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CHAP. faid in the prophecy of Joel, chap. iii. ver. 2, 12. where God 11. speaks thus : I will also gather all nations, and will bring them

down into the valley of Jehosaphat, and will plead with them for my people, &c.- Let the heathen be weakened, and come up to the valley of Jehosaphat; for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about. If Jehofhaphat be taken as a proper name, it is scarcely to be doubted, but that it was so named from the King of Judah of that name. But then it will be difficult to aflign any good reason, why it was so named from the said King, if, according to the common opinion, it be the valley lying on the east of Jerusalem, between it and mount Olivet, and through which the brook Kidron, or Cedron, runs, whence it is otherwise called the valley of Cedron. Hence others suppose by the valley of Jehosaphat to be denoted, in the forecited prophecy, the place where Jehofhaphat had that most fignal victory, recorded 2 Chron. xx. which they suppose to make but one continued valley with that between Jerusalem and mount Olivet, the channel of the Cedron being continued from the one to the other. And hence it is further supposed, that by what is said in the forementioned prophecy, is to be understood an allufion to the great overthrow given by Jehofhaphat to his enemies; that God would in like manner overthrow the enemies of his church in his appointed time. Lastly, others take the word Jehoshaphat to be not a proper name, but appellative, and so to denote the judgment of God, or the great judgment. And in this sense it is

left wholly uncertain, what valley is there peculiarly spoken of. . I have reserved the mention of Gihon to this last place,

because it is not agreed whether it be a mountain or a founmount or fountain tain. That it should be a fountain, and head of a stream,

fome are induced to think, because they find the same name given to one of the rivers of Paradise ; and also mention made of the upper water-course of Gihon, which Hezekiah stopped, and brought straight down to the west side of the city of David, 2 Chron. xxxii. 30. Others think, that it was the name, not only of a fountain, but also of an adjoining mountain, or hill. And, from what is before faid of it in the text just now cited, its situation is generally assigned to be near mount Sion, and

20. Of the



on the west side thereof. It was at this Gihon, that Solomon, CHAP. by the special order of David, was anointed King over Israel, II. as we read į Kings i. 33. And this is thought to carry in it fome inducement to suppose, that Gihon was a fountain ; David making choice of this fountain for anointing Solomon, in opposition to his other son Adonijah, who was at the same time setting up for King, near Enrogel; i. e. the well, or fountain of Rogel, on another fide of Jerusalem, of which more sect. 36. And thus much for old Jerusalem. Proceed we now with the series of the facred History. The firft war David had, after he was made King over all 21.

Of the valIfrael, and had fixed his royal seat at Jerusalem, was with the ley of the Philistines, who came and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim,

or of the Rephaim, chap. v. ver. 18. It is evident from Josh. xv. 8. Giants. that this valley (there rendered the valley of Giants) lies near to Jerusalem, and in the confines of the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin. The road from Jerusalem to Bethlehem, as Mr. Mąundrel informs us, lies through this valley, famous for being the theatre of several victories obtained here by David over the Philistines. Whence some will have it to be called the valley of the Rephaim, or Giants, as being the place where the Rephaim, or men of gigantic stature and strength among the Philistines, were subdued by David, or his worthies. It might perhaps take this name from some of the Rephaim, living in these parts in the more early times after the flood; this opinion receiving some countenance from the Rephaim being mentioned among the Hittites, Perizzites, Amorites, &c. Gen. xv. 20, 21. as I above observed in Vol. I. p. 162. chap. viii. . 52.

As for Baal-perazim, mentioned chap. v. ver. 20. it is 22. evident, from the circumstances of the sacred History, that it .00%

Of Baal. lay either in this valley of Rephaim, or near it; and it seems to be the same that is called mount Perazim, Irai. xxviii. 21. David having given the Philistines several defeats, is faid,

Of Meheg. chap. viii. ver. 1. to have subdued them, and to have taken Metheg-ammah out of their hands. This name Methegammah is variously understood by expositors; some taking it for an appellative, others for a proper name. It is evident,

David over they of the Rephaimi gigantic ftatu



CHA P. that the writer of the book of Chronicles understood thereby II. Gath and her towns. For whereas it is said, 2 Sam. viii. I.

And after this it came to pass, that David (mote the Philistines, and subdued them; and David took Metheg-ammah out of the hand of the Philistines; in the other place, viz. I Chron. xviii. 1. it is related thus : Now after this it came to pass, that David (mote the Philistines, and subdued them; and took

