and King of Israel, intermingled with the history of the famous prophet Elijah. And the first place that occurs here, and has not yet been spoken of, is the brook Cherith, which is faid, chap. xvii. ver. 3. to be before Jordan. From which nothing else can be well inferred, but that this brook ran into Jordan. Whether it lay on the east or weit side of Jordan is not agreed

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on. Eusebius, or at least Jerom, places it beyond Jordan, and CHAP. · so on the east side of it: but others generally agree in placing 111. it rather on the west of Jordan ; because it is said ver. 3. by God to Elijah: Get thee hence, and turn thee eastward, and hide thyself by the brook Cherith, that is before Jordan. Where the expression, turn thee eastward, seems to imply, that Elijah was on the west side of Jordan: for had he been on the east side, then to have gone to a river that ran on that fide into Jordan, would have been to have turned westward. The particular situation of this brook is assigned by Adrichomius in the confines of Ephraim and Benjamin. As for Zarephath (chap. xvii. ver. 9.) which belonged to 16.

ed Of Zare. Zidon, it is in the New Testament (Luke iv. 26.) called

"phath, Sarepta ; and under that name I have spoken of it in Part I. chap. iv. sect. 6. of my Geography of the New Testament. And in like manner, mount Carmel, the river Kishon, and all the other places mentioned in the remaining part of this first Book of Kings, have been before spoken of in my Geography of the Old Testament.

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CHA P. IV.

Places mentioned in the second Book of Kings, and not spoken of

before.

2.

THE second Book of Kings begins with giving us an acMoab rebels

1

wint how Moab

count, how Moab, that was before tributary to the against II. rael, King of Israel, rebelled against Israel; i. e. cast off their sub

jection to the King of Israel, after the death of Ahab; and how Ahaziah, the son of Ahab, sent to enquire of Baal-zebub, the God of Ekron, concerning his recovery from the disease he then lay under ; and what was thereupon done by the prophet Elijah, of whose being taken up into heaven we have an account, chap. ii. The places mentioned in both these two first chapters have been all spoken of before.

From chap. ii. to chap. xii. we have the history of Eliites are fub- fhah the prophet, from the death of Elijah, whom he fucdued; the ceeded, to his own death, intermixed with the history of the march of the Ili ael- Kings of Judah and Israel. In chap. iii. we are informed, itis, and the how Jehoram (another son of Ahab, that succeeded his broplace of bat

ther Ahaziah, for want of issue of his own), being joined by. Jehofhaphat King of Judah, went against Moab in order to reduce it to subjection again. And ver. 8, 9. we are particularly informed, that they went the way through the wilderness of Edom, and fetched a compass of seven days journey. Whereby, is denoted, that they went not the most direct or nearest way to i:ivade Moab, which lay over Jordan, and through the tribe of Reuben, or south part of the country beyond Jordan; but fetched a compass through the wilderness of Edom, which probably lay on the south-west of the Salt Sea, and so invaded Moab on those parts which were most distant from Israel, and on which consequently they least ex

pected to be invaded upon. -3.. In chap. iv. ver. 42. we read of a man that came from CF baasha Baallhalisha, and brought Elisha twenty loaves of barley,

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Zair.

wherewith he fed an hundred men, so that they left thereof. CHAP.

This place is in the Septuagint version written Bætharisa, IV. which, Eusebius and Jerom tell us, was a town in the borders of Diofpolis, about fifteen miles distant from it to the north, in the country of Thamna, whence it appears to have been fituated in mount Ephraim. And this description agrees well enough with what we read of the land of Shalisha, 1 Sam. ix. 4. wherein this Baalshalisha probably was situated. For the land of Shalisha probably lay in Ephraim : though Jerom will have Shalisha to be the same with Zoar, otherwise called Belah, whither Lot fled; and hence some have fancied that Baalshalisha should rather be read Belafhalisha, as a name compounded of Bela and Shalisha. The Chaldee Paraphrast and Arabick Interpreter render it the south country, which favours the latter opinion, rathen than the former ; inasmuch as Zoar lay indeed to the south of Gilgal, where Elisha then was, whereas Ephraim lay to the north and north-west.

In chap. viii. ver. 20, 21. we read, that in the days of yo- 4. ram, son of Jehoshaphat, Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah, and made a King over themselves. Whereupon 70ram went over to Zair, and smote the Edomites. From the cir: cumstances of the story, this Zair appears to be near or in the land of Edom. It seems by some interpreters to be taken for the same as Seir, whereby the land of Edom is frequently denoted in Scriptare; but it is differently written in the Hebrew tongue, and by the seventy Interpreters it is rendered Sior. In the following verse of the fame chapter, we read, that. 5.

of Liönah. then Libnah revolted at the same time. This is conjectured by fome to be a different place from the Libnah, lying in the tribe of Judah, and often mentioned in the sacred History; and they will have it to be a city of Edom. But it seems most probable, that it was no other than the city of Judah, and which was one of the cities in that tribe assigned to the sons of Aaron; and that by the revolting thereof is to be understood, the inhabitants refusing to admit the idolatrous worship he would have set up there, as well as in other places of his kingdom ; and that, therefore, upon his death, or some short time after, they opened their gates again. And this seems to be con- '

firmed,

64

IV.

6.

CHA P. firmed, not only by its being expressly faid, 2 Chron. xxi. 10.

The same time also did Libnah revolt from under his hand; because he had forsaken the Lord God of his fathers : but also by its being said, both 2 Kings viii. 22. and 2 Chron. xxi. 10. only that Libnah revolted, without adding thereto what is just before said of Edom, that it continued to revolt unto this day. The omiffion of which expression seems to imply, that Libnah had ceased fo to revolt before the time the sacred Pen

man wrote. Of Gur,

In chap. ix. ver. 27. we read, that Jehu being anointed and Ibleam. King of Israel by the appointment of God, and having slain

Joram, the son of Ahab, he followed after Ahaziah, the King of Judah, that aided Joram; and that Jehu's men flew him at the going up to Gur, which is by Ibleam. Now Gur is no where else mentioned in Scripture ; but Ibleam, by which it is said to be, is mentioned in two other places; viz. Josh. xvii. 11. and Judg. i. 27: In the former place we read, that Manaseh had in Ifachar and Aper, Bethshean and her towns, and Ibleam and her towns, &c. Where, by the expression, in

fachar and Asher, is probably meant in the confines of those two tribes ; where also Magiddo is said to be situated in the fame text. Some understand Gur (or, as it is in the vulgar Latin, Gaver) to be the name of an ascent or hill by Ibleam; and the seventy Interpreters render the Hebrew text thus: In the going up to Gai, which is Ibleam ; whereby they plainly

understood Gai, or Gur, to be only another name for Ibleam, 7. In chap. xii. ver. 20. we read, that the servants of Joalh Of Seiah, or jektbecl. King of Judah made a conspiracy, and New him in Bethmillo,

or the house of Millo, which goes down to Silla ; of which we have spoken in the * description of the city of Jerusalem. In chap. xiv. ver. 7. we are informed, that Amaziah, the son of Joalh, sew of Edom in the valley of Salt ten thousand, and took Selah by war, and called the name of it Joktheel, unto this day. Of the valley of Salt I have before spoken. The word Selah does in the Hebrew tongue fignify a rock, and so exactly an. swers to the Greek word Petra; and therefore it is not with

• Page 26, chap. ij. fect. 10, 11. of this volume.

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