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ORAL ELEMENTS COMBINED.

For ỏ, au, eau, eo, ew, oa, oe, oo, ou, ow; as in hautboy, beau, yeoman, sew, coal, foe, door, soul, blow.

For å, a, ou, ow; as in what, hough, knowledge.

For 8, ew, oe, oo, ou, u, ui; as in grew, shoe, spoon, soup, rude, fruit.

For ù, eau, eu, ew, ieu, iew, ue, ui; as in beauty, feud, new, adieu, view, hue, juice.

For ů, o, oe, oo, ou; as in love, does, blood, young.
For ů, o, oo, ou; wolf, book, could.

For ou, ow; as in now.

For oi (ai), oy; as in boy.

II. SUBTONIC AND ATONIC ELEMENTS.

For f, gh, ph; as in cough, nymph.
For j, g; as in gem, gin.

19

For k, c, ch, gh, q; as in cole, conch, lough, etiquette.
For s, c; as in cell.

For t, d, th, phth; as in danced, Thames, phthisic.

For v,f, ph; as in of, Stephen.

For y, i; as in pinion.

For z, c, 8, x; as in suffice, rose, xebec.

For z, g, 8; as in rouge, osier.

For ng, n; as in anger, bank.
For ch, t; as in fustian.

For sh, c, ch, s, ss, t; as in ocean, chaise, sure, assure, martial.

V.

ORAL ELEMENTS COMBINED.

FTER the instructor has given a class thorough drill on the preceding tables, as arranged, the following exercises will be found of great value, to improve the organs of speech and the voice, as well as to familiarize the student with different combinations of sounds. Students will not pass from these exercises until they can utter the elements represented by the figured vowels in whatever order the instructor may require. As the fifth element rep

resented by a, and the third element of e, are always immediately followed by the oral element of r in words, the r is introduced in like manner in these exercises. The sixth sound of a, when not a syllable by itself, is always immediately followed by the oral element of f, n, or s, in words. For convenience, ƒ only is introduced in these combinations.

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81,

òl;

måf, mår, må, må, må, må;
mi, mi; mỏ, mỏ, mỏ; mů,
åf, arm, âm, âm,
im; öm, om, om; ům,

im,

ůb,

dè,

dů,

éd,

id,

gẻ,

gů,

ål;

ül,

3. nå, nâ, nå, når, nåf, nå; nả; ni, ni; nô,

nò,

no; nů,

ång, årng, ång, åf, ẳng, ảng;

ing, ing; ông, ông,

rà, rå, rår, rå,

ông; ủng, râ, rấf; rổ; rủ,

ri,

ri; rò, rò,

gẻ,

gü;

ůg;

je,

jù;

lêr, lê,

ẩm, ám; êmm, ẻm,

jè;

jou.

lè;

lů, lù; lou.

êrl, él,

હા,

él;

ůl, ùl; oul.

mår, mẻ,

mů, mù;

nẻ,
nề,

nů,

ẻng,

ủng,

rẻ,

rů,

ber;

bou.

êrb;

oub.

der;

dou.

erd;

oud.

gër;

gou.

êrg;

oug.

ẻm;

ům, ùm; oum.

mẻ;

mou.

nền, nề;

nů; nou.

êrng, ẻng;

ủng; oung.

rêr, rẻ;

rù; rou.

ORAL ELEMENTS COMBINED.

21

thi,

4. thà, thả, thải, thải, thả, thả; thẻr, thẻ, thẻ;
thì; thỏ, thò, thổ; thủ, thủ, thủ; thon.
åh, áth; åf, àth, arth, åth; 8th, êrth, eth;
ith, ith; oth, oh,
ùth; outh
¡th,
và, vå, vår, vå,
vè, vě;

üth,
vềr, về,
vâ;

vi, vi;

vỏ,

vů,

àv,

ὖν, όν,

wår, wå,

wo,

åv,

åf,

ìv, iv;
wa, wå,

wi,

wi; wò,

5. yà, yå, yi, yi; zou; zů,

νό,

åv,

zềr, zẻ,

ouz; ůz, êrz, ez,

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1. fă, fă, få,
fi, fi; fō,
hår, håf, hå,

hi,
hi; hō,
hĩ;
āk, ǎk, ák,

ik, ik; ōk,

ùz

pā, på, på,

pi,

pī; pō,

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åf,

få,

fŏ,

hå,

ho,

åk,

ŏk,

òth; ůth,
vâf, vả;

på,

po,

vỏ; vũ,
vå;

åv,

Öv; ὖν;

wá,

wo;

årv; érv,

ův, úv,

wåf; wêr,

wù, wů,

yår,

yåf; yè,

yo;

yu,

yů,

zů,

zỏ,

zò;

zår,

zá,

öz,

dz,

årz, áz,

II. TONIC AND ATONIC COMBINATIONS.

zå,

dz;

âz,

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vù; vou.

