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no doubt aware, flooded the world with manifold errors and mischievous theories and doctrines, and led to a plentiful crop of philosophical, theological, political and social evils, which it is painful to contemplate. You know how by wholly denying the reality of matter, men and entire communities have plunged themselves into the vortex of idealism and pantheism. Thousands, on the other hand, by denying mind have run into godless materialism. Others again, whose faith in the very foundations of philosophy was overturned by the shocking results of these two schools, rallied under the banners of undisguised scepticism ; while a fourth school, driven away by a sort of panic, took shelter at last in the aerial citadels of mysticism, far above the reach of human reason, and there revelled in wild fancies aud reveries. We find the philosophy of the world divided into sensationalism, idealism, mysticism and scepticism ; and the history of ancient and modern philosophy is nothing but a record of the mutual struggles of these four contending schools. Have their protracted struggles come to an end ? Does peace prevail in the camp of philosophy ? You will scarcely deny that these are not questions of mere speculative and psychological importance. Round them gather our deepest moral and social interests. For each school has in the end gone beyond its legitimate province in the domain of philosophy, and encroached upon all departments of human speculations and practices. In the world's religions and politics, in social morals and ästhetics, in the church, in society and at home, you see the harmful influence of misguided schools of philosophy. You know that materialism and scepticism have gone so far as to eat into the vitals of society, and sap the very foundations of faith and

morality. You know, too, how the mystics have banished reason altogether from their speculations as an unwelcome intruder, eschewed all active work as evil, and retired into the dark chambers of the heart to be wrapped up in a dreamy sort of existence. How can all this be remedied ? If these philosophical schools quarrel and perpetrate mischief in more ways than

one, is there no court of appeal to settle their differences ? The highest court of appeal is Common Sense. As the great eclectic philosopher of France very justly says,

we must start from common sense, and return to common sense under pain of extravagance.” Yes, common sense is the highest appellate court in philosophy, as it is also in law and in the ordinary affairs of life. As soon as the matter was referred to common sense, it at once saw that all the evils in the philosophical world arose from doubts and disputes about the reality of certain objects, which demanded immediate and spontaneous assents, and it conclusively decided that the Ego, the Non-Ego and the Infinite were all realities, and must be believed as such. Such authoritative verdict silenced all cavilling; and the bark of philosophy, tossed and torn by the waves of contending opinions, at last entered the tranquil haven of a simple yet important truth. No great discovery was made. All that was established was the fact that neither self nor the external world nor God is unreal. And yet this simple truth was the salvation of the philosophical world. To these three realities rational philosophy offers unquestioning homage, and the world is pretty generally agreed that they shall always be recognised as indisputable first truths, which none can gainsay. Thus it has been settled by an appeal to common that every man must be true and faithful to himself, to the world, and to God, and recognise each as a


real entity. Whatever his opinions and theories may be in regard to the constitution and essence of these tliree realities, every man is bound to believe that each of them exists as a reality, the two finite realities, mind and matter, being dependent upon the Absolute and Unconditioned Reality, the Infinite. We need not be philosophers in order to understand and accept this doctrine of the threefold reality. What has been decided after centuries of lost abstruse and recondite speculations and controversies, we all admit instinctively. There is the world before us, all real, perfectly true, no illusion. Here am I, perfectly real, and no illusion. And over-head the Infinite God is a terrible and most tremendous reality. To these three realities then, recognised alike by the sage and the untutored savage, philosophy must always bow with reverence.

Such is the deliverance of philosophy concerning the doctrine in question. Now let us apply to it the principle of madness. The verdict of philosophy may be corroborated by an appeal to ancient sages and devotees. What do they say ? They say that God is real, and the world has no business to trifle with the reality of the Intinite, to set the reality of matter and self above the sacred reality of the Godhead. This, then, is the offence with which civilization has been charged, and verily the accusation is not unfounded. Sure it is that one of the realities has been dishonored and underrated, while the two others have been magnified. If the world believes in God, it gives Him only a feeble and half-hearted allegiance, often forgets or disregards Him, and practically ignores His reality, while in the service of self and matter it is most loyal and enthusiastic. The men of the world are mad for riches, outward refinement and the pleasures of the senses. For material wealth and material


prosperity, for selfish enjoyments and selfish honors they are terribly mad. In matter and self they are all immersed. The question naturally suggests itself, Why should not men be equally mad for God ? (Cheers ) I do not stand up here to protest against the madness of the world. All that I mean to say is that the same amount of madness must be exhibited in things spiritual as is evinced in things material. If men believe that without enthusiasm nothing can be done, if it be actually the case that enthusiasm is essential to success in all worldly undertakings, why should not the same argument hold good in - the higher concerns of the spirit ? If is devoted to self and the world, he should in all fairness pay equal attention and attach equal importance to the Godhead. The treasures of heaven must be amassed with that assiduity and zeal which characterizes the pursuit of gold and the acquisition of worldly riches. Why should God be less real to us than matter or self? Why should there be less love for heavenly than there is for worldly things ? Every man believes that the world is real. Every man believes that there is something unspeakably real and charming in the glittering rupee ! The miser takes it and presses it to his bosom, and says " Ah ! dear little thing !” He sacrifices everything for it, and does not even hesitate to risk his health and life. Why should not man then sacrifice his all for the Infinite ? Surely there is madness enough in our temporal concerns. I wish it would direct its course through other channels as well, and reach the sacred concerns of eternity. (Applause.)

If philosophy, as you have seen, has thoroughly assured us that Divinity is quite as real as matter and self, nay more real, surely our daily life and

character must bear out that conviction. Boldly apply your philosophy to practical life, and show that you are at least as true and devoted to God as you are to self and the outside world. When this is done, harmony will appear in all your speculations and practices. How noble, how beautiful and symmetrical is life when this philosophical triad of realities is recognised with fidelity in practical life ! There is no discord, no anomaly, no inconsistency, no hostility. If I said to you,—go and follow the Infinite, denying matter and self, that would be asking you to become pantheists, and drown yourselves in the vast sea of illusion. My language is different. I do not exhort you to deny anything, not even the least among earthly things. What I denounce is that exclusive worldly madness which rides rampant on all sides, and kills religion and morality. Equally hostile am I to that exclusive religious frenzy which hates the world as altogether unreal and ignores self as a fiction, and gives itself up to dream and delusion. Do not accuse me of exclusivism. It lies rather on the side of the world. I plead not for fanaticism ; I plead for harmony and " method in madness." All the world has gone mad. Mad for what ? For riches and honor, and the pleasures of the senses. Will nobody stand up in this enlightened age, and loudly and vehemently protest against this blind and one-sided madness? Will nobody lift his voice, and say to the advancing surges of this violent mania and frenzy of ungodly worldliness,—"No further, no further. Rollback to the great reality of Godhead, so long neglected and ignored.” (Cheers.) All that we have to do in this age is to turn the tide of the world's devotion more and more towards the point where the three realities converge. In so doing we do not

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