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In Gen. xiv. 17, 18. we read, that the King of Sodom CHAP. went out to meet Abraham (after his return from the faughter of Chedorlaomer) at the valley of Shaveh, which is the King's dale. And Melchifedek King of Salem brought forth bread of the val. and wine. Hence it is reasonably inferred, that this valley of ley of ShaShaveh lay near to Salem, and that the King's dale here men-King's dale, tioned is no other than the King's dale, wherein Abfalom is faid to rear up for himself a pillar, 2 Sam. xviii. 18. This place was distant (as Josephus informs us, Antiq. b. vii. chap. 9.) but two furlongs from Jerufalem, as it was in his time. It is thought by fome, that this King's dale was no other than the valley of Jehofhaphat lying on the east of Jerusalem, between it and mount Olivet; others make it different, yet fo as to come up near to the valley of Jehoshaphat, and to lie on the south-east part of the city, near to the King's gardens. Whether it took the name of the King's dale from this its situation near to the King's gardens or palace, or from its being the place where the Kings were wont to exercise them. selves, or at least to entertain themselves in seeing others perform the exercises of running, riding, or the like, is not agreed, and is impossible to be determined.
Another place mentioned in the sacred History as appertaining to Jerusalem, before it was taken by David, is the of Zients fort or strong bold of Zion. Zion or Sion is a mountain or hill on the south of old Jerusalem, and higher than the hill on which old Jerusalem stood. For this hill seems to be denoted in Jofephus * by the name of Acra, than which he expressly afferts the hill, on which the upper city stood, to be higher. But the upper city is, I think, agreed by all to be the same with the city of David, and the Scripture.f expressly asserts the city of David to be the same with the strong hold of Zion. Whence it necessarily follows, that the hill of Zion was higher than the other hill, on which the old city of Jerusalem stood. Hereupon this hill of Zion was made choice of as a proper place to build a fort or citadel upon, whilst it was in the hands of the Jebusites. For that there was a fort or
8. Of the fort
* Jewish War, b. vi. chap. 6.
+ 2 Sam. V. 7.
CHAP. ftrong hold built thereon during that time, is evident from II.
2 Sam. v. 7. where we read, that notwithstanding the great confidence the Jebufites seem to have had in the strength of this fort, yet David took the strong bold of Zion; which, I think, plainly implies, that there was a strong hold on Zion before David took it.
After that David had taken from the Jebusites the fort of Of the city Zion, the Scripture tells us, that he called it the city of Da.
vid; forasmuch as he built hereon, not only a royal palace for himself, but also feveral other buildings, so as to rise to the Jargeness of a city, taking up in after-reigns the greatest part, if not all, of mount Sion. The largeness of this city of Da"vid is denoted, 2 Sam. v. 9. by this expreffion : David built round about from Millo and inward. The meaning whereof has very much exercised commentators, especially as to the word Millo; which therefore I shall somewhat the longer in
The Hebrew word, considered as to its etymology or deriMille, vation, is probably thought to be deduced from a root figni
fying to be full, or filled. Hence fome, and among them the Rabbi Kimchi (as the learned Buxtorf has observed), suppose Millo to be used in the sacred History to denote a large capacious place, designed for public meetings, and which was therefore called Millo, from its being used to be full of people at such times. And this fenfe of the word is very applicable to Judg. ix. 6. where it first occurs in the sacred History. For when it is there faid, that all the men of Shechem gathered together, and all the house of Millo, and went and made Abimelech King, hereby may be probably denoted thus much, that as all the men of Shechem, i. e. all the commonalty or inferior inhabitants, fo also all the house of Millo, i. e. all the principal inhabitants who made up the governing part of the city, and were wont to assemble together in the public town-house, or guild-hall, did consent to and attend on the setting up of Abimelech for King. And accordingly the place at Jerusalem called by the same name of Millo is thought to have been designed for much the same use. That it was some public building may, I think, be probably in
ferred from the peculiar notice taken of it among the other CHAP, public works of Solomon. For in 1 Kings ix. 15. we read, that the reason of the levy (or tax), which King Solomon raised, was this; for to build the house of the Lord, and his own house, and Millo, and the wall of Jerusalem, &c. Where since we find Millo joined with the house of the Lord, and the royal palace, it may probably be inferred, that it was also itself a public building, or house, especially since it is expressly called, 2 Kings xii. 26. the house of Millo. And the circumstance, for which it is mentioned in this laft text, seems further to confirm the opinion I am speaking of, that Millo was a place where the principal persons of the state did meet together. For we are told in the said text, that the servants of King Joalh arose, and made a conspiracy, and new him in the house of Millo; namely, when he was come thither probably to debate or consult with his princes, and other principal persons, upon some state affair. An instance of the like nature is
very well known to all, that have any acquaintance with the Ro. man history, in reference to the murder of the famous Julius Cæsar, sain in the senate-house at Rome, by a party that had formed a conspiracy against him, and thought no place more proper to put it in execution, than the said Roman Millo, or senate-house.
