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Of St. Paul's Travels from Jerusalem to Cæfarea, Tarsus,

and Antioch, till bis second return to Jerusalem after his Conversion.




CT. PAUL having made his escape out of Damascus, as St. Paul, N has been related in the foregoing chapter, sets forward for after a short stay at Je. Jerusalem, where, when he a arrived, he addressed himself to

Cx- the Church. But the Disciples, knowing the former temper (area. and principles of the man, shunned his company, and were A. D. 37.

all afraid of him, and could not believe that he was himself become a disciple. At length Barnabas took him, and brought him to the apostles Peter and James, declaring to them the manner of his conversion; that He had seen the Lord in the way to Damascus, and that the Lord had spoken to him, and how he had gone so far already as to preach boldly at Damascus in the name of Jesus. Hereupon St. Paul was very familiarly entertained by the faid Apostles and the rest of the brethren at Jerusalem, where he staid no more at this time than 6 fifteen days. For he likewise here, speaking boldly in the name of the Lord Jesus, and disputing against the Greeks or Hellenist Jews, brought upon him the malice of the unbelieving Jews, so far as that they fought to kill him. Whereupon being warned of God in a vision, that his preaching would not find acceptance in that place, and that therefore he should leave it, and betake himself to the Gentiles, he was accordingly con. ducted by the brethren to Cæfarea; of which place take this account from Josephus “, the Jewish historian, book xv. ch. 13. of his Antiquities.

a Acts ix. 26-30.

Gal. i. 18.

L'Eitrange's Engl. Edit.

There There was a certain place by the sea-side, formerly called CHAP:: Straton's Tower, which Herod looked upon as a very com- II. modious tract of ground to raise a city upon. He drew hismodel, fet people to work upon it, and finished it. The A descripbuildings were all of marble, private houses as well as palaces; tion of Cæ

farea. but his master-piece was the Port, which he made as large as the Piræeus, and a safe station against all winds and weathers, to say nothing of other conveniencies. This work was the more wonderful, because all the materials for it were brought thither at a prodigious expence from afar off. This city stands in Phænicia', upon the road into Egypt, between Dora and Joppa, two wretched sea-towns, where there is no riding in the harbours with a south-west wind; for it beats so furiously upon the shore, that merchant-men are forced to keep off at sea many times for fear of being driven aground. To encounter these difficulties of the place, Herod ordered a mole to be made in the form of an half-moon, and large enough for a royal navy to ride in. He directed also prodigious stones to be let down there in twenty fathom water; stones of fifty feet in length, eighteen feet over, and nine feet deep; some greater, some less. This mole was two hundred feet in extent; the one half of it served to break the setting of the sea; the other half served for the foundation of a stone wall fortified with turrets, the fairest and largest of them being called by the name of the tower of Drusus, from Drusus the sonin-law of Augustus, who died young. There were several arched vaults also, that served for seamen's cabins. There was likewise a key or landing-place, with a large walk upon it, around the port, as a place of pleasure to take the air in. This port opens to the northward, which is the clearest quarter of the heavens. On the left-hand of the entrance. into it, there was a turret erected upon a large platform, with a sloping bank, to shoot off the washing of the fea; and on the right-hand were two stone pillars over against the tower,

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PART and both of an height. The houses about the port were all II. uniformly built, of the most excellent sort of marble. Upon

a mount in the middle stood a temple, dedicated to Cæsar, which was of great use to mariners, for a famous sea-mark. There were in this temple two statues or images, the one of Rome, the other of Cæsar; and from hence the city took the name of Cæfarea, celebrated no less for its materials than for the workmanship. The contrivance of the vaults and common-Mores was wonderful too, being laid at equal distances one from another, and so discharging themselves into the sea. Only there was one conveyance, that went across all the rest ; and as it carried off all the filth of the town, so it made way for the tides to fwill and wash the passages, and to make all sweet and clean. Herod built also a stone theatre, and upon the south side of the harbour, a spacious amphitheatre, with a goodly prospect toward the sea. He {pared, in short, neither for money nor pains, and in a matter of twelve years this work was brought to perfection. Thus far Josephus in the place above cited; who in book iii. ch. 14. of the Wars of the Jews, tells us withal, that the greater part of the inhabitants of this city (which he here calls the faireft city of Judea) were Greeks.

