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A letter to Mr. and Mrs. Duffin from Mr. Kohl- | this there is, and ever must be, imperfection; so hoff, in the course of this year, thus mentions the that I dare not stand upon so rotten a ground. But state of India at that period, and his venerable to win Christ, and to be found in him, in life and friend and father.

death, and even in the day of judgment, was St.

Paul's wish; this has been the wish of all genuine Tanjore, March 30, 1795. Christians; ihis shall be mine as long as I breathe. “We are especially bound to praise God, that This was not a peculiarity in St. Paul's character. we have been free from the trouble and miseries of No; he admonishes all to follow him in this point. war, under which a great part of Europe is at pre- This close adherence to Christ will not make us sent laboring. We were indeed under some appre- indolent in the pursuit of holiness. It will rather hensions of a war breaking out between us and the impel, strengthen, and cheer us in the work of true Mahrattas, about the beginning of this year; but and Christian holiness. St. Paul wished to be made by the kind providence of God, and the wise mea- like unto the death of Jesus, which is the summit of sures of our government, it was averted, and we are true holiness. now enjoying, thank God, perfect peace and tran As this, perhaps, may be my last letter to you, quillity.

I cannot but entreat you to follow St. Paul, that “Our dear and worthy friend Mr. Swarız is in excellent pattern of true goodness. By doing so, good health, and performs the several duties of his you will easily withstand and overcome the temptaoffice as before. May a gracious God prolong his tions of a vain world; you will live and die in life to many, many succeeding years, for the glory peace; and at last be received into glory. of his name, and the good of souls! Our beloved "We have known one another a long time on Mr. Jænicke has been at Palamcotta since the be- earth. May we know one another in a blessed ginning of March last, where God is making use eternity, where sin and sorrow never shall disturb of his labors for the enlargement of his kingdom.” us! Watch and pray, that ye may be accounted

The next paragraph in Mr. Kohlhoff's letter an- worthy to stand before the Son of man, your Renounces an event but too frequent in India, which deemer. proves the peculiar value of such ministers of con

“I am, my dear friends, solation as Swartz and himself.

"Your affectionale friend, “Before the arrival of these lines you will per

“ C. F. SWARTZ." haps see our good friend Mrs. Knox, who has laiely suffered a severe loss by the death of her husband With this truly apostolic letter, in which, after Capt. Knox, who died a few months since at On-the example of St. Paul himself, he wrote “the gole, where he was stationed with his battalion. same things,” but which to him, as to every real Mrs. K. embarked about six or eight weeks since Christian, were ever new, and ever supremely inon board the Asia, and before her departure she teresting and important, Swartz, as he had anticiwrote a few lines to Mr. Swartz, from which it ap- pated, closed his invaluable correspondence with pears that her mind was still much afflicted. May these beloved friends; one of whom still survives, a merciful God comfort her under all her sorrows, and retains, at a very advanced age, in all their make her resigned to the good and wise dispensa- freshness and fervor, the reverence and affection tions of his providence, and bring her safe to her which the virtues of this extraordinary man had so children and friends! Should you have the oppor- justly inspired. tunity, pray remember us to her in the kindest man In a leiter from Mr. Pæzold, the Society's recent

ly established missionary at Vepery, he recurs to a On the same sheet with the preceding extract, scene which has been already described, but with Swartz wrote as follows:

