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5. VOICE IS PRODUCED by the action of the breath upon the lărynx. 6. ORAL ELEMENTS ARE DIVIDED into three

classes : eighteen TONICS, fifteen SUBTONICS, and ten ATONICS.

7. Tonics are pure tones produced by the voice, with but slight use of the organs of speech.

8. SUBTONICS are tones produced by the voice, modified by the organs of speech.

9. ATONICS are mere breathings, modified by the organs of speech.

10. LETTERS are characters that are used to represent or modify the oral elements.

11. THE ALPHABET IS DIVIDED into vowels and consonants.

12. VOWELS are the letters that usually represent the tonic elements. They are a, e, i, o, U, and sometimes y.?

13. A DIPHTHONG is the union of two vowels in one syllable ; as, ou in our.

14. A DIGRAPH, or Improper Diphthong, is the union of two vowels in a syllable, one of which is silent; as oa in loaf, ou in court.

15. A TRIPHTHONG is the union of three vowels in one syllable; as eau in beau, ieu in adieu.

16. CONSONANTS 3 are the letters that usually represent either subtonic or atonic elements. They are of two kinds, single letters and combined, including all the letters of the alphabet, except the vowels, and the combinations ch, sh, wh, ng; th subtonic, and th atonic.

17. LABIALS are letters whose oral elements are chiefly formed by the lips. They are b, p, w, and wh. M may be

1 Larynx.—The larynx is the up- nant, literally meaning, sounding per part of the trachea or windpipe, with, is applied to these letters and consisting of five gristly pieces combinations because they are rarely which form the organ of voice. used in words without having a vow

?W not a Vowel.—As w, stand. el connected with them in the same ing alone, does not represent a pure syllable, although their oral elements or unmodified tone in the English may be uttered separately, and withlanguage, it is not here classified out the aid of a vowel. Indeed, they with the vowels.

frequently form syllables by them. 8 Consonant.-The term conso- selves, as in feeble (bl), taken (Kn).

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regarded as a nasal labial, as its sound is affected by the

Fand v are labia-dentals. 18. DENTALS are letters whose oral elements are chiefly formed by the teeth. They are j, s, %, ch, and sh.

19. LINGUALS are letters whose oral elements are chiefly formed by the tongue. They are d, l, r, and t. N is a nasal-lingual; y, a lingua-palatal, and th, a linguadental.

20. PALATALS are letters whose oral elements are chiefly formed by the palate. They are g and k. NG is a nasalpalatal.

21. COGNATES are letters whose oral elements are produced by the same organs, in a similar manner; thus, f is a cognate of v; k of g, &c.

22. ALPHABETIC EQUIVALENTS are letters, or combinations of letters, that represent the same elements, or sounds; thus, i is an equivalent of e, in pique.



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the tonics, the organs should be fully opened, and the stream of sound from the throat should be thrown, as much as possible, directly upward against the roof of the mouth. These elements should open with an abrupt and explosive force, and then diminish gradually and equably to the end.

In producing the subtonic and atonic elements, it is important to press the organs upon each other with great firmness and tension; to throw the breath upon them with force; and to prolong the sound sufficiently to give it a full impression on the ear.

The instructor will first require the pupils to pronounce a catch-word once, and then produce the oral element represented by the figured vowel, or italic consonant, four times—thus; åge,-à, å, å, å ; āte,—ā, ā, ā, ā: åt,--å, å, å, å ; ăsh, -ă, å, å, ă, &c. He will exercise the class until each pupil can utter consecutively all the elementary sounds as arranged in the following

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Long and Short Vowels.—The sented by (8 or o) the same marks as attention of the class should be called its regular second power. This mod. to the fact that the first element, or ified or medium element may be prosound, represented by each of the duced by uttering the sound of o in vowels, is usually indicated by a hori. not, slightly softened, with twice its zontal line placed over the letter, and usual volume, or prolongation. It is the second sound by a curved line. usually given when short o is imme

? A Fifth.– The fifth element, or diately followed by f, ft, 88, st, or th, sound, represented by a, is its first as in off, soft, cross, cost, broth; also or Alphabetic sound, modified or in a number of words where short o softened by r. In its production, is directly followed by n, or final the lips, placed nearly together, are ng, as in gone, begone ; lòng, along, held immovable while the student pròng, sỏng, strong, thông, throng, tries to say, ā.

wrong. SMART says, To give the : A Sixth.—The sixth element rep- extreme short sound of o to such resented by a, is a sound interme. words is affectation; to give them diate between a, as heard in at, ash, the full sound of broad a (a in all), and a, as in arm, art. It is produced is vulgar. by prolonging and slightly soften. U initial-preceded by R.-U,

at the beginning of words, when * E Third.—The third element long, has the sound of yu, as in represented by e, is e as heard in ūse. When u long, or its alphabetic end, prolonged, and modified or soft- equivalent eu, is preceded by r, or

the sound of sh, in the same syllaO modified. The modified oral ble, it has always the sound of o in element of o, in this work, is repro- do; as, rude, sure, brew.

ing å.

ened by r.


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VIRST require the student to pronounce distinctly the

word containing the atonic element, then the subtonic cognate, uttering the element after each word—thus : lip, p; orb, b, &c. The attention of the pupil should be called to the fact that cognates are produced by the same organs, in a similar manner, and only differ in one being an undertone, and the other a whisper.

'R trilled.-In trilling r, the tip dent, after a full inhalation, to trill r of the tongue is made to vibrate continuously, as long as possible. against the roof of the mouth. R ? Wh.-To produce the oral elemay be trided when immediately fol. ment of wh, the student will blow lowed by a vowel in the same syl. from the center of the mouth-first lable. When thus situated in em compressing the lips, and then sudphatic words, it should always be denly relaxing them while the air is trilled. Frequently require the stu- escaping.

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ALPHABETIC EQUIVALENTS. THE HE instructor will require the students to read or

recite the table of Alphabetic Equivalents, using the following formula : The Alphabetic Equivalents of A first power are ai, au, ay, e, ea, ee, ei, ey; as in the words, gain, gauge, stray, melee', great, vein, they.

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For å, ai, au, ay, e, ea, ce, ei, ey; as in gain, gauge, stray, melee', great, vein, they.

For å, ai, ua; as in plaid, guaranty.
For å, au, e, ea, ua; as in haunt, sergeant, heart, guard.

For å, au, aw, co, 0, oa, ou; as in fault, hawk, George, cork, broad, bought.

For å, ai, e, ea, ei; as in chair, there, swear, heir.

For è, ea, ee, ci, ei, ey, i, ie; as in read, deep, ceil, people, key, valise, field.

For è, a, ai, ay, ea, ei, eo, ie, u, ue; as in any, said, says, head, heifer, leopard, friend, bury, guess.

For e, ea, i, o, ou, u, ue, y; as in earth, girl, word, scourge, burn, guerdon, myrrh.

For i, ai, ei, eye, ie, oi, ui, uy, y, ye; as in aisle, sleight, eye, die, choir, guide, buy, my, rye.

For i, ai, e, ce, ie, o, oi, u, ui, y; as in captain, pretty, been, sieve, women, tortoise, busy, build, hymn.

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