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8. How does Bain account for the fact that the same mind will at different times maintain irreconcilable propositions unawares ?

9. From Bain's account of the nature and origin of the consciousness of Time, it appears that Time possesses all the characteristics of an a priori form?

Bain's mode of dealing with the consciousness of Space is different ? 10. Describe Jevons method of Indirect Inference.

If there be n terms with their contradictories under investigation, how many combinations have to be considered ?

11. How does Mr. Monck show that a synthetical affirmative proposition implies existence ?

This truth enables us to explain the nature of an infinite proposition ? 12. What is Bain's opinion of the nature of Inference ?

1. Hamilton and Jevons differ with respect to the word by which the nature of the Inductive process ought to be described ?

Show that in a certain sense Jevons may be correct, but that in a deeper and more important sense Hamilton is correct.

Mill agrees with Hamilton ?

2. How does Hamilton divide philosophers according to the mode in which they treat the fundamental fact of consciousness in Perception ?

Bain's criticism on the meaning popularly attributed to the statement, that the sun exists, shows that Hamilton, if consistent, should have been a Kantian in reference to Perception.

How does Bain himself differ from Kant on this point ?

Bain, though not Kant, is open to Hamilton's criticism on all philosophers not Natural Realists ?

3. Hamilton states that there is an important distinction to be made as regards the evidence given by a fact of consciousness. In criticising Kant's theory of the Ego, Hamilton neglects this distinction altogether?

4. What are the two fundamental Forms of Internal Perception, according to Hamilton ?

Kant would admit only one of these—why?

5. How does Hamilton describe the theories of External Perception held by Epicurus and by Descartes ?

6. How does Hamilton show that Conation must be determined by Feeling, not Cognition ?

7. What, according to Mill, are the two distinguishing characteristics of external objects ?

How does the notion of a substratum of qualities arise ?

8. How do the original elements of mind come to light, according to Mill?

The correctness of his statement does not involve the incorrectness of Cousin's theory as to the order of precedence of psychological questions, though it may involve the incorrectness of Cousin's subsequent procedure ?

9. How does Mill show that Hamilton had no right to bring, as an objection against any particular Theory of Primary Qualities, that it was subversive of natural beliefs ?

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10. What does Mill regard as the really important difference between Brown and Hamilton on the subject of Perception ?

11. How does Mill account for the fact that pleasures and pains are considered as subjective rather than as objective ?

12. What is Mr. Monck's hypothesis as to the genesis of Hamilton's propositional forms ?

A simpler hypothesis seems to account more satisfactorily for Hamilton's results ?

CLUFF MEMORIAL PRIZE EXAMINATION.

MR. BARLOW.

A.

I. Gaufridus de Belloloco asserts that St. Louis “cum secretas literas alicui familiari mittebat, et ex causa aliqua volebat supprimere nomen regis, Ludovicum de Poissiaco, sive Dominum Poissiaci se vocabat." What was his reason for thus describing himself ?

2. What account does he give of the regulations made by Louis for the benefit of the sailors in his ship during long voyages ?

3. “Quomodo Rex Franciae et Barones in portu Callaricano Sardiniae congregati consilium habuerunt adeundi Tunicium, et de rationibus propter quas Rex concessit illic ire.” What account does Gulielmus de Nangiaco give of this discussion?

4. What account does Gaufridus give of the reason which induced Louis to go to Tunis ?

5. At the commencement of the war between Louis and Henry of England, in 1242, Louis addressing his nobles observes—“Veruntamen neque ipsum neque suorum vires pertimesco, sed tantum juramentum patris mei in Anglia confirmatum." What was this " juramentum confirmatum?

6. Matthew Paris continues -- " Et cum super hoc inconsolabiliter ingemuisset, dixit ei unus Magnatum suorum, eleganter consolans eum hoc modo What was this ingenious consolation ?

7. Matthew Paris describes a certain lady as one-"quae pignora sua, quasi altera Niobe, gloriando poterat intueri.” Who was this?