so much variety of incident as to justify its inser

tion in this place. Tanjore, April 10, 1795. “In a journey to Tanjore," he observes,“ in comAs my friend Mr. Kohlhoff has given you an pany with the Rev. Mr. Swartz, I had the opportuaccount of his present welfare, I will add something nity at Tripatore of being present at a conference concerning my own health. I praise God for his between that excellent missionary, and about twen. mercy which he has bestowed upon me. Though ty Brahmins, to whom he expounded the Christian I am now in the sixty-ninth year of my age, I still doctrine, pointing out its great pre-eminence over am able to perform the ordinary functions of my their heathenisin and idolatry. Their general reoffice. Of sickness I know little or nothing. How ply to him was, 'Very true; your doctrine, your long I am to say so, my Creator and Preserver religion, your instruction, is a pleasing thing; but knows. My only comfort is the redemption made it is inconsistent with flesh and blood; it is repugby Jesus Christ. He is, and shall be, my wisdom. nant to our carnal affections; it strikes at the naBy him I have received the salutary knowledge tural propensity to moral evil, and to worldly pleaswhich leads me to the favor of God. He is my ures. Morever,' they replied, ' we do not see your righteousness. By his atonement I have pardon of Christian people live conformably to what they my sins; be clothed in bis righteousness, my teach. The Christians appear to be doing quite sins will not appear in judgment against me—they the contrary: they curse, they swear, they get drunk; are blotted out by the atoning blood of Jesus. He they steal, cheat, and deal fraudulently with one anis likewise my sanctification. In his holy life I other; nay, they blaspheme, and rail apon matters best learn the whole will of God, and by his Spirit of religion, and often make a mock of those who I shall daily be encouraged and strengthened to profess to be religious;' in short they said, 'You hate every sin, and to walk in the way of the com- Christians often demean yourselves as badly, if not mandments of God. He is, and I hope he will be, worse, than we heathens. Now pray,' they added, my redemption. By him I shall be delivered from of what benefit and advantage is all your instrucall evil, and made eternally happy.

tion and recommendation of Christ's religion, if it “Let others glory in what they please : I will does not reform the lives of your own people ? glory in Christ Jesus, the only and perfect author Should you not first endeavor to convert your of all happiness. Should I presume tą rely on Christians ere you attempt to proselyte pagans ?'” my own virtue, I should despair. Though I heart- To these objections, says Mr. Þæzold, whether apily wish to obey God, and follow the example of plicable to the nominal European Christians, or to my Saviour; though I will endeavor by the grace ihe native converts, and however, unhappily, wellof God to subdue my inclination to sin-yet in all founded, though obviously inconclusive,


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Swartz replied with so much propriety, and with soon as his health would permit, intended to transsuch wonderful intrepidity and energy, that at mit an extract from it to the Society. He concludlength the Brahmins unanimously exclaimed, 'Of ed by expressing his humble and respectful thanks a truth you are a boly man; and if all your Chris- for the continuance of their kindness to them and to tians thought, and spake, and lived as you do, we the mission. would without delay undergo the change, and be The Society, with prompt liberality, having taken come Christians also.

into consideration the preceding statement of the How honorable is this repeated testimony to his extraordinary expense incurred in the service of personal excellence; and how powerfully does it the Tanjore mission, in the year 1795, transmitted appeal to every minister, whether abroad or at to Swartz £60, with a request that he would furnish home, and to every private Christian, to act con an estimate of the whole amount, and of the basistently with their holy profession, and thus to lance remaining unprovided for, on account of which adorn and recommend the doctrine of God our Sa- this allowance was made. viour!

To a friend in London the excellent missionary To the Society for promoting Christian Know- wrole, at the commencement of this year, “ It is a ledge, Mr. Swartz wrote from Tanjore on the 26th sincere pleasure to me to hear, that my letter, toof January, 1796, giving an interesting retrospect gether with my remarks on the mission, have been of the preceding year. He and his brethren, he ob- read to the honorable Society, and received their served, had experienced the mercy of God in pre- approbation. My earnest wish is, that the remarks serving their lives, when they seemed to be in may prove conducive to the good of the mission." danger. Mr. Jænicke had been afflicted with a He then adds the following important and interestbillious disorder, the consequence and effect of the ing observations.* hill fever, which never entirely left him for three "A missionary must guard against being cast years, though he had sometimes been tolerably down and dissatisfied; for this, especially here, is well, so as to go through the duties of his office. as poison to the body, and highly pernicious to the Mr. 'Kohlhoff continued most faithfully to assist soul; because thereby faith, love, and hope dehim. He had himself entered into the seventieth crease, nay, absolutely perish : and when the people year of his age, and still found himself able to per- remark that such an one is discontented, ii is an form his various duties—preaching every Sunday, impediment in the way of his laboring on their catechising every day, and in the afternoon visiting souls; from which nevertheless our comfort ought Christian families, and instructing them in the obli- to arise. Whenever I meet with any thing disagations of religion.

