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ANALYSIS.-1st. The word SHOE, in pronunciation, is formed by the union of two oral elements; sho-shoe. The first is a modified breathing; hence, it is an atonic. The second is a pure tone; hence, it is a tonic.
2d. The word SHOE, in writing, is represented by four letters; shoe-shoe. The combination sh represents an atonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the teeth; hence, it is a dental. Its oral element is produced by the same organs and in a similar manner as the second oral element represented by z; hence, it is a cognate of z. The combination oe is formed by the union of two vowels, one of which is silent; hence, it is an improper diphthong. It represents the oral element usually represented by ô; hence, it is an alphabetic equivalent of 8.
RULES IN ARTICULATION.
AS the name of a letter, or when used as an emphatic word, should always be pronounced ā (a in age); as, She did not say that the three boys knew the letter ā, but that a boy knew it.
2. THE WORD A, when not emphatic, is marked short (ă),1 though in quality it should be pronounced nearly like a as heard in åsk, gråss; as,
Give ǎ baby sister ǎ smile, ǎ kind word, and ǎ kiss.
3. THE, when not emphatic nor immediately followed by a word that commences with a vowel sound, should be pro nounced thŭ; as,
The (thu) peach, the (thŭ) plum, the apple, and the (thŭ) cherry are yours. Did he ask for a pen, or for the pen?
4. U PRECEDED BY R.-When u long (u in tūbe), or its alphabetic equivalent ew, is preceded by r, or the sound of
1A initial.—A in many words, as an initial unaccented syllable, is also marked short (ă), its quantity
or volume of sound being less than that of a sixth power (å), as in ǎlås, ǎmåss, ǎbåft.
sh, in the same syllable, it has always the sound of o in do; as,
EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION.
Are you sure that shrewd youth was rude?
5. R MAY BE TRILLED when immediately followed by a vowel sound in the same syllable. When thus situated in emphatic words, it should always be trilled; as,
He is both brave and true. She said scratching, not scrawling.
letters are omitted and the
spelled as they should be pronounced. The pupils will read the sentences several times, both separately and in concert, uttering all the oral elements with force and distinctness. They will also analyze the words, both as spoken and written, and name the rules in articulation that are illustrated by the exercises.
1. Thů bold, båd bâiz brók bolts ånd bårz.
5. Bå! fhåt'z not siks döllärz, båt a dollar.
11. Both'z yoths with troths yuz ỏfhz.
12. Arm it with rǎgz, ǎ pigmi strâ wil pērs it. 13. Nou sét thủ tèth ånd stręch thủ nöstril wid. 14. Hè wöcht ånd wept, hè fêlt ånd pråd får ål. 15. Hiz iz, åmidst thů mists, mêzêrd ån åzêr ski.
16. Thů whȧlz wheld ånd wherld, and bård thår bråd, broun båks.
17. Jilz ănd Jāsn Jonz kăn not sā,—Arorå, alis, ămås, mănnå, villå, når Lūnå.
18. Thů strif sèsèth, pès åpprochêth, and thů gûd mån rejaiseth.
19. Thů shrod shroz båd him så fhåt fhů vil viksnz yüzd shrůgz, ånd sharp shril shrèks.
20. Shōrli, thō wonded, thŭ prödênt rekrôt wůd not ēt that kröd fråt.
21. Stern, růgged nêrs! thi rijid lòr with påshens mênỉ å yer shẻ bor.
22. Amidst thů mists ånd köldest frösts, with bårest rists and stoutst bosts, he thrusts hiz fists agenst thủ posts, and stil insists hè sèz thủ gòsts.
23. A stårm arizẻth ỏn thủ sẻ. A modël vẻssel iz strug gling åmidst thů wår öv éléments, kwivering ånd shivering, shringking ånd båttling lik å thingking being. Thů měrsilės, råking wherlwindz, lik fritfül fendz, houl ånd mòn, ånd send shårp, shril shrèks thrỏ thů krèking kârdåj, snåpping fhů shets ånd måsts. Thů stěrdi sålárz stånd to thår tåsks, ånd wether thů sévèrêst stårm öv fhů sèzn.
