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gloriam referunt, tanquam trina illa acclamatio, Sancte, Sancte, Sancte. Sanctus enim Deus in multitudine operum suorum, sanctus in ordine eorum, sanctus in unione. Quare speculatio illa Parmenidis et Platonis, (quamvis in illis nuda fuerit speculatio,) excelluit tamen; Omnia per scalam quandam ad unitatem ascendere. Atque illa demum scientia cæteris est præstantior, quæ humanum intellectum minimum multiplicitate onerat; quam liquet esse Metaphysicam,2 quippe

1 No such doctrine as this is to be found in the remains which have come down to us of the writings of Parmenides, and it is in effect inconsistent with what we know of his opinions. His fundamental dictum appears to have been that that which is, is one; incapable of change or motion. That visible things are in any sense parts or elements or attributes of the one immutable substance is, as far as we can judge, a later doctrine. To the question, what then are the phenomena of the visible universe, Parmenides gives no answer; unless we account as an answer what he says of their delusive and non-existent character. Even Plato was far from teaching the doctrine of an ascent to unity in the sense in which Bacon probably employed the terms. He no doubt adopted in his own sense the dictum of the Eleatæ, έv тà Távтa; but with him as with them mere phenomena have no true existence. In later writers however Bacon may easily have found expressions derived from the authority of Plato and Parmenides, and more consonant with his own views of the nature of the universe. But so far as they themselves were concerned, it may I think be safely stated that though the latter affirmed the έvórns of that which exists, no doctrine of vwo entered into his teaching; and that that which presents itself in the system of the former was essentially different from Bacon's ascent to unity. The opinions of Parmenides would be more accurately indicated by the formula ἓν τὸ ὄν than by ἓν τὰ πάντα, or if the latter be employed, it should be understood to suggest the ellipsis of Kaλovμéva, - a remark apparently confirmed by Plato's expressions in the Sophist, p. 242. "Denique ut uno verbo complectar, Parmenides statuit simplex ens, sive τὸ ἁπλῶς ὄν, Platonici ens perfectum, sive τὸ παντελῶς ὄν, h. e. tale in quo sit una Tv ovTwv Távтwv complexio," is Karsten's statement of the contrast between the doctrine of Parmenides himself, and that to support which he was cited as an authority. Karsten's Parmenides, p. 210.

2 This passage resembles one in the Metaphysics, i. 2.; but I am not sure that the resemblance is more than accidental. Bacon, so far as I have observed, though he quotes Aristotle frequently, never refers to any passage in the Metaphysics.

quæ contemplatur præcipue simplices illas rerum Formas (quas superius Formas Prima Classis nominavimus1); quandoquidem, licet numero paucæ, tamen commensurationibus et coordinationibus suis omnem varietatem constituunt. Secunda res, quæ hanc Metaphysica partem de Formis nobilitat, hæc nimirum est; quod potestatem humanam emancipet maxime et liberet, eamque in amplissimum et apertissimum operandi campum educat. Nam Physica per angustos et impeditos calles humanam operam dirigit, naturæ ordinariæ flexuosos tramites imitata; sed late undique sunt sapientibus viæ; Sapientiæ nimirum (quæ a veteribus rerum divinarum et humanarum scientia 2 diffiniebatur) mediorum copia et varietas semper suppetit. Causæ enim Physicæ novis inventis, in simili materia, lucem et ansam præbent. At qui Formam aliquam novit, novit etiam ultimam possibilitatem superinducendi naturam illam in omniyenam materiam, eoque minus inter operandum restringitur et alligatur vel ad Materia Basim, vel ad Conditionem Efficientis. Quod genus scientiæ eleganter describit etiam Salomon, etsi sensu magis divino; Non arctabuntur gressus tui, et currens non

1 It is evident from this that the simple natures (the schematisms and motions) are not the "Formæ primæ classis;" although the literal interpretation of the passage referred to in the text would make it appear that they are so. For the simple natures are the proper objects of Physica Abstracta, and consequently are not identical with the Formæ primæ Classis, which are the subject of Metaphysica.

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The Formæ primæ Classis are the forms of simple natures, and in the former passage (v. supra p. 289.) the clause between parentheses involves an anacoluthon, and refers not to that which immediately precedes it, but to the word "formam" at the beginning of the sentence. struction would be regular if in this clause we were to replace the word "et" by "has autem" [or by "et quorum formas." The "simple natures are the same in both passages; but Physica deals only with the material and efficient causes of them; Metaphysica with the formal and final causes.— - J. S.]

2 See Cicero, Tusc. Quæst. iv. 26.

habebis offendiculum.1 Intelligit scilicet Sapientiæ vias nec angustiis nec obicibus obnoxias esse.