As, from what has been said, it may, not without probability, be supposed, that the house at Jerusalem, called Millo, was a public house of state ; fo I think, from what is said concerning the same, in 2 Chron. xxxii. 5. it may be further inferred, that this public house of state was also a sort of armoury, or place where arms were wont to be kept; or at least a place of more than ordinary strength. For in the chapter last cited we read, that when Hezekiah saw that Sen. nacherib was come, and was purposed to fight against Jerusalem, he took counsel with his princes; and, among other things thought proper to be done on that occasion, he strengthened himself and built up all the wall that was broken, and raised it. up to the towers, and another wall without, and repaired Millo in the city of David, and made darts and shields in abundance. Now it being in this place particularly said, that among other
CHAP. methods ufed by Hezekiah to fortify Jerufalem against Sen
nacherib, one was this, the repairing Millo; hence it naturally follows, that Millo was a place of more than ordinary importance to the strength of the city Jerusalem. And since, immediately after the repairing of Millo, there is mention of making darts and fields in abundance, this may possibly proceed from the defect of these found to be in the house of Millo, where they were usually reserved against times of war, or the like occasions.
The situation of the house of Millo is expressly said in this 'Millo,
32d. chapter of Chronicles, ver. 5. to be in the city of David; and so either upon mount Sion, or some place adjoining thereto. And it is further remarkable, that though it be faid in 2 Sam. v. 9. that David built round about from Millo and inward, yet it seems evident, that this must be understood proleptically, i. e. as if it had been said, David built round about, from that place where Millo was afterwards built by Solomon. For it is expressly faid, 1 Kings ix. 15. that Solomon raifed a levy to build among other places) Millo; and ver. 24. of the fame chapter it is said, or at least plainly intimated, that after Solomon had built an houfe or palace for the daughter of Pharaoh, his queen, then be built Millo.
But there is another opinion concerning this Millo at Jeo inion con- rusalem, which is not to be passed by in filence, because emcerning
braced by several learned men. Whereas then there was a valley or hollow, that lay between mount Sion and the other mount or hill, on which the old city, or the city of Melchisedek, stood ; they fupposed Solomon filled up this hollow, and had it evened so as that from mount Sion to mount Moriah, on which he built the Temple, there was a plain even way. Whence the way or causey thus made by filling up the forementioned hollow, they suppose to be called Millo, in reference to the signification of the root, whence this word is thought to be derived, the said root (as has been before observed) fignifying to be full, or filled up. That there was a caufey raised by Solomon from mount Sion to the Temple, they infer from 2 Chron. ix. 11. where it is faid, that the King made terraces to the house of the Lord, and to the King's
palace. The word here rendered terracesy. may be otherwise CHAP. translated (as is observed in the margin of our Bible) pays II. or supports, to keep up the faid terraces. But in neither sense will these last' words amount to a good proof, that the faid terraces or causeys were such as were made by filling up the hollow between mount Sion and mount Moriah. And therefore I rather think the opinion I am now speaking of concerning the import of the name Millo is wholly founded on the vulgar Latin version of 1 Kings xi. 27. For whereas the latter part of this text is rendered in our translation agree ably to the Hebrew, thus: Solomon built Millo, and repaired (or closed) the breaches of the city of David his father ; instead hereof, in the vulgar Latin version it is rendered after this manner : Salomon ædificavit Mello, et coæquavit voraginem civitatis David patris fui ; i. e. Salomon built Mello, and evened the hallow of the city of David his father. How the author of this Latin version came thus to render the Hebrew text, is hard to conjecture; the Hebrew words, which he renders, coæquavit voraginem, evened the hollow, having no affinity thereto, and therefore he is single in his interpretation, all the other ancient interpreters following the same sense that our translators have done. Particularly it is not so easy to account, how the Latin interpreter came to make choice of the word vorago; unless in the said hollow or small deep valley there was a whirlpool or quagmire, as the said word does properly denote in the Latin tongue.
In short, it seems to me (considering the several ancient versions, and what is said by commentators) most probable, that Solomon made a noble magnificent way from the royal palace on mount Sion, to the temple on mount Moriah, and in order hereunto there was a noble causey raised across the valley between the said two mountains ; not so high us to make the way all along upon a level, but, however, so as to make the ascent and descent from one to the other very easy. Hence, as we read (1 Kings x. 5.). of the ascent by which Solomon went up unto the house of the Lord, and (1 Chron. xxvi. 16.) of the causey of the going up or afcent; so we read (2 Kings xii. 20.) that yoash was pain in the house of Millo,