24. Chast-id, cherisht Ches! Thủ chårmz bv thì chẻkërd chamberz chân mè chànjlẻsli. Fär thẻ år thủ chåplěts ov chanlês chåriti ånd fhủ chålis öv childlik chèrfülnės. Chànj kản nôt chànj thẻ: from childhüd tỏ thủ chảrnẻl-hous, from our fěrst childish chěrpingz tỏ thủ chilz ðv thủ chẻrch yård fhou art our chèri, chànjlês chèftinės.
ASYLLABLE is a word, or part of a word, uttered by
a single impulse of the voice.
2. A MONOSYLLABLE is a word of one syllable; as, home.
3. A DISSYLLABLE is a word of two syllables; as, home-less. 4. A TRISYLLABLE is a word of three syllables; as, confine-ment.
RULES IN SYLLABICATION.
5. A POLYSYLLABLE is a word of four or more syllables; as, in-no-cen-cy, un-in-tel-li-gi-lil-i-ty.
6. THE ULTIMATE is the last syllable of a word; as ful, in peace-ful.
7. THE PENULT, or penultimate, is the last syllable but one of a word; as māk, in peace-mak-er.
8. THE ANTEPENULT, or antepenultimate, is the last syllable but two of a word; as ta, in spon-ta-ne-ous.
9. THE PREANTEPENULT, or preantepenultimate, is the last syllable but three of a word; as cab, in vo-cab-u-la-ry.
RULES IN SYLLABICATION.
NITIAL CONSONANTS.-The elements of consonants that commence words should be uttered distinctly, but should not be much prolonged.'
2. FINAL CONSONANTS.-Elements that are represented by final consonants should be dwelt upon, and uttered with great distinctness; as,
He accepts the office, and attempts by his acts to conceal his faults.
3. WHEN ONE WORD OF A SENTENCE ENDS and the next begins with the same consonant, or another that is hard to produce after it, a difficulty in utterance arises that should be obviated by dwelling on the final consonant, and then taking up the one at the beginning of the next word, in a second impulse of the voice, without pausing between them; as,
It will pain nobody, if the sad dangler regain neither rope. 4. FINAL COGNATES.-In uttering the elements of the final cognates, b, p, d, t, g, and k, the organs of speech
'Initial Elements Prolonged.- the following lines:
On this point Dr. RUSH mentions the error of a distinguished actor, who, in order to give great force and distinctness to his articulation, dwelt
on the initial letters, as marked in Such mouthing defeats its object.
Canst thou not m-inister to a m-ind diseased,
Pl-uck from the m-emory a r-coted sorrow?"
should not remain closed at the several pauses of discourse, but should be smartly separated by a kind of echo; as, I took down my hat-t, and put it upon my head-d.
5. UNACCENTED SYLLABLES should be pronounced as distinctly as those which are accented: they should merely have less force of voice and less prolongation; as,
The thoughtless, helpless, homeless girl did not resent his rudeness and harshness.
Very many of the prevailing faults of articulation result from a neglect of these rules, especially the second, the third, and the last. He who gives a full and definite sound to final consonants and to unaccented vowels, if he does it without stiffness or formality, can hardly fail to articulate well.
EXERCISE IN SYLLABICATION.'
1. THIRTY years ago, Marseilles' lay burning in the sun, one day. A blazing sun, upon a fierce August day, was no greater rarity in Southern France then, than at any other time, before or since. Every thing in Marseilles, and about Marseilles, had stared at the fervid sky, and been stared at in return, until a staring habit had become universal there.
2. Strangers were stared out of countenance by staring white houses, staring white walls, staring white streets, staring tracts of arid road, staring hills from which verdure was burnt away. The only things to be seen not firedly staring and glaring were the vines drooping under their load of grapes. These did occasionally wink a little, as the hot air moved their faint leaves.
3. There was no wind to make a ripple on the foul water within the harbor, or on the beautiful sea without. The line of demarkation between the two colors, black and blue, showed the point which the pure sea would not pass; but it lay as quiet as the abominable pool, with which it never mixed. Boats without awnings were too hot to touch; ships blistered at their moorings; the stones of the quays had not cooled for months.
1 Direction.-Students will give the number and names of the syllables, in words of more than one syllable, and tell what rule for the
formation of syllables each letter