Metaphysicæ pars secunda est Finalium Causarum inquisitio, quam non ut prætermissam sed ut male collocatam notamus. Solent enim inquiri inter Physica, non inter Metaphysica. Quanquam si ordinis hoc solum vitium esset, non mihi fuerit tanti. Ordo enim ad illustrationem pertinet, neque est ex substantia scientiarum. At hæc ordinis inversio defectum insignem peperit, et maximam philosophiæ induxit calamitatem. Tractatio enim Causarum Finalium in Physicis inquisitionem Causarum Physicarum expulit et dejecit; effecitque ut homines in istiusmodi speciosis et umbratilibus causis acquiescerent, nec inquisitionem causarum realium et vere Physicarum strenue urgerent; ingenti scientiarum detrimento. Etenim reperio hoc factum. esse, non solum a Platone, qui in hoc littore semper anchoram figit; verum etiam ab Aristotele, Galeno,2 et aliis, qui sæpissime etiam ad illa vada impingunt. Etenim qui causas adduxerit hujusmodi, palpebras cum pilis pro sepi et vallo esse ad munimentum oculorum; aut corii in animalibus firmitudinem esse ad propellendos calores et frigora; aut ossa pro columnis et trabibus a natura induci quibus fabrica corporis innitatur; aut folia arborum emitti quo fructus minus patiantur a sole et vento: aut nubes in sublimi fieri ut terram imbribus irrigent; aut terram densari et solidari ut statio et mansio sit animalium; et alia similia; is in Meta

1 Proverbs, iv. 12.

2 See especially Galen's De usu Partium, which is in effect a treatise on the doctrine of final causes as exemplified in animal physiology. He calls the last book, which introduces the general considerations to which the subject leads, the Epode of the whole work; explaining that he does so, because the Epode is sung while the chorus stands at the altar of the deity.

physicis non male ista allegarit, in Physicis autem nequaquam. Imo, quod cœpimus dicere, hujusmodi sermonum discursus (instar Remorarum, uti fingunt, navibus adhærentium) Scientiarum quasi velificationem et progressum retardarunt, ne cursum suum tenerent et ulterius progrederentur; et jampridem effecerunt ut Physicarum Causarum inquisitio neglecta deficeret ac silentio præteriretur. Quapropter Philosophia Naturalis Democriti et aliorum, qui Deum et Mentem a fabrica rerum amoverunt, et structuram universi infinitis naturæ prælusionibus et tentamentis 1 (quas uno nomine Fatum aut Fortunam vocabant) attribuerunt, et rerum particularium causas Materiæ necessitati sine intermixtione Causarum Finalium assignarunt, nobis videtur (quantum ex fragmentis et reliquiis philosophiæ eorum conjicere licet) quatenus ad Causas Physicas, multo solidior fuisse et altius in naturam penetrasse quam illa Aristotelis et Platonis; hanc unicam ob causam, quod illi in Causis Finalibus nunquam operam triverunt; hi autem eas perpetuo inculcarunt. Atque magis in hac parte accusandus Aristoteles quam Plato, quandoquidem fontem Causarum Finalium, Deum scilicet, omiserit, et Naturam pro Deo substituerit; causasque ipsas Finales potius ut logicæ amator, quam theologiæ, amplexus sit. Neque hæc eo dicimus quod Causæ illæ Finales veræ non sint, et inquisitione admodum dignæ, in speculationibus Metaphysicæ; sed quia, dum in Physicarum Causarum possessiones excurrunt et irruunt, misere eam provinciam depopulantur et vastant. Alioquin, si modo intra terminos suos coerceantur, magnopere halluci

1 See in illustration of this phrase, Lucretius, v. 835. et seq., and infra note 1. at p. 456.

nantur quicunque eas Physicis Causis adversari aut repugnare putent. Nam causa reddita, quod palpebrarum pili oculos muniant, nequicquam sane repugnat alteri illi, quod pilositas soleat contingere humiditatum orificiis:

Muscosi fontes, &c.1

Neque causa reddita, quod coriorum in animalibus firmitudo pertinet ad cœli injurias propulsandas, adversatur illi alteri, quod illa firmitudo fit ob contractionem pororum in extimis corporum per frigus et deprædationem aëris ; et sic de reliquis: conspirantibus optime utrisque causis, nisi quod altera intentionem, altera simplicem consecutionem denotet. Neque vero ista res in dubium vocat Providentiam Divinam, aut ei quicquam derogat, sed potius eandem miris modis confirmat et evehit. Nam sicut in rebus civilibus prudentia politica fuerit multo altior et mirabilior, si quis opera aliorum ad suos fines et desideria abuti possit, quibus tamen nihil consilii sui impertit, (ut interim ea agant quæ ipse velit, neutiquam vero se hoc facere intelligant,) quam si consilia sua cum administris voluntatis suæ communicaret; sic Dei sapientia effulget mirabilius cum Natura aliud agit, Providentia aliud elicit, quam si singulis schematibus et motibus naturalibus Providentiæ characteres essent impressi. Scilicet Aristoteli, postquam naturam Finalibus Causis impregnasset, Naturamque nihil frustra facere, suique voti semper esse compotem" (si impedimenta abessent), et hujusmodi multa eo spectantia posuisset, amplius Deo non fuit opus. At Democritus et Epicurus, cum atomos suos prædicabant, eousque a subtilioribus non1 Virg. Ecl. vii. 45.

2 See Arist. De Part. Anim. i. 13; Polit. i. 5; and many other passages.

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