8. “Tibi igitur haec promittenti commendo habenas Regni mei Franciae gubernandas." To whom did Louis, when starting on his first crusade, address these words ? Write a short account of his progress from Lyons to Marseilles.

9. We are told that while Louis was staying “in communitione Cesareae,

,quidam miles nobilis et strenuus de Regno Francorum oriun. dus, additus est paganorum exercitui, et factus apostata formidabilis." What is this story?

10. Most historians assign as the cause of the king's return to France from Palestine, the death of the regent Blanche. Matthew Paris assigns quite a different reason ?

11. What account does he give of the entertainment of Henry III. in Paris by Louis, in 1254?

12. What attempts were made by the bishop of Paris and Blanche to dissuade Louis from going on his crusade? How did Louis evade their arguments ?

13. Give an account of the proceedings against “vir illustris Engelramus Cociaci toparcha.”

14. The Confessor of Queen Margaret finds instances of the “viva fides” of St. Louis—(a) in his compact with the Saracens, (6) in his conferring of knighthood, (c) in his laws against blasphemy?

15. He relates a strange story of the king's kindness to the leprous monk Leodegarius in the abbey Regalismontis ?

16. What instances does he give of the king's leniency in his treatment of his domestics?

17. On the death of Raymond Beranger IV., in 1245, what steps were taken by Louis with respect to Toulouse and Provence ?

B.

1. What, according to Gulielmus de Nangiaco, is the significance of the “liliatum signum Regis Franciae," and from what danger was it saved by St. Louis ?

2. What was Louis' short and easy method of controversy with the Jews ? What reason does he assign for adopting it, and what instance does he give of its use in practice ?

3. What account does Joinville give of the landing at Damietta ?

4. Write a description of the military engines used in Egypt during the first crusade of St. Louis ?

5. Who were “ les Bahairiz du Souldan" ?

6. “Et voians les Sarrazins que le Roy ne vouloit optemperer à leur demandes, ilz le menasserent de le mectre en bernicles." What were these?

7. “Mais par autre voie ilz [les Turcs] nous firent tres-grant mal et dommaige, de ce qu'ilz bouterent le feu par tous les endroiz de la Soulde.” Explain this passsge.

8. At the funeral of the count Walter de Brienne in the church of the Knights Hospitallers at Acre, “ le Roy offrit ung cierge, auecques ung bezant des deniers de Madame de Secte, dont chacun s'esmerueilla." Explain.

9. Give some account of “ung Religieux qui auoit nom Frere Yues le Breton, qui estoit de l'Ordre des Freres Prescheurs.”

10. With respect to the privileges of Ambassadors (messagiers), Joinville says that to

en Paiennie y a une tres mauuaise coustume. What was this, and why does he refer to it?

11. Explain the following passage :-“Tng autre cheualier moult noble vint au Roy, durant qu'il estoit à Cesaire, qui se disoit estre de ceulx de Coucy ... et que l'Empereur de Constantinople et ses gens se allierent une foiz d'un Roy, qu'on appelloit le Roy des Commains, pour auoir leur aide pour conquerir l'Empereur de Grece, qui auoit nom Vataiche."

12. What account does Gulielmus Carnotensis give of (a) the behaviour of the Saracens to Louis after the murder of the Soldan; (b) the king's proceedings at Sidon ?

13. What instance does he give of Louis' power of predicting events ?

14. What were the arguments of certain “ de consiliariis” in defence of the usury of the Jews, and how did Louis reply to them ?

15. Gulielmus Carnotensis gives some remarkable anecdotes of the “innata humilitatis virtus” of the king, as shown in his “ opera erga pauperes"?

16. Explain the following phrases :-“més le Roi” “qui ont voirie en leur terre,” “ il est a son pain,” “essoines resnables," "cil qui doit lige estage."

17. “Gentishome tient sa vie ce que l'en donne à porte de monstier en mariage, aprés la mort sa feme, tout n'ait il hoir, pour qu'il en ait eu hoir qui ait crié et bret.” Explain this.

THEOLOGICAL EXHIBITION EXAMINATION.

REGIUS PROFESSOR OF DIVINITY.

Theophilus of Antioch.

