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PART ritorious passion. It is then a small eminency or hill, upon 1. the greater mount of Moriah, and it is thought by fome to
have had the name of Golgotha in Hebrew, Calvary in Latin, given to it from its somewhat representing a man's scull. It was anciently appropriated to the execution of malefactors, and therefore shut out of the walls of the city, as an execrable and polluted place. But since it was made the altar, on which was offered up the precious and all-fufficient sacrifice for the fins of the whole world, it has recovered itfelf from that infamy, and has been always reverenced and resorted to with such devotion by all Christians, thas it has drawn the city round about it, and stands now in the midst of Jerusalem, a great part of the hill of Sion being shut out of the walls, to
make room for the admission of mount Calvary. Of our Sa
This fame mount is likewife honoured with a church, viour's fe- called the church of the Sepulchre, as being built over the pulchre.
place where our Lord's fepulchre was. It is less than one hundred paces long, and not more than sixty wide; and yet it is so contrived, that it is supposed to contain under its roof twelve or thirteen sanctuaries, or places consecrated to a more than ordinary veneration, by being reputed to have some particular actions done in them relating to the death and refurrection of Christ. As first, the place where he was derided by the soldiers : fecondly, where the soldiers divided his garments : thirdly, where he was fhut up, whilst they digged the hole to set the foot of the cross in, and inade all ready for his crucifixion : fourthly, where he was nailed to the cross : fifthly, where the cross was erected: sixthly, where the soldiers stood that pierced his side : seventhly, where his body was anointed in order to his burial : eighthly, where his body was deposited in the fepulchre : ninthly, where the angeis appeared to the women after his resurrection : tenthly, where Christ himself appeared to Mary Magdalene, &c. The places, where these and many other things relating to our blessed Lord are said to have been done, are all fuppofed to be contained within the narrow precincts of this church, and are all distinguished and adorned with so many several altars.
In galleries round about the church, and also in little build- CHAP. ings annexed to it on the outside, are certain apartments for VI. the reception of friars and pilgrims; and in those places almost every Christian nation anciently maintained a small fociety of monks, each society having its proper quarter assigned to it, by the appointment of the Turks : such as the Latins, Greeks, Syrians, Armenians, Abyssenes, Georgians, Nestorians, Cophtites, Maronites, &c. All which had anciently their several apartments in the church. But these have all, except four, forsaken their quarters ; not being able to surtain the severe rents and extortions, which their Turkish landlords impose upon them. The Latins, Greeks, Armenians, and Cophtites keep their footing still. But of these four the Cophtites have now only one poor representative of their nation left: and the Armenians are run so much in debt, that it is supposed they are haftening apace to follow the example of their brethren, who have deserted before them.
Besides their several apartments, each fraternity have their altars and fanctuary properly and distinctly allotted to their own use. At which places they have a peculiar right to perform their own divine service, and to exclude other nations from them.
But that which has always been the great prize contended for by the Christians of the several nations aforesaid, is the command and appropriation of the holy sepulchre, a privilege contested with great warmth, especially between the Greeks and Latins. For putting an end to the quarrels hereby occasioned between the several sorts of Christians, the French King interposed, by a letçer to the Grand Visier about twentytwo years since, requesting him to order the holy fepulchre to be put into the hands of the Latins, according to the tenor of the capitulation made in the year 1673. The consequence of which letter and of other instances made by the French King was, that the holy fepulchre was appropriated to the Latins. This was not accomplished till the year 1690, since which the Latins only have the privilege to say mass in it. And though it be permitted to Christians of all nations to
PART go into it fo their private devotions, yet none may folemnize 1. any public office of religion there but the Latins.
In order to the fitting of this hill, called mount Calvary, for the foundation of a church, the first founders were obliged to reduce it to a plain area; which they did by cutting down several parts of the rock, and by elevating others. But in this work care was taken, that none of those parts of the hill, which were reckoned to be more immediately concerned in our blessed Lord's passion, should be altered or diminished. Thus that very part of Calvary, where they say Christ was fastened to, and lifted up on his cross, is left entire, being about ten or twelve yards square, and standing at this day so high above the common floor of the church, that you have one and twenty steps or stairs to go up to its top. And the holy fepulchre itself, which was at first a cave hewn into the rock under ground, having had the rock cut away from it all round, is now as it were a grotto above ground.
