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Americans numbered 1500, and their loss was about 450. 458. The reference here is to General Lafayette, who was present. Compare the paragraphs addressed to Lafayette with those addressed to the “VENERABLE MEN” who had died before this date. Which probably had the greatest effect on the audience? 465. eulogy. 470. What is meant by “ measures of devotion”? What similar expression is found in Lincoln's “ Gettysburg Speech”? 472. How was Lafayette “connected with both hemispheres ”? How with “two generations”? 474. Show the force of the figure.

Page 197. 485. redoubt. 500. Why was their “commendation" thought “ feeble”? 505 ff. What was the speaker's thought? Why did he express it so indirectly at first ? 508. Quoted from the Latin poet, Horace, “ Late [after a very long life] may you return to heaven.” Do the thoughts suggested by the presence of Lafayette have any close relation to the author's principal line of thought ? Where does he take up his main idea again?

Page 198. 522. Compare Tennyson's lines in "Locksley Hall”: “ Yet I doubt not thro’ the ages one increasing purpose runs,

And the thoughts of men are widen’d with the process of the suns." 528. community. 531. How has knowledge overcome these things that formerly kept nations apart? 533. bigotry. 545. marts. 550. diffusion. What is the central thought in this paragraph ?

Page 199. 568. What is the present opinion regarding the use of labor-saving machinery ? 573. adequate. 577. What would be the attitude of a general audience, such as Webster was addressing, toward a discussion of industrial progress? Why did he change to a political subject? 583. canvassed.

Page 200. 584 ff. Why are such discussions as these necessary to advancement in a free government? 587. What is meant by “the closet” ? 588. The battle of Waterloo was fought June 18, 1815. 602. rotation. 606. celerity. These statements refer to the great French Revolution and the events which succeeded it. Look up the French Revolution in some good history, or the encyclopedia, and compare the conditions which preceded it with those that preceded the American Revolution. In what respects were the two revolutions alike? Different? Refer to Lincoln's statement in regard to revolutions. 616. What circumstances had compelled the American colonies to exert a great amount of self-control ?

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Page 201. 617. paramount. 627. Explain the expression “an honest prejudice.” 632. rapacity. What is meant by

66 the ax? Show that in this paragraph the first part is balanced, in thought, against the second part. 635. imputation. Note this tribute to the power of the Christian religion, although Webster himself was not a very ardent Christian. 643. What does Webster mean by “the popular principle”? What statement in the Declaration of Independence gives us the fundamental principle of popular government? How did Lincoln interpret that principle ?

Page 202. 650 ff. Which would be of greater value to a nation great territory or great ideas ? Why? 655. prerogative. 662. Why is it impossible for a representative system of government to succeed without general knowledge on the part of the people? 673. Louis XIV was king of what country? What kind of ruler was he? 679. What are some of these “other opinions”? 681. manifest. 682. Compare President Cleveland's epigram, “A public office is a public trust.” Which is the better way of stating this truth?

Page 203. 687. What two things proceed from the material sun which correspond to “ Life and power” as used here? 689. “ unnatural clouds and darkness” symbolize what political or governmental conditions ? 693. Ajax. One of the most noted and courageous of the Greek heroes who took part in the Trojan war. next to Achilles in rank and was famous for his size, strength, and bravery in personal encounter. What is the purpose of the quotation? Why is this method of concluding a paragraph effective in an oration ? 695. What plan of very recent times was intended as a step toward securing the “permanent peace of the world ” ? 696. Explain “family alliances,” and illustrate from history. 697. dynasties. 702. Give reasons why peace is the greatest “interest ” of the world. 709. Give examples of governments that have “the most unlimited forms of authority.” 711 ff. The Greek Revolution, in which the people of that country sought to win their independence from the Turks, began in 1821 ; the leading nations of Europe interfered with armed forces in 1827, and the independence of Greece was acknowledged in 1829. This war attracted the attention of the English poet Byron and many other high-spirited men of that time. Compare the conduct of the European powers during the last war between the Greeks and the Turks. Give an instance in which our own government executed " the system of pacification” by force. 714. pacification.

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Page 204. 727. To what country did the people “look for instruction” in the matter of building the monument ? 734 ff. Explain the figurative expressions in the last sentences of this paragraph. 738. inherent. 746. Can you give any reason for Spain's continual losses of colonial possessions ?

