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Una inspiratur divinitus, altera oritur a sensu. Nam quantum ad illam quæ docendo infunditur scientiam, cumulativa ea est, non originalis ; sicut etiam fit in aquis, quæ præter fontes primarios ex aliis rivulis in se receptis augescunt. Partiemur igitur scientiam in Theologiam, et Philosophiam. Theologiam hic intelligimus Inspiratam sive Sacram; non Naturalem, de qua paulo post dicturi sumus. At illam (Inspiratam nimirum) ad ultimum locum reservabimus, ut cum ea sermones nostros claudamus ; cum sit portus et sabbatum humanarum contemplationum omnium.

Philosophiæ autem objectum triplex, Deus, Natura, Homo ; et triplex itidem Radius rerum ; Natura enim percutit intellectum radio directo; Deus autem, propter medium inæquale (creaturas scilicet), radio refracto ; Homo vero, sibi ipsi monstratus et exhibitus, radio reflexo. Convenit igitur partiri Philosophiam in doctrinas tres; Doctrinam de Numine, Doctrinam de Natura, Doctrinam de Homine. Quoniam autem partitiones scientiarum non sunt lineis diversis similes, quæ coëunt ad unum angulum ; sed potius ramis arborum, qui conjunguntur in uno trunco (qui etiam truncus ad spatium nonnullum integer est et continuus, antequam se partiatur in ramos) ; idcirco postulat res, ut priusquam prioris partitionis membra persequamur, constituatur una Scientia Universalis, quæ sit mater reliquarum, et habeatur in progressu doctrinarum tanquam portio viæ communis antequam viæ se separent et disjungant. Hanc Scientiam Philosophic Primc, sive etiam Sapientiæ (quæ olim rerum divinarum atque humanarum scientia definiebatur), nomine insignimus.

1 The parallel which naturally suggests itself between light and knowledge has by several writers been traced in the modifications of which light is susceptible. Thus Roger Bacon, at the close of his Perspectiva, likens vision by direct light to divine knowledge, by refracted light to angelic knowledge, and by reflected light to human; and again to man's knowledge in the state of glory “facie ad faciem," to his knowledge in the intermediate state, and to that which he has in this present life; "et hæc est recte per reflexionem, secundum quod dicit apostolus, Videmus nunc per speculum in ænigmate.” And in this life also vision is triple: “scilicet recta in perfectis, fracta in imperfectis; et in malis et in negligentibus mandata Dei, est etiam per reflexionem " -- an assertion in support of which he quotes S. James, i. 23. and 24. But all these illustrations differ from that in the text, inasmuch as they relate to the different kinds of knowledge which appertain to different orders and states of being, and not to the differences which arise from the nature of the object. For a nearer parallel, at least with respect to the radius reflexus, see Plutarch De Curiositate, c. 3.

Huic autem scientiæ nulla alia opponitur; cum ab aliis scientis potius limitibus intra quos continetur quam rebus et subjecto differat ; fastigia scilicet rerum tantummodo tractans. Hanc ipsam utrum inter Desiderata reponere oporteat, hæsito ; sed arbitror tamen poni debere. Equidem invenio farraginem quandam et massam inconditam doctrinæ ex Theologia Naturali, ex Logica, ex partibus quibusdam Physicæ (veluti de Principiis et de Anima) compositam et congestam ; et sublimitate quadam sermonis, hominum qui seipsos admirari amant, tanquam in vertice scientiarum collocatam. Nos vero misso fastu id tantum volumus, ut designetur aliqua scientia, quæ sit receptaculum Axiomatum quæ particularium scientiarum non sint propria, sed pluribus earum in commune competant.'

Plurima autem id genus Axiomata esse nemo ambigat. Exempli gratia, Si inæqualibus æqualia addas, omnia erunt incequalia, regula est ex Mathematicis. Eadem et in Ethicis obtinet, quatenus ad justitiam

1 It is to principles of this kind that the title of Axioms is given by Aristotle. Bacon's first instance resembles that which Aristotle gives in the Anal. Post. i. 8. But most of his other instances are of a different char

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distributivam ; siquidem in justitia Commutativa, ut paria imparibus tribuantur ratio æquitatis postulat ; at in distributiva, nisi imparia imparibus præstentur, iniquitas fuerit maxima. Quæ in eodem tertio conveniunt, et inter se conveniunt, regula est itidem ex Mathematicis ; verum simul tam potens in Logica, ut syllogismi sit fundamentum. Natura se potissimum prodit in minimis, regula est in Physicis tam valida, ut etiam Democriti atomos produxerit ; veruntamen eam recte adhibuit Aristoteles in Politicis, qui contemplationem reipublicæ orditur a familia. Omnia mutantur, nil interit, regula itidem in Physicis, hoc modo prolata ; Quantum Naturæ nec minuitur nec augetur. Eadem competit Theologiæ Naturali, sic variata ; Omnipotentice sunt opera, Aliquid ex nihilo facere, et Aliquid in nihilum redigere ; quod etiam Scriptura testatur, Didici quod omnia opera quae fecit Deus perseverent in perpetuum ; non possumus eis quicquam addere, nec auferre.4 Interitus rei arcetur per reductionem ejus ad principia, regula est in Physicis ; eadem valet in Politicis (ut recte notavit Machiavellus), cum illa quæ interitum rerumpublicarum maxime prohibent nihil aliud fere sint quam reformatio earum et reductio ad antiquos mores." Putredo serpens magis contagiosa est quam matura, regula est in Physicis ; eadem insignis etiam in Moralibus ; cum homines profligatissimi et maxime facinorosi minus corruptelæ inferant publicis moribus quam qui aliquid videntur habere sanitatis et virtutis, et ex parte tantum mali sunt. Quod conservativum est Formoe ma

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1 See for the difference between distributive and commutative jus the Nicomachean Ethics, v. cc. 3, 4, 5.