greeable, I go and catechise for an hour. This emDuring the last year twenty-nine heathens had ployment sweetens every bitter to me. No missionbeen instructed and baptized; twenty-four Roman ary must give way to complaining. We must be Catholics had been received into the congregation, witnesses for our Lord, and not converters merely. and thirty-seven children, born of Christian parents. One could wish indeed that, as three thousand

He continued to encourage poor Christian wi- souls were converted by Peter's sermon, a visible, dows in spinning; and the young girls, after an abundant blessing might rest on our labors. Meanhour's catéchising, were employed in knitting stock-while, sowing has its season, and reaping has its ings. Old people, who were unequal to hard labor, season: and moreover it might still be a question he intended to engage in the cultivation of cochi- whether with such great_success, we should hold neal, for which purpose he had planted opuntia in fast humility of heart. The best way is to labor great abundance, and they were then just about to diligently, and then to pray that God would bless our begin that useful work.

labor. “ Unable," he says, “to walk very far, I visit the The Tanjore inhabitants are much given to Christians in two streets near the church. Having heathenism; and yet many assert, (I know not how catechised them, I accustom myself to explain the it comes into their minds,) that the whole land will principal doctrines of Christianity. This done, I still embrace Christianity. God grant it.” question them respecting their employments, and inspect their work, and at the close of the day we have evening prayer. The catechists visit and in

CHAPTER XX. struct Christians resident at a distance, and con

A. D. 1796 to A. D. 1797. verse with the heathens in the adjacent towns and villages, and on their return they read their dia- Revival of the discussion respecting the validity of Serfojee's ries."

adoption, and his title to the musnud-Proceedings at the two There were twelve catechists maintained at Tan

presidencies of Madras and Bengal-Important services of Mr.

Swartz upon this occasion-High testimony to his character by jore, Ramanadapuram, and Palamcotta, to whom

Sir John Shore-Complete establishment of Serfojee's claims-Sir monthly salaries were paid, amounting in the whole

A. Johnston-Letter to Professor Schultz-Appointment of two to £60 per annum. Sattianaden received a salary

new missionaries-Declining health of Mr. Swartz-His devout and from the Society; the catechists were paid by interesting reflections on this subject. Swartz. The orphan school, in which fifteen native boys were instructed, fed, and clothed, required While the venerable missionary was thus occupied about £40 per annum to support it.

in the discharge of the sacred and appropriate “As the honorable Company,” observes this ge- duties of his office, it is remarkable that no allusion nerous man, “has hitherto allowed me something, I is to be found in any of his private letters to a sublook upon it as a donation to the mission. My col-ject which must at this time have engaged much of league Mr. Jænicke has a share in it. Besides, his attention, and in which he was again called to when he travels into the country, I pay the expen- | take a prominent and important part. ses—I think myself bound to do so. if the honor It will be remembered, that when the widows and able Society could assist us to defray those extraor- the adopted son of the late Rajah of Tanjore were, dinary expenses, we should rejoice, and be very in the year 1793, at their earnest request, removed thankful for such a bounty." Two English schools to Madras, it was stated that one of their chief obhad been established at Ramanadapuram, and one jects was to bring before the notice of government, at Palamcotta, by young men who had been instruct the claims of Serfojee to the succession to the ed at Tanjore; and these schools were supplied with musnud, founded upon a variety of circumstances books from the mission stores. Sattianaden, he adds, had sent his diary to Mr. Jænicke, who, as

+ Memoirs of Janicke,

which had transpired since the decision of Sir Ar- given, was accompanied by one from the widows chibald Campbell in favor of Ameer Sing. Soon of Tuljajee to Lord Cornwallis, translaied by Mr. after their arrival, Mr Swartz addressed a letter to Swartz, in which they detail all'the particulars rethe Marquis Cornwallis, to part of which reference specting the adoption of Serfojee, and declare it to has been already made, in which he gave a brief i have been conducted according to the strictest resketch of the history of Serfojee from the period of quisitions of Hindoo law and custom. They next his adoption to that of his removal to Madras. After refer to the iwo objections chiefly urged against its mentioning the visit of Sir Archibald Campbell validity, namely, his age, and his being an only to Tanjore, and his convening of twelve pundits, son. They then assert their conviction, that the who declared the adoption of Serfojee to be invalid, pundits were under the influence of corrupt motives he thus proceeds.

