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wigs, etc. (See line 95.) 91. “lightest' most fickle, most vain.
97. "guiled” — full of deceit, treacherous. 99. Is “ Indian beauty”
inconsistent with the principal thought in this sentence? Explain.
102. “Midas ” was a king of Phrygia in Asia Minor. Having been
permitted by Bacchus to demand any gift he might wish, he asked
that whatever he touched might be turned into gold. The request
was granteil; but when the food he attempted to eat became gold in
his mouth, he begged to have the boon recalled. The student should
look up the whole story in his text on mythology; John G. Saxe's
poetic version of the myth is also very interesting.

Page 305. 115. “counterfeit” — likeness, portrait. So in Hamlet,
III, iv, 54, “ The counterfeit presentment of two brothers.” 126. “un-
furnished ” — without the other painted eye. 130. “continent”.
that which contains something. 140. "by note ” — according to the
directions in the scroll.

Page 306. 168. “lord”

Page 307. 182. “every something” every cry or shout, which,
considered by itself, means something. 192. Give two possible mean-
ings of “from me.” 194. “ bargain ” — contract, formal plighting of
their troth. 200. “intermission delay, cessation.

Page 308. 219. “very” -- true.

Page 309. 232. “estate " — condition, the state of his affairs.
2:37. Explain the figure by referring to a preceding note. 239.
“ shrewd ” — bad, painful, bitter, spiteful. 258. “ mere” – intense,
absolutely pure, thorough.

Page 310. 272. “confound”. overthrow, destroy. 276. “mag-
nificoes - chief

men of

Venice. 277. “ persuaded ” — argued.
278. “envious ” — hateful, malicious. 289. What must be supplied, in
thought, before “unwearied” to make it also in the superlative degree?

Page 311. 295. “ deface” – cancel, destroy the value of. 308.
“cheer” – countenance. 314. “ Between you and I”. - a grammati-
cal irregularity of the Elizabethan age, which is excused by some
writers on grammar.

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SCENE III

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Page 312. 9. “ naughty” – worthless (worth “nothing”), bad.
19. “ kept ” — lived, dwelt. 27. “ For” because of; “ commodity ”

-commercial intercourse. Shylock was a “stranger” in Venice;
that is, he was not a citizen, as Antonio was,

SCENE IV

Page 313. 2. “ conceit idea, conception. 3. Why “godlike” amity? 7. “lover” — friend; often so in Shakespeare. 9. "customary bounty" ordinary, commonplace kindness or good will. 12. “ waste — spend, no sense of idling away time.

Page 314. 25. “ husbandry” — economy, general oversight. 33. imposition — task put upon any one.

Page 315. 52. "imagined speed ” — the swiftness of imagination. 69. “ quaint” – fanciful, ingenious, cunningly contrived. 72. “I could not do withal” – I could not help it.

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SCENE V

Page 316. 3. “I fear you” – I fear for you. 4. “ agitation” Launcelot means “cogitation,” thinking the matter over. 11. “ Scylla and Charybdis” were mythical monsters, one of whom dwelt on one side of the narrow strait between Italy and Sicily, and the other on the opposite side. In their anxiety to keep clear of either one of them, mariners were in danger of the other. Read Bryant's translation of the Twelfth Book of Homer's “Odyssey.” 20. “enow” — old form of “enough.” 23. “rasher” - a slice of bacon broiled over coals.

Page 317. 43. “ quarreling with occasion” — slighting the business on hand in order to indulge in puns and word-juggling. See also Defy the matter” in line 57.

Page 318. 74. “a stomach” means here an appetite, and also an inclination to do a certain thing: a pun on the word.

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Act IV. SCENE I

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Page 319. 7. “to qualify — to mitigate, to soften. 9. “ And that ” — and since. 10. “envy” – hatred, malice. 20. “ remorse compassion, pity. 26. “ moiety” – part, portion. 29. “a royal merchant' one who has such great wealth as to be honored with some especial title from the court. Page 320. 43. “humor ” — capricious disposition; odd mood or Page 321. 66. “think you question ” — bear in mind that you are conversing with. 73. "fretten ” — fretted, troubled. 78. “conveniency promptitude. 85. “ doing no wrong

46. “ baned ” — destroyed; literally, poisoned. gaping pig” - as roasted entire for the table, and served with a lemon in his open mouth. 49. “ affection” — impulses in general (compare “humor,” line 43). 58. In what sense was Shylock's case “a losing suit”?

manners.

47. “ a

what sort of • wrong” has Shylock in mind? 88. “parts ” — offices, functions, duties.

Page 322. 110. “ tainted touched with disease, or crippled in some way:

Page 323. 125. “for thy life - for permitting thee to live. 127. Pythagoras taught the doctrine of the transmigration of souls. 130. In Europe, down to comparatively recent times, animals were tried in the criminal courts, and were put to death when found guilty. 131. "fell” — fierce, cruel, pitiless.

“ Page 324. 156. “no impediment to let him lack

a Shakespearean double negative. Modern English would be “ let him have.” 163. “ take your place”. i.e. on the judge's bench. 172. “impugn” — fight against, oppose. 173. “ danger” — power, jurisdiction, ability to injure.

Page 325. 177. The peculiar virtue of mercy is free from restraint, is not exercised under compulsion.

Page 326. 207. “ truth” —honesty; a "true" man was one who paid his debts. 216. Daniel ” — the name means “God's judge.” Read the fifth chapter of the book of Daniel.

