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from Middle English " gossomer," literally "goose-summer" (in dialectic speech, “summer-goose” or “summer-gauze ”), on account of the downy quality of the film and the time of its appearance.

187. Why does the Mariner notice the woman first? 190. What does “ free mean here?

192. What does “white as leprosy” express? Of what is “ leprosy” a symbol ? Why is it suggestive here? 193. nightmare. The second part of the word is not mare," "a horse,” as is often supposed. It is from an Anglo-Saxon word, “mara,” an imaginary demon supposed to cause the feeling of oppression, or of a crushing weight, during sleep." Explain the significance of the name “ Life-in-Death.” 194. thicks. 196. What does the casting of dice symbolize? 197. What does the winning of the game signify in regard to the Mariner's fate? 199. Why does she whistle “ thrice"? 200. It is said that this line is true to the fact of the almost instantaneous darkness after sunset in tropical climates. Why does the poet represent this “specter-bark” as appearing and disappearing at this time of the day? 201. "far-heard whisper” explain. 203. Why did they look “ sideways”? 204–205. What is the figure? What is the most expressive word? What is the effect of this figure after one has a clear idea of its meaning? 206 f. Notice how few words are used to present the scene. 209. What is meant by • the eastern bar "? 210. When is the moon “horned”? 211. Would it be possible to see a star • within ” the tip of the moon? What superstition about the first sight of the new moon is still common ? 212. Explain the star-dogged moon.” 215. Why did they not speak their curses? Which way of cursing is the more effective? 216 f. What caused the death of these men ? Why did they all die in such rapid succession? What are the most expressive words in this account of their death? Why did not the ancient Mariner die also ? 223. Why should the dying of these men recall to his mind the whizz of his cross-bow ?

PART IV

What is the purpose, topic thought, or subject of this Part ? What lines carry the reader's thoughts back to the beginning of the poem? Is this Part chiefly narration or description? What is the effect of the incident at the close ?

224-229. Who speaks these words? Why is the Wedding Guest afraid now? Why does the author introduce these interruptions?

INTROD. LESS. IN ENG. LIT. – 9

a

227. Mention the good points in this comparison. 234. Why the reference to “ a saint”? 235. Why is there no mention of his physical pain? Why was his “soul” in agony? 239. What is the implied thought in “so did I”? 241. Why could he not bear to look upon the sea? 244. Why could he not look at the dead men ? 245. What does “or” mean here ? 246. What do you suppose this wicked whisper" was? Why could he not pray? 249. What caused his eye-balls to beat “ like pulses”? 250 f. Can you give any natural explanation of these lines ? 252. Note the tragic force of the fact that those who had died because of his wrong-doing were constantly before his eyes. 253. Can a “ dead” body sweat? What does “melted” mean here? 257–260. What is the double comparison ? How does it add force in describing “ the curse”? 261. Why just “ seven ” days? Why seven “nights" also? 262. Why could he not die? Did he wish to die? 263. That is the artistic effect of returning to the mention of the moon at this point? How does the nature scene compare with the feelings of the Mariner? 268. What does “like April hoarfrost spread” modify? 270. Why “the charmed” water? This takes the thought back to what preceding lines ? 271. Was this a natural or a supernatural phenomenon ?

274. Often the surface of the sea in warm regions is filled with myriads of minute animals, chiefly of the genus Noctiluca, which when disturbed by any body passing through them give out a bright, phosphorescent light, very much like that of the common firefly, or “ lightning bug.” This fact may offer a natural explanation of the mysteriousness of these lines in the poem. Would you prefer to think this a supernatural occurrence ? 275. What is the force of “elfish” here? 282–287. What preceding lines express the opposite feeling on the part of the Mariner? 288. Why could he pray now? 290. Why does the Albatross now fall off? Should we not expect that it would float on the water, instead of sinking “like lead”? If so, why does the poet picture the scene as he does ? Do you expect the punishment of the Mariner to end here?

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PART V

What are the supernatural occurrences in this Part? What blessings came to the Mariner? What remarkable change takes place in the bodies of the sailors ? What did the weird actions of the sailors

roar

and the magical music foretell in regard to the Mariner? How does the close of this Part keep the reader's curiosity “on edge”?

292. Why is “sleep” the most natural thing to think of now? 293. Express from pole to pole” in other words; is there a gain or loss in effect? 294. “Mary Queen ” refers to whom? 296. Is the word "slid” well chosen ? 297. In Anglo-Saxon the word “saelig," from which “silly” is derived, meant “ blessed”; but “silly,” during the passing of centuries, has taken on various meanings, such as “simple, innocent, helpless," and its modern applications. Which of these meanings would apply best here? Why does the Mariner receive the