év,

év;

ův; ouv.

we, wè; wẻ,

wů; wou.

ök; ūk,

ük,

pår, påf; pě,
pū, pů,

po;

yẻ,

yû;

zi,

zå,

iz,

åz,

fě,

fù;

hē,

hủ;

pē,

pů;

yêr;

you.

zi;

zá.

ěs,

ūs;

iz;

tě,

áz.

ēk, erk;

ǎk; ouk. ŭk;

për;

pou.

fêr;

fou.

her;

hon.

2. åf, års, ás,

ås,

is, Is;

ös,

Ŏs,

ous.

tår, tå, tå,

tē;

ǎs, ās; êrs, ōs; ûs, ŭs, tåf, tă, tā; tër, ti, tī; to, to, tō; tū, tů, tů; tou. thảf, thẳr, th, thå, tha, tha; thêr, the, the; ith, ith; ōth, ôth, oth; uth, uth, th; outh. ouch; üch, uch, uch; och, ôch, êrch, ech, ěch; åf, ach, åch,

ōch; ich, ich;

årch, ach,

ach.

és ;

3. chou; chủ, chū, chủ; chỏ, chò, cho; chí, chỉ; chěr, chẽ, chè; chā, chă, chắ, chả, chẳn, chấf. oush; üsh, ush, ush; ōsh, ôsh, osh; ish, ish; êrsh, esh, ĕsh; ash, åf, ǎsh, âsh, åsh, årsh, shou; shů, shŭ, shu; shỏ, sho, shō; shī, shĩ; sher, she, she; shåf, shår, sha, shâ, shă, shå. whou; whŭ, whů, whu; whō, whỏ, who; whĩ, whĩ; wher, whě, whe; whåf, whår, whå, whă, whã, whâ.

ERRORS IN ARTICULATION.

RRORS in Articulation arise chiefly, first, from the omission of one or more elements in a word; as,

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sta'm for storm.
wa'm
wärm.

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bois t'rous"

chick'n

his t'ry

nov'l

trav❜l

Secondly, from uttering one or more elements that should not be sounded; as,

rav ål

sev ån

sof ten

shak ên

shov el

shriv êl

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dânce

påst

åsk

66

gråss

srill

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bois ter ous.

chick ên.

for rav❜l.

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sev'n.

(6 sof'n.

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his to ry.

nov ål.

trav ěl.

Thirdly, from substituting one element for another; as, set for sit. sence 66 since.

for dånce.

66

påst.

shet

(6

shůt.

(6

for gåt.

for gåt cåre

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shak'n.

shov❜l.

shriv❜l.

(( åsk.

gråss.
shrill

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IN

N order to secure a practical knowledge of the preceding definitions and tables, to learn to spell spoken words by their oral elements, and to understand the uses of letters in written words, the instructor will aid the pupil to master the following exhaustive, though simple analysis.

ANALYSIS.-1st. The word SALVE, in pronunciation, is formed by the union of three oral elements; s å v—salve. [Here let the pupil utter the three oral elements separately, and then pronounce the word.] The first is a modified breathing; hence, it is an atonic. The second is a pure tone; hence, it is a tonic. The third is a modified tone; hence, it is a subtonic.

2d. The word SALVE, in writing, is represented by five letters; salve-salve. S represents an atonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the teeth; hence, it is a dental. Its oral element is produced by the same organs and in a similar manner as the first oral element of z; hence, it is a cognate of z. A represents a tonic; hence, it is a vowel. L is silent. V represents a subtonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the lower lip and the upper teeth; hence, it is a labia-dental. Its oral element is formed by the same organs and in a similar manner as that of ƒ; hence, it is a cognate of f. E is silent.

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