in giving their opinions in favor of Ameer Sing; "As I knew nothing of their Shasters,* and the and they with great fairness propose to prove this, whole business was done so quickly, I was silent, first, by a reference to those pundits who had been for which I blame myself; for these pundits ought consulted by Tuljajee on his adoption of a son, and to have given a proof from the Shaster to vindicate who were entirely overlooked at the time of Sir the justice of their opinion—but nothing of this was Archibald Campbell's inquiry, and next, by calling done. When I afterwards read the translation of upon the twelve pundits who had repudiated the the Hindoo laws, which was published in Bengal, adoption, to state the passages from the Shasters I was astonished, when I found that those pundits which justified their decision; and thus, it would had acted a base part.

appear, whether they had been influenced by sinister “Your lordship wished to have authentic proofs motives, or by a real knowledge of the Hindou of their having been bribed. Five of them who laws. formerly had no office are taken into the Rajah's They finally entreated Lord Cornwallis not to service. Others have fields which they would im- quit India without settling Serfojee's concerns, as it mediately lose if they confessed. One of them is would be easy for Ameer Sing, though then without here, who declared that hope and fear had influ- any heir, to adopt an infant, and thus to place an enced him; that he was conscious of having done additional impediment in the way of his claims to wrong; but he said, ' As the present Rajah, before the throne. he was proclaimed, was already in the possession The question respecting the validity of Serfojee's of the country and treasure, every one had hopes adoption, having been thus formally revived, doubtand fears. You had no reason to expect a just less occupied the immediate attention of governdecision from us under these circumstances. His ment; but the time necessarily required for the money has made him king; but if you desire us to transmission and examination of the various docuconfess publicly, you must protect us publicly.'- ments upon which the determination of it depended,

This is in some degree confiimed by a declaration, not only to Bengal, but also to the Court of Directwhich the present Rajah made in the presence of ors, occasioned considerable delay. Mr. De Souza, a Portuguese gentleman, Sir Archi During this interval, the mal-administration of bald Campbell's dubash, Shevarow, and myself, at affairs in Tanjore continued, and even increased. the time when Mr. Petrie was sent to Tanjore to Conflicting representations were made by the Rajah oblige the Rajah to pay the arrears. The Rajah and the resident to the Madras government, the then said, ' If they press me too much, I will reveal former complaining particularly of the endeavors all, and raise a storm over all England. For they which were making to invalidate his title to the have all got money from me except Mr. Swartz.' throne, and urging in the strongest manner the obWhether those who were then present would choose jections which had originally prevailed to set aside to confirm this declaration, I know not; but I could the claims of Serfojee. These appear to have been confirm it in the most solemn and awful manner. forwarded to Calcutta, where Sir John Shore, after

"The present Rajah, has made three objections wards Lord Teignmouth, had succeeded the Marto Serfojee's adoption, which some pundits, at the quis Cornwallis as governor-general of India, and desire of the late Rajah's family, have answered.- to have been taken into the deliberate consideration I beg leave to send those answers taken from the of the president in council. In a minute, trans. Shaster.

mitted by that excellent and distinguished person, As the present Rajah has requested that no to the Court of Directors, the following passage stranger might be admitted to his palace and go- occurs; which is so honorable at once to the discrivernment—that your lordship may be convinced that minating judgment of the governor-general, and to Serfojee is no stranger, but has a right to the go- the character of Mr. Swartz, that it is gratifying vernment of the country, not only on account of his to have the opportunity of inserting it in these Mehaving been adopted, but even on account of his moirs. birth I beg leave to send your lordship his pedi "Admitting that the authors of the Rajah of gree.

Tanjore's correspondence are interested on the one "Whether these my reflections, which I have side, and the resident and Mr. Swartz are commitmade with a conscientious regard to truth, will ted on the other, it may be a matter for consideration throw some light upon the whole matter, I leave to to which of the parties credit ought to be given. your lordship's better judgment.