Gath and her towns out of the hand of the Philistines. 24. , After this we have an account in the remaining part of of the val. by of Salt. the eighth chapter, how David extended his dominion as far

as to the river Euphrates, fubduing the Syrians of Zobah and Damascus; and how the King of Hamath sent his son to congratulate him upon his victory over the King of Zobah; and how he dedicated to God the silver and gold which he had taken from the Syrians, and Moabites, and Ammonites, and Philistines, and Amalekites; and how he subdued Edom, making a great slaughter of the Edomites. Of all these people and countries we have spoken already, and shall speak again of Zobah and Hamath in the ensuing paragraphs, viz. 28, 29. What is here more particularly to be remarked is concerning the valley of Salt, mentioned ver. 13. of this eighth chapter. As to its situation, it appears from 2 Kings xiv. 7. that it lay near the land of Edom, and therefore in all probability near the Salt Sea also, the parts adjacent to the faid sea abounding with salt. As to the people who are smitten or overcome in this valley, they are said. 2 Sam. viii. 13. to be the Syrians; but in i Chron. xviii. 12. they are said to be the Edomites. And it is not to be questioned, but this last is the truest reading, not only on account of the situation of the valley of Salt near to the Edomites, and at a great distance from the Syrians, according to the acceptation of the word in those days; but also, because both the Greek, and - Syriack, and Arabick interpreters did evidently read it Edom,

not Aram, as it now stands in the Hebrew Bibles in this place of Samuel. And the error in the present Hebrew text clearly arose from the similitude of the Hebrew words 78 and 7, two of the consonants in the Hebrew words, which we render Edom and Aram, being exactly the fame; and the



other, viz. the Hebrew D and R being very much alike, as CHAP. 7 and 7; and so easily to be mistaken the one for the 11 other.

David being established in his kingdom, enquires, chap. 25. ix. whether there was not any left of the house of Saul, that he might fhew him kindness for Jonathan's fake. And hearing of Mephibosheth, a son of Jonathan's, he sends for him from Lodebar, which was a place situated on the east of Jordan, and probably in the half tribe of Manasseh on that side the river Jordan; at least it was not far from Mahanaim, as may be gathered from chap. xvii. 27. where we read, that Machir the son of Ammiel of Lodebar (and the same with whom Mephibofheth lived, before that David sent for him) brought beds and other necessaries to David, when he was come to Mahanaim,

The Ammonites having bafely abused the servants of Da- .26. vid, hereupon ensued a war. In order to which, the Am- kingdoras monites sent and hired the Syrians of Beth-rehob, and the adjoining

to the north Syrians of Zobah, twenty thousand footmen; and of the and northKing of Maacah a thousand men; and of Ish-tob twelve la thousand men: which were all put to flight by the soldiers of rael. David. I have in the former volume spoken something of Ish-tob, and also of Hamath, and in this fame volume of Zobah; but it may not be unuseful however to take notice here together of the respective situation of these several kingdoms, as also of the kingdoms of Rehob and Maacah, mentioned in this tenth chapter, and of the kingdom of Geshur, mentioned in the thirteenth chapter of this second book of Samuel : forasmuch as all these were neighbouring kingdoms bordering on the land of Ifrael, to the north and north-east.

I fhall begin with the kingdom of Rehob, or, as it is other- 27. wise called, Beth-rehob. For as we are told, 2 Sam. x, 6.

°• kingdom of that the children of Ammon sent and hired the Syrians of Beth-Rehob, or

that'thi S. Beth-rehob. rehab; so ver. 8. of the fame chapter we read, that the Syrians of Rehob, &c. were by themselves in the field. So that it is not to be doubted, but that Rehob and Beth-rehob were one and the fame country or kingdom, so named from its principal city Rehob. For Josh. xix. 28. we find a city

east of the

ad of 1f.


CHA P. of this name allotted to the tribe of Asher; and Judg. i. 31. 11. we read, that the said Rehob was one of the cities, out of

which Asher did not drive out his inhabitants. Whence, as it may be rationally inferred, that it was a great and strong city; so it may be inferred also, that it lay in the north part of the land of Israel ; forasmuch as Afher was one of the northern tribes of Ifrael. And since it is further certain from the Scripture, that, of the two most northern tribes on the west of Jordan, Afher was that situated on the Mediterranean Sea, and since we are also informed, Judg. xviii. 28. that Laish was in the valley by Beth-rehob; and this Lailh was certainly the same afterwards called Dan in the Old Testament, and Cæfarea Philippi in the New Testament: from all these circumstances laid together, we are enabled to make more than a conjecture, as to the situation of the city and kingdom of Rehob ; namely, that it was situated in the north part of the tribe of Afher, on the west of Laish, or the city Dan. And this situation is still more confirmed by what is said of Rehob, Num. xiii. 21. that the fpies went up and searched the land of Canaan, from the wilderness of Zin unto Rehob; whereby is denoted the length of Canaan, from the wilderness of Zin southwards, to Rehob north

wards. 28. Of the abovementioned kingdoms, that which I shall here Of the kingdom of 'peak o

of speak of next is the kingdom of Hamath, as probably adHamath. joining to the kingdom of Rehob northwards. Which opi

nion is, I think, put out of doubt by the text last cited, which in the whole runs thus : So they (i. e. the spies) went up and searched the land, from the wilderness of Zin unto Rehob, as men come to Hamath. By which last clause it seems plainly denoted, that Rehob was that part of Canaan that joined on next to the country or kingdom of Hamath. And this expression in the said clause, as men come to Hamath, is of the fame importance with that other expreffion so frequently used in the sacred writings, unto the entrance of Hamath, or unto the entering into Hamath, or entering in of Hamath. The plain meaning of which seems to be no other, than unto the border of Hamath, or where one began to enter into the king,


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