Page 205. 752 ff. What is still characteristic of the governments of the South American countries? their sentiments on “religious toleration”? and public education? 759. exhilarating. 763. commodities. 767. salutary. 765 ff. Should these lines constitute a separate paragraph, as here, or be used as the conclusion of the preceding paragraph ? 774. subjugation ; monopoly. 776. Explain “visible above the horizon.”

Page 206.782. See Genesis i. 14-18 for the inspiration of this figure. 789. “ the great drama of human affairs ” — compare Shakespeare's lines :

“ All the world's a stage, And all the men and women merely players.”

- As You Like It, Act II, Scene II.

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792. compatible. 796. propagandists. 796-799. For example, many people think that the colonial government of Great Britain is much more advantageous to the countries over which it has been extended, than a republican form of government would be in those same countries. This contention was the principal cause of the late war between Great Britain and the Transvaal Republic. In what case did our government take the same view ? 802. incumbent. 803. consistency. What is meant by “this cheering example”? Have we faithfully performed this duty so far? 812. knell. Page 207. 818. How may occasional variations

» be brought about in a popular government? What changes have occurred in the character of our government since Webster's time? 825. devolved. 831. What greater laurels were won by our country in the Spanish War of 1898? S33. Solon. A noted Greek statesman who instituted many reforms in the Greek government, in the sixth century B.C. 834. “ Alfred,” called “the Great” was a learned and powerful king of Britain during the last half of the ninth century A.D. He united the petty kingdoms of England into one nation, and established many judicial and educational reforms. The greatness of the kingdom dates from his reign.

Page 208. 854. What is the especial fitness of the last sentence of the oration? What is the general thought in the last five paragraphs ? Show that the concluding paragraph is an eloquent summary of all the speaker's preceding thoughts. How does the style of this oration differ from that of an essay or a lecture? Why is this difference a necessity ?

COMPOSITIONS

“ The Battle of Bunker Hill.” Brief, patriotic mention of events that led up to this battle — vivid description of the conflict — effects of the battle, on the British, on the Americans, on the world. Write in the loftiest, most imaginative mood of mind and feelings.

“ The Bunker Hill Monument.” Look up a description of the monument - find out when it was begun, the laying of the corner stone, when it was dedicated — why the monument was built.

“Our Greatest Glory.” Recall a number of the difficulties under which our country became a nation - mention some things in which wonderful improvement has taken place during our national life, and of which we are justly proud — emphasize the fact that our greatest glory is not our industrial and commercial advancement, but the preservation of the principle of free government through the education of the masses of the people. Remember that in delivering a declamation, you must believe sincerely and feel intensely what you are saying, if you would impress your thoughts upon your audience, however large or small it may be.

“ Monuments More Enduring than Marble.” Speak of the various impressions a monument produces -- give a summary (in your own words) of Webster's thought in regard to the perpetuity of the affections of the people for certain places, events, and persons — how heroism, greatness of thought, etc., secure lasting fame, of which a statue or monument is only a symbol.

“The Power of Oratory.” Picture the scene at the laying of the corner stone of the Bunker Hill Monument - the assembled crowd, the speaker, his appearance, the power of the words — is the power of oratory declining?

“ The Heroes of the American Revolution.” 66 The Ties that Bind.”

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SELF-RELIANCE

(Abridged)

I READ the other day some verses written by an eminent painter which were original and not conventional. The soul always hears an admonition in such lines, let the subject be what it may. The sentiment they instill is of more value than any thought they may contain. 5 To believe your own thought, to believe that what is true for you in your private heart is true for all men that is genius. Speak your latent conviction, and it shall be the universal sense ; for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost, and our first thought is 10 rendered back to us by the trumpets of the Last Judgment. The highest merit we ascribe to Moses, Plato, and Milton is that they set at naught books and traditions, and spoke not what men but what they thought. A man should learn to detect and watch that gleam of 15 light which flashes across his mind from within more than the luster of the firmament of bards and sages. Yet he dismisses without notice his thought, because it is his. In every work of genius we recognize our own rejected thoughts; they come back to us with a certain 20 alienated majesty.

Great works of art have no more affecting lesson than this. They teach us to abide by our spontaneous impression with good-humored inflexibility, then most when the whole cry of voices is on the other side. Eise to-morrow a stranger will say with 25

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