grace of Heaven? 299. Why should the Mariner dream of such a thing as this? 301. Compare line 157. 303–304. How do you explain these two lines ? 305–308. Was there any reason for this sensation, or is it simply one of the many extraordinary things spoken of in this poem? 308. “ghost” means what here? 311. How could the “ ing wind” shake the sails “with its sound” without coming near ? Why should the Mariner imagine all these things after he has had a good sleep and has satisfied his thirst? 314. What were the “ fire flags ” ? 317. Why were the stars “wan ”? Between what did the stars dance in and out? Is the ship moving, or is it still becalmed? 319. Why is the figurative expression “sigh like sedge,” very expressive? 322. ff. Form a clear mental picture of the scene here described. 324–326. What kind of lightning is meant ? Does the implied comparison in line 326 add anything to the picture ? 328. What caused the ship to move on now? 331–334. Notice the simplicity of these lines; yet how vivid the picture! Were the dead men fully restored to consciousness ? 345. Why is the exclamation of the Wedding Guest so brief here? 349. Why did “spirits blest” now inhabit these bodies instead of the souls that had left them? 350. What had they been doing with their arms? 351. What was their purpose in clustering around the mast at dawn? 352. Why were they uttering these sweet sounds ? How many comparisons does the poet use in attempting to give an idea of these sweet sounds ? Why is the last a fitting climax? 367. What caused the sails to make this pleasant noise? 370. What is the force of “ leafy” as a modifier of “month”? 371. Do plants actually sleep, or is this merely a figure of speech? 379. What “spirit” is meant? 383. Where is the ship now? 386. Is this the usual motion of a ship? 390. Is there any reason for this sudden motion of the ship? Does a real ship ever move forward in such a way? 393-394. What was the ship doing all this time? 396. Why represent the Mariner as hearing these voices in “his soul”? What does each of the two voices represent? Do these two principles always have a part in determining the fate of one who has done wrong? 404–405. How do these lines prepare the reader for the conclusion that is to follow? 407. Explain “honey-dew.” Refer to Portia's speech on Mercy in Act IV of Shakespeare's “Merchant of Venice.” 408. What penance had the Mariner already done?

PART VI

Why is the dialogue between the voices not concluded in Part V? How much of the Mariner's penance is now represented as finished ? How is his penance renewed ? For what did he hope ?

411. Notice the liquid smoothness of this line. Can you tell how the effect is produced ? 414. What does “ Still” mean here? 416. Explain “his great bright eye.” 419. How does the moon guide the ocean? 424. Is this natural or supernatural? What would be the effect if such a thing could happen naturally? 427. Why would they be “ belated”? 430. Can you think of any reason for having the ship sail slowly and smoothly now? 433. How does the Mariner's penance now begin anew ? Refer back to line 351. 435. What previous reference to a dungeon has the poet used ? 436. Why were their eyes “stony”? 441. Compare line 244 ff. 442. What “spell” is meant? 443. Is green the usual color of the ocean? Compare lines 130 and 271. 446. Where in the poem is there a comparison quite similar to this one? What are the two elements of this comparison? Was any “frightful fiend” pursuing the Mariner? 452-457. Was such a wind natural, or does the author only speak of it in this way in order to make it seem supernatural ? 459. How does this line prepare the reader for the close of the poem ? 465–466. Compare the order with that given in lines 22–24. 468. Why

6 We”? 470–171. Why does he utter this prayer? 473. What does “strewn” mean here? 478. Explain “steeped in silentness." Would people ordinarily think of this way of speaking of quiet weather? What makes the poetic expression so impressive? 472-480. This wonderful appearance attracted his attention while something even more wonderful

was happening on the deck. 482. What were these “ shadows"? 488. Refer to line 434.

does he say

494. How do you interpret this line ? 496. To whom, or for what purpose did they wave their hands? 499. Notice the beauty of the comparison. Why could not the companions of the Mariner land with him ? 502. Why “perforce”? 506. Why was the Mariner so happy now? What fact seemed to point to complete happiness for him? Observe in the last Part if the hope expressed in lines 512-513 was ever fulfilled.

PART VII

What lines tell why the Ancient Mariner told his strange story to the Wedding Guest? Why did he stop only one of the gallants? What was the effect of telling the story - on the Wedding Guest ? on the Mariner? What impression with regard to the Mariner remains with the reader ?

516. Is the word “rears” appropriate? Compare “ reared” in line 275. 517. “ Marineres” is an old spelling of “mariners.” The stanzas relating to the Hermit serve what purpose at this point in the poem? Where is the thread of the story taken up again? 524-526. Who speaks these words? 525. What “lights” are meant ? 5:33. What are the elements of likeness in the things compared ? 535. “ ivy-tod,” a clump or bush of ivy. 536–537. What feeling is produced by these lines? Is it in keeping with the feelings of the Hermit at this time? 538. What is the force of the neuter pronoun ? 515-519. Have we expected that this queer ship would ever reach the shore as ships usually do? Was this noise caused by an earthquake, or was it some supernatural occurrence? 548. How could a sound “split the bay”? 551. What is the syntax of this line? 553. Is it always just “ seven days” before the body of a person who has been drowned comes to the surface ? 554. Why is the figure “swift as dreams” particularly good ? 559. How was the hill “ telling of the sound”? 560 ff. Why did the Pilot shriek, and the Hermit pray, and the Pilot's boy go crazy? 575. What did crossing the brow indicate ? 586. How does “ night” pass from land to land? Is the comparison extreme? 590. Why does the poet have the Mariner give the reason for his telling this strange tale at the end of the poem instead of at the beginning of it? 591 ff. What do these lines tell about the wedding? 597–600. Is this stanza to be taken literally, or figuratively, or both. Explain 601-609. Why is worship now so sweet to him?

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