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ness of mine own person may now at first extenuate the authority of this collection, and that every man is adventurous to control; yet, surely, according to Gamaliel's reason, if it be of weight, time will settle and authorise it; if it be light and weak, time will reprove it. So that, to conclude, you have here a work without any glory of affected novelty, or of method, or of language, or of quotations and authorities, dedicated only to use, and submitted only to the censure of the learned, and chiefly of time.
Lastly, there is one point above all the rest I account the most material for making these rules indeed profitable and instructing; which is, that they be not set down alone, like short dark oracles, which every man will be content still to allow to be true, but in the meantime they give little light or direction; but I have attended them, (a matter not practised, no not in the civil law to any purpose, and for want whereof, indeed, the rules are but as proverbs, and many times plain fallacies,) with a clear and perspicuous exposition; breaking them into cases, and opening their sense and use and limiting them with distinctions; and sometimes showing the reasons above whereupon they depend, and the affinity they have with other rules. And though I have thus, with as good discretion and foresight as I could, ordered this work, and, as I might say, without all colours or shows, husbanded it best to profit; yet, nevertheless, not wholly trusting to mine own judgment; having collected three hundred of them, I thought good, before I brought them all into form, to publish some few; that by the taste of other men's opinions in this first, I might receive either approbation in mine own course, or better advice for the altering of the other' which remain. For it is great reason that that which is intended to the profit of others should be guided by the conceits of others.
'The Camb. MS. has "to publish the first," and afterwards "for the altering of the other two."
1. In jure non remota causa, sed proxima spectatur.
2. Non potest adduci exceptio ejusdem rei, cujus petitur dissolutio.
3. Verba fortius accipiuntur contra proferentem.
4. Quod sub certa forma concessum vel reservatum est, non trahitur ad valorem vel compensationem.
5. Necessitas inducit privilegium quoad jura privata.
6. Corporalis injuria non recipit æstimationem de futuro.
7. Excusat aut extenuat delictum in capitalibus, quod non operatur idem in civilibus.
8. Estimatio præteriti delicti ex post facto nunquam crescit.
9. Quod remedio destituitur ipsa re valet, si culpa absit.
10. Verba generalia restringuntur ad habilitatem rei vel persona.
11. Jura sanguinis nullo jure civili dirimi possunt.
12. Receditur a placitis juris potius quam injuriæ et delicta maneant impunita.
13. Non accipi debent verba in demonstrationem falsam, quæ competunt in limitationem veram.
14. Licet dispositio de interesse futuro sit inutilis, tamen potest fieri declaratio præcedens quæ sortiatur effectum interveniente novo actu.
15. In criminalibus sufficit generalis malitia intentionis cum facto paris gradus.
16. Mandata licita recipiunt strictam interpretationem, sed illicita latam et extensam.
17. De fide et officio judicis non recipitur quæstio, sed de scientia, sive error sit juris sive facti.
18. Persona conjuncta æquiparatur interesse proprio.
19. Non impedit clausula derogatoria quominus ab eadem potestate res dissolvantur a quibus1 constituuntur.
So, I believe, in all the MSS. and editions, and therefore the slip is probably of Bacon's pen.
20. Actus inceptus cujus perfectio pendet ex voluntate partium revocari potest; si autem pendet ex voluntate tertiæ personæ, vel ex contingenti, revocari non potest.
21. Clausula vel dispositio inutilis per præsumptionem remotam vel causam ex post facto non fulcitur.
22. Non videtur consensum retinuisse, si quis ex præscripto minantis aliquid immutavit.
23. Licita bene miscentur, formula nisi juris obstet.
24 Præsentia corporis tollit errorem nominis, et veritas nominis tollit errorem demonstrationis.
25. Ambiguitas verborum latens verificatione suppletur; nam quod ex facto oritur ambiguum verificatione facti tollitur.
MAXIMS OF THE LAW.
In jure non remota causa, sed proxima spectatur.
IT were infinite for the law to judge the causes of causes, and their impulsions one of another: therefore it contenteth itself with the immediate cause; and judgeth of acts by that, without looking to any further degree.
Dy. f. 1, 2.
As if an annuity be granted pro consilio impenso et impenden- 6 H. 8. do, and the grantee commit treason, whereby he is imprisoned, so that the grantor cannot have access unto him for his counsel; yet, nevertheless, the annuity is not determined by this nonfeasance. Yet it was the grantee's act and default to commit the treason, whereby the imprisonment grew: but the law looketh not so far, but excuseth him, because the not giving counsel was compulsory and not voluntary, in regard of the imprisonment.
Litt. secs. 643.
3.4. f. 5. p..
26. 8. f. 2.
So if a parson make a lease, and be deprived, or resign, the successor shall avoid the lease: and yet the cause of deprivation, and more strongly of a resignation, moved from the party himself: but the law regardeth not that; because the admission of the new incumbent is the act of the ordinary.1 2 So if I be seised of an advowson in gross, and a usurpa- 5 H. 7. f. 35. tion be had against me, and at the next avoidance I usurp arere, I shall be remitted: and yet the presentation, which is the act remote, is mine own act; but the admission of my clerk, whereby the inheritance is reduced to me, is the act of the ordinary.
The Cambridge MS. states the resignation it is otherwise; for that 2 Omitted in Camb. MS.
law as to deprivation only; adding: "But of a