To the foregoing account of Josephus it may be proper to add, that though this city is called Cæsarea in the New Testament, yet it is frequently styled, by way of distinction from others of the same name, Casarea Palestine, as being the metropolis of Palestine, and the seat of the Roman proconsul. Here it was that St. Peterf converted Cornelius and his kinsinen, the first-fruits of the Gentiles. Here lived Philip & the Evangelist. Here Paul "defended himself against the Jews, and their orator Tertullus. Here in the amphitheatre it was that Herod Antipas i was smitten by an angel of God. And as for the times after the New Testament, here was born Eusebius, the learned historian and chronologer,

† Acts x.
: Afts xxi. S.

ti?Â2Ò2Â?Â22m2 ūti?

Acts xii. 19, 20,


and who was bishop of this city at the beginning of the fourth CHAP, century, and of the reign of Constantine the Great, to whom 11. he made a celebrated oration.

Having made mention of Cæsarea being the place, where Peter converted Cornelius, and Philip the Evangelist lived; this seems to be the most proper place for taking notice of those cities or towns, which lie to the south of Cæsarea, and are mentioned only in the history of St. Peter and Philip.

Now we read that St. Peter k, when he was sent for by Cornelius to Cæfarea, was at Joppa, which is a sea-port Of Joppa. town lying south of Cæfarea, and anciently the only port 35 & 36 to Jerusalem, whence all the materials sent from Tyre towards the building of Solomon's Temple were brought hither and landed. It is said to have been first built by Japhet, and from him to have taken its name Japho, afterwards moulded into Joppa. And the very Heathen geographers speak of it as built before the Flood. It is now called Jaffa, somewhat nearer to its first appellation, and is in but a poor and mean condition.

As St. Peter was sent for to Cæsarea from Joppa, so he 4. was sent m for to Joppa from Lydda, which lay not far off, at by but somewhat more inland, and to the north. Josephus tells us, it was a village not yielding to a city for greatness; and elsewhere he expressly styles it a city. By the Gentiles it was called Diofpolis, or the City of Jupiter : but by the Chris tians, in the times of the holy wars, it had the name of St. George's, partly from a magnificent temple, which the Emperor Justinian there erected to the honour of that martyr, but principally from an opinion, which they had amongst them, that he suffered martyrdom in that place: an opinion founded on two mistakes; the first, of a cenotaphium, or an empty monument, (erected in this city to preserve his me. mory,) for the grave in which he was interred; the other in taking the word Pallio (used in the martyrologies) for the

* Acts x. 5. and ix. 38. 43. 1 2 Chron. ii. 16,

Acts ix. 32. 38, 39.


Of Saron,


Of Gaza.

PART place of his suffering, whereas it is meant only of the story or II. celebration. But, howsoever, they entitled it by the name of

St. George's, and made it on that account an episcopal see. This same Lydda is remarkable in facred writ for the cure of Æneas ”, by St. Peter's saying to him, Jesus Christ makes thee whole : arise, and make thy bed. Whereupon he arose immediately, after he had kept his bed eight years, being fick of the pally.

By the forementioned miraculous cure were converted to the faith, not only all that dwelt at Lydda, but also all that dwelt at • Saron, an adjoining town, which gave name to that spacious and fruitful valley that reaches from Cæsarea to Joppa, and is famous among the Rabbins for its wines.

Having thus described the towns in these parts, mentioned in the history of St. Peter, I shall proceed next to those two towns lying likewise in this tract of the Holy Land, and mentioned in the history of Philip the Evangelift. The first of them is p Gaza, which lies at the fouth-west point of Judea. It is called in the Old Testament Azzah, from whence perhaps the name of Gaza was derived by the Heathens; but fome will have it so called by the Persians, in regard that Cambyses here laid up the treasure, which he had provided for the war of Egypt, the word Gaza in the Persian language fignifying treasures. After this it is said to be made the recepture or treasury, in which the Persians laid up the tributes of the western provinces, whence all riches came in time to have the name of Gaza. This is the city whose gates Sampson 4 took away; and whither he was carried, when he was taken; and where he pulled down the house of their god Dagon on the lords of the Philistines. It was destroyed by Alexander the Great, and so made desolate, as the Prophet had foretold; and is therefore called, and, faith Strabo, continued defert. For the city built by Conftantine, and called by the name of Gaza, is nearer to the sea than the old one was, as

* Acts ix. 33
• Acts ix. 35.

P Acts viii. 26.
9 Judg. xvi.


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