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in the two other ideas I have discussed, we find both philosophy and madness. It is easy to distinguish philosophical loyalty from enthusiastic and mad loyalty ; and here, too, I must insist upon an eclectic reconciliation. Philosophically-minded men of the present day define loyalty to be nothing but obedience to law, allegiance to constituted authority. We are told that if men respect the law of the country and those who administer it, they may be regarded as thoroughly loyal subjects. I confess this philosophical recognition of abstract law and justice does not satisfy my heart. A Hindu of Hindus, I demand something more, something that will not only satisfy the intellect, but also the sentiments and emotions of the heart. Is loylaty a principle or a sentiment ? Evidently it is both. Philosophy deals with the former, and madness with the latter. Philosophy prevents loyalty from degenerating into obsequiousness and vassalage. Madness prevents its soaring into the regions of abstraction. Let us then combine both philosophy and madness in loyalty. I will recognise law, I will respect the authority of the magistrate and the judge. I will help the maintenance of good government and order. But the heart is not satisfied until loyalty takes the form of a personal sentiment. Truly is this the case with us, descendants of the ancient Hindu race, For centuries and ages past the Hindus have been habituated to look up to the sovereign with enthusiastic feelings of loyalty. Loyalty in the Hindu mind is a deep sentiment of personal love and attachment to the head of the government. (Applause.) The Hindu loves his Rajah with intense devotion. His loyalty is raj-bhakti, or love towards the sovereign. The Hindu householder loves the father as the head of the house, and affectionately


obeys his authority; so he loves his sovereign as the father of the state, and obeys him such. That the sovereign is the father and mother of the subject population is essentially a Hindu idea, witness the Hindu scriptures and the enthusiastic demonstrations of gushing loyalty in Native States. The Hindu idea is also the right idea. It is most conformable to nature. Let misguided theorists deny it, let heartless votaries of abstraction protest ågainst it. I emphatically say that the human heart naturally turns to the sovereign as the father of the people. (Applause.) He may not be the best of men, his administration may not be perfect, yet the people are loyal to him, as the child is loyal to the father regardless of his demerits and unworthiness. No amount of reasoning can shake this strong feeling in the human breast towards him who is the lawful guardian of the state. The unperverted natural heart cannot rest upon a political fiction. Loyalty shuns an impersonal abstraction. It demands a person, and that person is the sovereign, or the head of the state, in whom law and constitutionalism are visibly typified and represented. We are right then if our loyalty means not only respect for law and the Parliament, but personal attachment to Victoria, Queen of England and Empress of India. (Applause.) What makes loyalty so enthusiastic is not, however, the presence of purely secular feelings, but of a strong religious sentiment. By loyalty I mean faith in Providence. It is this faith which gives loyalty all its sanctity and solidity, and establishes it in the individual heart and in society as a holy passion, Do you not believe that there is God in History? Do you not recognise the finger of special providence in the progress of nations ? Assuredly the record of British rule in India is not a

chapter of profane history, but of ecclesiastical history. (Cheers.) The book which treats of the moral, social, and religious advancement of our great country with the help of Western science, under the paternal rule of the British nation, is indeed a sacred book. There we see clearly that it is Providence that rules India through England. (Applause.) Were you present at the magnificent spectacle at Delhi, on the day of the assumption of the imperial title by our sovereign ? Some men have complained that no religious ceremony was observed on the occasion, and indeed opinion is divided on this point. None, however, can gainsay the fact that the whole affair from beginning to end was a most solemn religious ceremony, and I rejoice I am privileged to say this

in the presence of our noble-hearted Viceroy. Was any devout believer in Providence present there ? To him I appeal. Let him say whether the Imperial Assemblage was not a spectacle of deep moral and religious significance. Did not the eye of the faithful believer see that God Himself stretched His right hand and placed the Empress' Crown upon Victoria's head ? (Loud cheers.) And did he not hear the Lord God say unto her,—“Rule thy subjects with justice and truth and mercy, according to the light given unto thee and thy advisers, and let righteousness and peace and prosperity dwell in the Empire ?” (Applause.) Would you characterize this sight and this sound as à visionary's dream? Is there no truth in the picture? Who can deny that Victoria is an instrument in the hands of Providence to elevate this degraded country in the scale of nations, and that in her hands the solemn trust has lately been most solemnly reposed ? Glory then to Empress Victoria! (Applause.) Educated countrymen, you are

bound to be loyal to your Divinely-appointed sovereign. Not to be loyal argues base ingratitude and absence of faith in Providence. You are bound to be loyal to the British Government, that came to your rescue, as God's ambassador, when your country was sunk in ignorance and superstition and hopeless jejuneness, and has since lifted you to your present high position. This work is not of man, but of God, and He has done it, and is doing it, through the British nation. As His chosen instruments, then, honor your sovereign and the entire ruling body with fervent loyalty. The more loyal we are, the more we shall advance with the aid of our rulers in the path of moral, social and political reformation. India in her present fallen condition seems destined to sit at the feet of England, for many long years, to learn Western art and science. And, on the other hand, behold England sits at the feet of hoary-headed India to study the ancient literature of this country. (Applause.) All Europe seems to be turning her attention in these days towards Indian antiquities, to gather the priceless treasures which lie buried in the literature of Vedism and Buddhism. Thus while we learn modern science from England, England learns ancient wisdom from India. Gentlemen, in the advent of the English nation in India we see a re-union of parted cousins, the descendants of two different. families of the ancient Aryan race. Here they have met together, under an overruling Providence, to serve most important purposes in the Divine economy. The mutual intercourse of England and India, political as well as social, is destined to promote the true interests and lasting glory of both nations. We were rejoiced to see the Rajahs and Maharajahs of India offering their united homage

But we

to Empress Victoria and her representative, at the
Imperial Assemblage. Far greater will be our re-
joicing when all the chiefs and people of India shall
be united with the English nation, in a vast Inter-
national Assemblage, before the throne of the King
of Kings and the Lord of Lords! (Loud cheers.)
May England help us to draw near to that con-
summation, by giving us as much of the light of
the West as lies in her power! That is her mission
in India. May she fulfil it nobly and honorably !
Let England give us her industry and arts,
her exact sciences and her practical philosophy, so
much needed in a land where superstition and
prejudices prevail to an alarming extent.
shall not forget our ancient sages and Rishis. Ye
venerable devotees of ancient India! teach us medi-
tation and asceticism and loving communion. Let
England baptize us with the spirit of true philosophy.
Let the sages of Aryan India baptize us with the
spirit of heavenly madness. Let modern England
teach hard science and fact; let ancient India teach
.sweet poetry and sentiment. Let modern England
give us her fabrics ; but let the gorgeous East lend
her charming colors. Come then, fellow-countrymen
and friends, and accept this divine creed, in which
you will find all that is goodliest, fairest and sweetest,
based upon a foundation scientific, strong and sound,
a creed in which truth and love are harmonized. Let
us have only fifty young men from our Universities,
trained in science and philosophy, and baptized with
the spirit of madness, and let these men go forth, as
missionary-soldiers of God, conquering and to con-
quer, and in the fulness of time the banners of truth
shall be planted throughout the length and breadth
of the country. (Loud cheers.)

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