Ι 1. What is the earliest date that can be assigned to the work ad Autolycum ?

2. What other works is Theophilus said to have composed ? Which of them are referred to in this treatise ?

3. Translate :

(α) ει γάρ τώ ηλίφ ελαχίστω όντι στοιχείω ου δύναται άνθρωπος ατενίσαι, διά την υπερβάλλουσαν θέρμης και δύναμιν, πως ουχί μάλλον τη του Θεού δόξη ανεκφράστη ούση άνθρωπος θνητός ου δύναται αντωπησαι. ον τρόπον γάρ ρόα, έχουσα φλοιόν τον περιέχοντα αυτήν, ένδον έχει μονας και θήκας πολλές διαχωριζομένας διά υμένων, και πολλούς κόκκους έχει τους εν αυτή κατοικούντας" ούτως ή πάσα κτίσις περιέχεται υπό πνεύματος Θεού, και το πνεύμα το περίεχον συν τη κτίσει περιέχεται υπό χειρός Θεού. ώσπερ ούν και κόκκος της δοάς ένδον κατοικών ου δύναται δράν τα έξω του λέπους αυτός ών ένδον ούτως ουδέ άνθρωπος εμπεριεχόμενος μετά πάσης της κτίσεως υπό χειρός Θεού, ου δύναται θεωρείν τον Θεον.

(3) έτι μην ενίοτε και στρούθιον, και των λοιπών πετεινών, καταπιών σπέρμα μηλέας, ή συκής, ή τινος ετέρου ήλθεν επί τινα λόφον πετρώδη, ή τάφον, και αφόδευσε, κακείνο δραξάμενον ανέφυ δένδρον, το ποτέ καταποθεν, και διά τοσαύτης θερμασίας διελθόν. ταύτα δε πάντα ενεργεί η του Θεού σοφία, εις το επιδείξαι και διά τούτων, ότι δυνατός εστιν ο Θεός ποιήσαι την καθολικήν άνάστασιν απάντων ανθρώπων.

(c) ιδού ημέρα έρχεται Κυρίου ως κλίβανος καιόμενος, και ανάψει πάντας τους ασεβείς. ήξει γάρ οργή Θεού ως χάλαζα συγκαταφερομένη βία, και ως ύδωρ σύρον εν φάραγγι.

4. Translate the following :-
(α) εν αισθήσει άβυσσοι ερράγησαν, νέφη δε ερρύησαν δρόσους.
Whence are these words taken ?
(0) ουδε το τυχόν έναυσμα άξιόν τι της αληθείας εξειπον.
(c) ως ο τρυγών επί τον κάρτελλον αυτού.

5. What is the Septuagint rendering, cited by Theophilus, of the passages

(α) “ There is bdellium and the onyx stone."
(6) “God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam.”
(c) “He shall bruise thy head.”
(d) “A fugitive and a vagabond”?

6. When Theophilus speaks of the Trinity, under what names does he speak of the Second and Third Persons ? In what does he find a type of the Trinity ?

7. What answer is to be made to the question whether Theophilus taught the Eternal Generation of the Son ?

8. How does he interpret the words εν αρχή εποίησεν ο Θεός τον ουρανόν και την γήν ?

9. In what language does he speak of the inspiration of Moses ?

10. What passage in the second Epistle of Peter does he seem to employ ?

11. Whom does he count as the last of the Jewish prophets ?

12. What etymologies does he give of the name Deucalion, and of the words θεός, χριστιανοί ?

Anti-Pelagian Treatises of Augustine. 1. Translate :(a) Attendite etiam quae sequuntur: 'Hoc, inquit, et de auditu, odoratu, vel visu sentiri possibile est, quod audire, odorari, videre potes tatis nostrae sit; posse vero audire, vel odorari, vel videre potestatis nostrae non sit, sed in naturali necessitate consistat. Aut ego non intelligo quid dicat, aut ipse. Quomodo enim in potestate nostra non est videndi possibilitas, si in potestate nostra est non videndi necessitas, quia in potestate est caecitas, qua id ipsum videre posse nobis, si volumus,

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