The president has no hesitation in declaring, that “Having been too silent, when the twelve pundits upon every material point he totally disbelieves gave their opinion, I have written this letter to ease every circumstance that has been urged in the my mind, and if possible to benefit my unfortunate Rajah's letters, which goes to a contradiction of the pupil. A line from your lordship on this subject representations of the resident. shall be my comfort. In your lordship's determi "With regard to Mr. Swartz, whose name the nation I shall cheerfully acquiesce.”

president has never heard mentioned without re

spect, and who is as distinguished for the sanctity The letter from which the preceding extracts are of his manners, as for his ardent zeal in the pro

mulgation of his religion ; whose years, without Though Mr. Swartz was a master of the princi- impairing his understanding, have added weight to pal languages spoken in the south of India, and well his character; and whose situation has enabled him versed in Tamul literature, he had not found it ne to be the protector of the oppressed, and the comcessary to study the Sanscrit, which accounts for forter of the afflicted; who, a preacher of the his want of acquaintance with the Shasters.

Christian faith, and a man without influence, ex

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cept from character, was held in such estimation by and that, if he erred, it was an error arising from the late Rajah, a Hindoo prince, approaching to his misinformation; but that the motives which acdissolution, that he thought him the fittest person tuated that decision on his part, were pure and dishe could consult concerning the management of interested.” his country, during the minority of his adopted son It is due also to the East Indian government, to Serfojee; and who, displaying more integrity than state the high and honorable principles by which foresight, in the advice he gave, did certainly not they were influenced in the revision of this improve himself the enemy of Ameer Sing, since, at portant question. In the minute already referred his suggestion, he was named Regent—to the so- io, adverting to the right of the Company to interlemn assurance of such a man, the president is fere originally with respect to the succession to compelled to declare his unqualified assent; and, Tanjore, it is observed, “that the same right called upon his information, he can easily reconcile the upon them, under existing circumstances, to review difference between the personal declarations and the whole subject ; and that if it should appear that the letters of the Rajah.'

the decision of government had been procured by

imposition and intrigue, by which the legal heir Though it is by no means intended to enter had been deprived of his right, a declaration to miputely into the political affairs of Tanjore at this that effect, followed by his substitution, would be period, and the venerable subject of these memoirs more honorable to British justice, and more calcuever anxiously avoided, as far as his sense of duty lated to promote our political character and intewould permit

, any interference of this nature, it is rests, than to suffer the continuance of an usurpaabsolutely necessary to the elucidation of his con- tion obtained at our hands by sinister and undue duct upon the present occasion, to refer to various means. It would manifest to the world that the circumstances respecting which he was required to principle of British justice is ever true to itself; and give his deliberate opinion and advice. Living as that if those entrusted with its administration should he had done, during so many years, in habits of be betrayed into error, (an event not impossible, friendly and confidential intercourse with the prin- even from the integrity of their own minds,) when cipal persons at the court of Tanjore, as well as truth shall have made its way, the hour of retriwith others of all ranks, he necessarily acquired a bution must come, and the honor of the British clearer insight into the secret springs and motives name be completely vindicated. of action of those around him, than could be ob "Such a declaration would be in strict conformity tained by any other individual. The consequence with the principles avowed at the time of Ameer of this extensive information, combined with his Sing's succession; it would be a proof not only of perfect integrity and independence, was, that, by our justice, but of our liberality, and, by converting degrees, he was compelled to take a part, directly a temporary success into a perpetual disgrace, or indirectly, in almost every public transaction would afford an awful lesson to those who may be connected with Tanjore. "The good," as it has disposed to tamper with the integrity of our counbeen happily expressed by a subsequent distinguished trymen." resident at that court, * "naturally desired his advice and assistance; the bad were anxious to obtain The supreme government having, upon these the sanction of his respectable name."