At about a yard and an half distance from the hole in which the foot of the cross was fixed, is seen that memorable cleft in the rock, said to have been made by the earthquake, which happened at the suffering of the God of nature ; when (as St. Matthew, chap. xxvii. 51. witnesseth) the rocks rent, and the very graves were opened. This cleft, as to what now appears of it, is about a span wide at its upper part, and two deep; after which it closes : but it opens again below, (as you may see in another chapel contiguous to the side of Calvary) and runs down to an unknown depth in the earth. That this rent was made by the earthquake that happened at our Lord's pasfion, there is only tradition to prove : but that it is a natural and genuine breach, and not counterfeited by any art, the sense and reason of every one that fees it may convince him. For the sides of it fit like two tallies to each other, and yet it runs in such intricate windings, as could not be well counterfeited
by art, nor arrived at by any instrument. of the stone. It is proper here to speak more of the stone, which we obrolled to the mouth of served above is said to be the very stone, which was laid to our Lord's secure the door of our Saviour's fepulchre. fepulchre.
That this stone
was to be seen in the fourth century or age, both St. Cyril c HAP. and St. Jerom, who lived in that age, inform us. It was ac- VI. cordingly kept for a long time in the church of the Sepul-chre ; but the Armenians, not many years since, stole it from thence by a stratagem, and conveyed it to the church above mentioned, built over the place where Caiaphas's house stood, and belonging to the Armenians. The stone, as Mr. Maundrel tells us, is two yards and a quarter long, high one yard, and broad as much. It is plaistered all over, except in five or fix little places, where it is left bare to receive the immediate kifles and other devotions of pilgrims.
I shall close this account of mount Calvary with observing, that it was a tradition generally received among the primitive Christians, that the first as well as second) Adam was buried here: as also that this was the place where Abraham was about to have sacrificed his son Isaac, the type of our blessed Saviour.
Having thus given an account of the several places relating to our Saviour's passion, and that according to the latest relations we have of them, the reader will, I hope, excuse me, if I take him now a little way, not above half an hour, faith Mr. Maundrel, from Jerufalem to a convent of the Greeks, taking its name from the holy cross. This convent is very neat in its structure, and in its situation delightful. But that which most deserves to be noted in it, and for which reason it is here noted, is the occasion of its name and foundation. It is then because here is the earth, that nourished the root, that bore the tree, that yielded the timber, that made the Cross.
CHA P. VII.
Of the Places honoured with our Lord's Presence after his
he was buried.
n N the first day of the week, very early in the morning, Our Lord first appears V Mary Magdalene with some other women came to our
Lord's fepulchre; where they found the stone rolled away, and in tie gar- were acquainted by angels, that our Lord was not there, but den on
al. was risen froin the dead, and were also ordered by the angels yary, where to go and tell his disciples, that he would go before them into
Galilee, where they should see him, as he had told them before his death. The women hereupon go, and presently acquaint Peter and John with what had passed; who coming to the fepulchre, found it as the women had said, and fo returned again to their own home. But Mary Magdalene staid still at the sepulchre, weeping, because she could neither find her Lord’s body there, nor yet learn where it was laid. At length turning herself back, she saw Jesus standing, but did not know him. Then Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekeft thou? She supposing him to be the gardener, to whom belonged the garden wherein the fepulchre was, saith unto him, Sir, if thou hast borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away. JESUS then called her by her name, Mary; whereupon the looking more earnestly on him, knew him, and cried out, my Master. Jesus after this sends her to the disciples with a message, which she accordingly acquainted them with.
After this our Lord appeared to two of the disciples, as of Em
they were going to Emmaus, whither he went with them, and staid there with them till he had made himself know to them,
This Emmaus is by St. Luke said to be a village distant about threescore furlongs, that is about seven or eight miles,