2 This passage has been already quoted, Book II. c. 2. 8 Ovid. Metam. xv. 165.

4 Ecclesiast. iii. 14. 5 Macchiav. Discorsi, iii. § 1.

6 Vide supra, p. 148.

joris, id activitate potentius," regula est in Physicis ; etenim, ut non abscindatur ipse rerum nexus, nec detur (ut loquuntur) vacuum, facit ad conservandam fabricam universi ; ut vero gravia congregentur ad massam terræ, facit ad conservandam tantum regionem densorum. Itaque prior motus posteriorem domat. Eadem tenet in Politicis ; nam quæ faciunt ad conservandam ipsam politiam in sua natura validiora sunt quam quæ ad bene esse particularium in republica membrorum conducunt. Similiter eadem locum habet in Theologia ; etenim in theologicis virtutibus, Charitas, quæ est virtus maxime communicativa, præ reliquis omnibus eminet. Augetur vis agentis per antiperistasin contrarii,2 regula est in Physicis. Eadem mira præstat in Politicis ; cum omnis factio ex contraria ingruente vehementer irritetur. Tonus discors in concordem actutum desinens concentum commendat, regula est Musicæ. Eadem in Ethicis et Affectibus obtinet. Tropus ille Musicus, a clausula aut cadentia (quam vocant), cum jamjam adesse videatur, placide elabendi, convenit cum tropo Rhetorico expectationem eludendi. Fidium sonus tremulus eandem affert auribus voluptatem, quam lumen, aquæ aut gemmæ insiliens, oculis ;

splendet tremulo sub lumine pontus.3 Organa sensuum cum organis reflexionum conveniunt ; hoc in Perspectiva locum habet; oculus enim similis

1 This dictum is, I think, Bacon's own; at least I have not met with it.

2 The doctrine of Antiperistasis, that is of the increase of intensity of one of two contraries by the juxtaposition of the other, is applied by Aristotle, Meteor. i. c. 13., in the case of heat and cold, to explain the formation of hail. It is formally and generally stated in Averroës's commentary on this passage. See also Arist. Probl. ii. 16., and Plutarch's Quæst. Naturales.

3 Virg. Æn. vii. 9.

speculo, sive aquis; et in Acoustica ; instrumentum enim auditus obici intra cavernam simile. Hæc pauca enumerasse sufficiet ad exempla. Quinimo Magia Persarum (quæ in tantum est celebrata) in eo potissimum versabatur, ut architecturas et fabricas rerum naturalium et civilium symbolizantes notaret. Neque hæc omnia quæ diximus, et alia hujus generis, similitudines meræ sunt (quales hominibus fortasse parum perspicacibus videri possint), sed plane una eademque naturæ vestigia aut signacula, diversis materiis et subjectis

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i That the word speculum is here used for “a glass” appears from the corresponding passage in the Advancement of Learning. This use of the word, though certainly uncommon, is sanctioned by the authority of C. Agrippa, who, distinguishing lenses from mirrors, calls the former “ specula perspicua." See his celebrated work, De incertitudine et vanitate scientiarum, with which Bacon seems, though he has spoken with undeserved contempt of its author, to have been familiar. The phrase used by S. Paul, -- we see through a glass," is in the Vulgate“ videmus per speculum," but it is at least doubtful whether in both versions it was not intended to suggest the idea of vision by reflected light; -so that the authority of the English translators cannot be cited in support of Bacon's use of the word " speculum;” though on the other hand there are commentators who affirm that the word used in the original (égóttpov) means what in Latin is denoted by “speculare,” in which case the vision di' Łoóttpov is of course by transmitted light.

2 The system of Zoroaster, with which we are but imperfectly acquainted, was at one time the subject of almost as many idle fancies as the philosophy of Hermes Trismegistus. The first idea of the connexion between the Persian magic and the art of government was suggested by the circumstance mentioned in the Alcibiades of Plato that the princes of Persia were by the same persons instructed in politics and in magic. Thus the elder Mirandula observes, “ Utriusque (Zoroastris et Zamolxidis) magia quid sit, Platonem si per contemur, respondebit in Alcibiade, Zoroastris magiam non esse aliud quam divinam scientiam, quâ filios Persarum regum erudiebant, ut ad exemplar mundanæ reipublicæ suam ipsi regere rempublicam edocerentur” Johannis Pici Mirandulæ Apologia. (But compare J. F. Mirandula for an account of his uncle's change of opinion on this subject. Vide his De Rerum Prænotione, vii. c. 2.)

The reference to Plato in the passage I have quoted is rather an unscrupulous one, as Plato gives no information as to the nature of the Persian magic.

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