just and elevated principles, resolved on fully in

vestigating the subject of the succession to Tanjore, Thus, at the close of the year 1795, we find him in addition to the representations and documents writing to Mr. Macleod, for the information of Lord which had already been laid before them by Mr. Hobart, then governor of Madras, in the following Swartz and the widows, called upon Mr. Macleod,

the late resident, to state all that he knew or be “You know the unhappy cause of the Rajah's lieved relative to the right of Ameer Sing to the attachment to Shevarow and his whole family. It musnud. In reply to this requisition, he transmitted is not any regard he has for them: no-he is ac a clear and minute detail of all the circumstances luated only by fear. He is conscious of having no connected with it. From this important document, * legal claim to the crown; and that insidious family it appears that, soon after the decision in favor of know it likewise; and they have been so imprudent Ameer Sing, opinions and surmises beginning to as to declare, that as he owed his elevation to their be very prevalent at Tanjore, as to the legality of assistance, so they had it in their power to bring his title, the resident was induced to make various him down whenever they pleased.' It is fear of inquiries upon the subject. He found, from answers losing his glory, or splendid misery, makes him to questions sent privately to natives well versed in bear any insult to preserve himself in the possession the Hindoo laws, that the supposed defects in the of his throne. He has delivered the management adoption of Serfojee were of no validity, and incaof the whole country to that family, nut daring to pable of being substantiated by authorities from the control them. Accordingly they took the accounts Shasters; while, on the other hand, many quotaout of the palace, and the treasures likewise." tions, purporting to be from those sacred books,

were produced, which clearly evinced the legality Representations of this nature, together with a of all the forms of the adoption. growing impression at Tanjore, that Sir Archibald These passages were furnished by some of the Campbell had been deceived by the pundits, as to pundits consulted by the late Rajah respecting that the grounds of his decision in placing Ameer Sing ceremony, as well as by other learned men; and upon the throne, combined with the formal im- though the resident could not himself verify their peachment of his title, by the widows and adopted genuineness, the presumption was strongly in their son of the late Rajah, at length brought the whole favor, from the danger of detection, should he at of this important subject to a crisis. The govern- any time bring them publicly forward. Upon these ment deemed it necessary to proceed with great grounds, he felt convinced in his own mind of the circumspection and delicacy in questioning a right validity of the adoption; and this conviction was which had been sanctioned by so solemn a decision; strengthened by the circumstance, already noticed, and it is due to the memory of Sir Archibald of the various rewards bestowed by Ameer Sing Campbell, to declare their conviction, that it was upon the pundits, who had given their opinions in formed from the best and most upright intentions; support of his title. He further remarked, that * Colonel Blackburne.

* Madras Inclosures, vol. xxii. p. 775.


these opinions were unaccompanied by any author-, macy of Ameer Sing, as asserted by the widows of ities from the Shasters; that some of those pundits the late Rajah, and Mr. Swartz, and called upon were incompetent to assert any thing of their own them to substantiate their previous statement, as to knowledge upon the subject; and that one of them the opinions of the pundits originally consulted by had actually confessed, and persisted to the hour of Tuljajee, concerning the adoption, by authorities his death in acknowledging, that his answers had from the Shaster, and by the customs of the counbeen given under undue influence.

try, particularly as to the age of Serfojee at the All this was corroborated by the treatment of time of his adoption being no bar to its validity; Serfojee, while confined in the palace, which has that satisfactory replies upon all these points were been before detailed, and which the resident had received by the supreme government, and constifelt himself bound to represent to government, in tuted the evidence upon which the board were to order, as he emphatically expressed it,“ to save the form their opinion. boy.”. Of the severity of this treatment, he men The objections urged by Ameer Sing to the adoptioned one remarkable proof, in addition to what tion of Serfojee are then stated. They will be found has been previously stated. About three months to be identical with those originally brought forafter the death of Tuljajee, he and Mr. Swartz ward, and were reduced to the three following:were sitting with the Rajah, waiting for Serfojee, The first refers to the alleged incapacity of Tuljajee, who had been desired to attend them. When he from infirmity of mind and body, for the due permade his appearance," the child,” says Mr. Mac- formance of so important an act; the second, to the leod, "was so dreadfully altered, that though we supposition that Serfojee was an only child; and saw him in his approach down the length of an the third, to the age at which he was adopted, as open colonnade, we did not know him, till he came exceeding that which was prescribed by the Hinwithin three or four yards of us : he had become doo law. emaciated and dejected to the greatest degree. He In reply to the first objection, the governor-genewas reduced to this deplorable state, by a series of ral in council considered it amply refuted by three acts which sufficiently evinced that the intention of documents. First, the late Rajah's leliers to the those who directed them was to remove the boy, Madras government, announcing the adoption, whose right they considered the only obstacle to the which have been already quoted. Secondly, Mr. Rajah's quiet possession of the throne. It was at Hudleston's report of the whole transaction, in this crisis,” he adds, "that government interposed.” which it is expressly stated, that, notwithstanding