Page 327. 244. more elder. Double comparatives and superlatives of adjectives are common in Shakespeare. 248. “ balance” a pair of scales. 258. What line in the first part of the scene tells how Antonio was

armed”? Page 328. 278–281. Bassanio's speech is the opposite of “ “ tragic irony”: explain. 290. “Barabbas — see Luke xxiii. 18, 19.

Page 329. 300. Note that Portia does not now consider “the intent and purpose of the law” (240), but she holds Shylock to the very letter of the bond. He is paid back in his own coin.

Page 330. 340. “stay”. wait for.

Page 332. 366. Humble submission on your part may induce me to reduce the penalty to a fine; that is, the half confiscated to the state. Portia decrees (367) that the half due to Antonio cannot be reduced. Page 333. 393. The twelve godfathers would be the twelve jury

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396. An obsolete idiom : express the thought in modern English. 406. This method of “gratifying” (400) a judge was considered the proper thing to do in olden days; “ cope” — requite.

men.

SCENE II
Page 335. 6. “advice reflection, thought.

Page 336. 15. “old ” — used several times by Shakespeare as an intensive adjective; the usage survives in many modern slang expressions, such as “old boy,” “ a high old time,” “any old thing,” etc.

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4. “ Troilus" - one of the sons of Priam, fell deeply in love with Cressida, a mythical daughter of Calchas, a soothsayer. But Cressida, after receiving the attentions of Troilus for a while, jilted him for his enemy, Diomedes the Greek. The myth seems to have been invented by a French trouvère of the twelfth century. Chaucer tells the story in his poem entitled “ Troilus and Cressida,” and Shakespeare has dramatized the tale in his play of the same name.

7. Pyramus and Thisbe were mythical lovers of Babylon, whose parents forbade their marriage. Determined to elude the vigilance of their friends, they appointed a place of meeting beyond the walls of the city. Thisbe came first, but, affrighted by a lion, fled to a cave, in her flight dropping her veil, which the lion seized and besmeared with his bloody mouth. When Pyramus arrived he discovered the stained garment, and, supposing Thisbe had fallen a prey to some wild beast, he, overwhelmed with grief, stabbed himself. Thisbe, returning, found her lover dead, and in despair killed herself with the sword he had used.

Page 337. 10. Dido, it is said, was the founder and queen of Carthage, the ancient city on the Mediterranean coast of Africa. Æneas, a Trojan hero, on his way to Italy with a company of colonists, driven by stress of weather into the port of Carthage, was kindly received by Dido, who would have married him ; but, obeying the mandate of the gods, Æneas sailed away with his ships, leaving her despondent and forlorn. 13. After Medea had helped Jason to secure the Golden Fleece, she fell in love with him and he took her with him to his native Greece. His father was so aged that he could not assist at the solemnities and rejoicings held in honor of Jason's successful adventure. By means of a broth made of enchanted herbs, Medea renewed the old man's youthful vigor and vivacity. 23. “outnight you” — have a woman's last word. 31. “holy crosses ” — set up by the roadside and in sacred places invite the passers-by to devotion.

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Page 338. 47. “his horn”- the postman carried a horn on which he blew blasts to announce his coming. Launcelot, who is bringing the news, imitates the postman by crying, “Sola !” etc. 57. “ touches”

notes. 59. “ patines - small plates, usually of gold, used in serving the wafer or bread at the celebration of the Lord's Supper. 61. See Job xxxviii. 7, and learn what you can about the old belief in the music of the spheres. Page 339. 62. 6

quiring choiring, singing. Why “youngeyed” cherubins? 66. “ Diana,” i.e., the moon, which had gone behind a cloud. 77. “mutual” – by common agreement. 78. “ savage” - wild; “modest ” — docile. Compare Congreve's line :

“Music has power to soothe the savage breast.”

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80. “ Orpheus was the son of Apollo, from whom he received a lyre. He could play so skillfully that rivers ceased to flow, mountains and trees moved from their places to listen to his music. Orpheus refused to play at one of the orgies held in honor of Bacchus, and he was torn to pieces by infuriated mænads. 87. “Erebus”. -the realm of darkness.

Page 340. 99. “ without respect without considering circumstances. 109. “ Endymion a beautiful shepherd youth, with whom the goddess of the moon fell deeply in love. Not wishing to have a mortal know that she loved him, she caused Endymion to fall into a deep sleep, during which she visited and caressed him.

Page 341. 121. “tucket”. a trumpet. 127. We should have daylight when the Antipodes have it, if you would come abroad at night. 132. “sort” — allot, dispose of.

Page 342. 147. “cutler's poetry verses inscribed or engraved upon swords, the blades of knives, etc. 154. “respective ” — careful, considerate. 60. “scrubbed stunted in growth.

Page 343. 175. “I were best” — it would be best for me. 199. “contain - keep, retain in possession.

Page 344. 208. “civil doctor”. a D.C.L., doctor of civil law. 214. “enforced” — obliged, under moral obligation. 215. “shame' - at being thought ungrateful; “ courtesy’ the desire to show gratitude. 218. The same figure is used in “ Macbeth ” : “ There's husbandry in heaven; their candles are all out;” and in “ Romeo and Juliet”: “ Night's candles are burnt out, and jocund day stands tiptoe on the misty mountain tops.”

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