Such is the outline of the case respecting the the rapid decline of his health, the Rajah preserved conflicting claims of Serfojee and Ameer Sing to his judgment and faculties in so surprising a dethe musnud of Tanjore. To the English govern- gree, that he continued, up to the very day of the ment the decision of this question was a matter of adoption, to direct and superintend the details of comparative indifference, inasmuch as the deter- his government, and had even arrested his prime mination of it in favor of either party, could not minister, on account of his oppression of the people. materially affect its interests or influence in the Mr. Hudleston's notice of the silence of Ameer country. It was, therefore, with perfect integrity Sing at the ceremony of the adoption, the avowed and impartiality that this important investigation object of which was to exclude him from the sucwas undertaken; and the result of it will be found cession, the board thought equally satisfactory evito have been regulated by the clearest and most dence of the sanity of the Rajah. The objection in convincing evidence.

question was, in fact, never heard of till after his The whole subject is discussed in a long and ela- death. Thirdly, the report of Sir Archibald Campborate despatch from Sir John Shore, the governor- bell to the secret committee of the Court of Directgeneral in council, dated December 30th, 1796, to ors, which entirely negatived any such supposition. Lord Hobart, governor of Madras. It commences T'he result, therefore, as to ihis first objection, with a review of the events which have been al- was, that it was unsupported by any evidence whatready so frequently adverted to the adoption of ever, and that there was the strongest presumption Serfojee, and the death of the late Rajah in 1787– on the other side to suppose it totally unfounded. the suspicions generally entertained as to the legi With respect to the second objection, the board timacy of Ameer Sing—the determination of Sir declared, that the pundits of Bengal and Benares Archibald Campbell in his favor, to the exclusion coincided in opinion with those who had been conof the adopted son-the gradual revival of his sulted by Tuljajee, at Tanjore, that the adoption of claim by the widows of Tuljajee, aided by the pow- an only son is one of those acts which is tolerated erful interposition of Mr. Swartz, as the guardian by usage, although it incurs blame; but that the of Serfojee, and the remonstrance of Ameer Sing, deviation from the strict ordinances of the Shaster in 1793, against this impeachment of his title. by no means in validates the act itself.

The minute of the board proceeds to state, that vernor-general in council, therefore, concluded that the sentiments of Mr. Swartz, in addition to other this objection did not affect the right of Serfojee to circumstances, had, at that time, created great the succession. doubts in their minds of the just rights of the Upon the third objection, as to the age of the child Rajah to the succession; and that they had, in adopted, all the pundits agreed, that if he were consequence, resolved to call on the most learned clearly of the family and lineage of the adopter, it pundits in Bengal and Benares, for answers to the was lawful to select a child at any period within substance of the questions put to the pundits at the twenty-second year, unless controlled by any Tanjore, desiring the Madras government, in the local usage, which, in the present case, was contramean time, to ascertain whether the opinion of any dicted by the Tanjore pundits. of those pundits had been obtained by corrupt means; The minute of ihe supreme government next adthat these questions were translated by the late Sir verted to the grounds on which the decision in favor William Jones, into Sanscrit, and transmitted to of Ameer Sing was originally formed, and stated the pundits of Bengal and Benares, whose answers that when the subject of the succession was under had been duly received, and translated for the use consideration at Tanjore, the questions referred to of the board; that after perusing them, the board, the pundits were neither sufficiently definite nor being desirous of baving the fullest information be- pointed, and that the answers to them were general, fore them upon every point, sent instructions to the and unsupported by any references to due authoriMadras government, to ascertain the correctness of ties. It further observed, that these answers were the lineage of Serfojee, and the fact of the illegiti- discredited, less, perhaps, by the general terms in

The go

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