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3. Discuss some of the Stoic Paradoxes. Mention some of the illustrations used by the Porch.
4. What are the twelve private Moral Virtues, as Aristotle hath devised" ?
5. Why does Aristotle mention Aeschylus, the Megarians, Milo, the Spartans, the Celts, Thetis ?
6. Define dúvauis, mádos, é žus. Virtue must be one of these ?
7. Give Aristotle's analysis of the Will. What does he mean by το φαινόμενον αγαθόν ?
8. What circumstances may occasion Involuntary Ignorance ?
1. How does Stewart define an Active Principle ?
What classification does he give of these Principles, and how does he state the characteristics of the two most important ?
2. What are the three modes which, according to Stewart, have been devised for accounting for the origin of Evil ?
How does Stewart show the beneficial tendency of partial evils ?
On what grounds does he conclude that the amount of human misery and vice is overrated ?
3. If Free Will be denied, what is the only sense in which an action can be said to deserve punishment ?
How does Butler show that the data of Consciousness are opposed to the view of merit and demerit required by the theory just mentioned ?
4. There are two ways, according to Butler, in which the subject of Morals may be treated ?
The first of these methods is possible only through the medium of the second ?
5. How does Butler explain and justify the statement that Virtue consists in following Nature ?
6. Butler declines to inquire how far, and in what sense, Virtue is re solvable into Benevolence; but observes that Benevolence and the want of it, singly considered, are in no sort the whole of Virtue and Vice. How do the two questions differ?
How does Butler establish his assertion ?
7. If the dictates of Conscience and Self-love seem to be opposed in any particular case, how does Butler decide which should prevail ?
8. What do we mean by the Character of a Man, according to Butler ?
Can the existence of character be reconciled with the merit or demerit of actions—and if so, how ?
How do those who regard Virtue as conduct calculated to promote Happiness differ from the Epicureans ?
The primary question at issue between them and a follower of Butler with respect to Virtue is the same as that which Butler states to have been debated with the Epicureans ?
In reference to the practice of Virtue, Epicureanism is free from a difficulty belonging to the theory mentioned above ?
10. How would Stewart and Butler define Virtue ?
Hutcheson differed from Butler in reference to the actions which may be regarded as virtuous ?
On what fact is Hutcheson's theory founded ?
1. Describe Fizeau's method of measuring the velocity of light by means of a toothed wheel.
2. Explain how the equation
represents a vibratory motion, and explain what a, T, and to are.
3. How is refraction explained by Huygen's principle of the production of a primary wave by the combination of a number of secondary waves ?
4. Why do not light waves go round corners as well as sound waves ?
5. Explain the uses of the slit, collimator, prisms, and telescope in a spectroscope.
6. Describe an experiment to show that a string can vibrate in a series of loops and notes.
7. Explain why the wave length of the fundamental note of a stopped organ pipe is four times the length of the pipe.
8. Describe an optical method of comparing the vibrations of tuningforks.
9. What is the effect of two similar waves being transmitted in opposite directions along a string ?
10. Describe an experiment to illustrate the interference of sounds.
1. Find the expression for the temperature indicated by the weight thermometer. Does it indicate the same temperature as that shown by the ordinary one, with which it agrees at zero and boiling point?
2. Describe any non-chemical hygrometer, and show how to calculate the weight of a volume of moist air, and how to obtain the necessary data by observation.
3. State what you know about the spheroidal condition.
4. How did Regnault find the coefficient of the increase in pressure of a given volume of air due to increase of temperature ? What correction of Boyle's law did he find to be required on comparing the results with those giving the coefficient of expansion of air (at constant pressure) due to increase of temperature ?
5. Explain the principles on which an absolute thermometric scale can be constructed. Why is it called “ absolute”' ?
6. State Faraday's theory of induction. What was his ice-pail experiment?
Why did he go to live in a cubical box ?
7. Make (and explain) a diagram to show the potential along the whole course of a circuit in which there is a battery-all particulars supposed known.
8. Give the quantitative laws of induced currents in terms of the tubes of magnetic force. What is Lenz's law of induced currents ? Can it be derived from any more general principle ?
9. Show how the electromotive force of a battery is connected with the energy due to its chemical action. How is the heat distributed in the circuit ?
10. Give Ampere's theory of magnetism; and explain, on that hypothesis, the rotation of currents by magnets, and of magnets by currents.
DR. EMERSON REYNOLDS.
1. Given one gram of ammonium nitrate, find the volume (at 15° C. and 750 mm.) of nitrous oxide it can afford.
2. How would you illustrate the law of definite proportions ?
3. Point out the natural relations of the members of the group of halogens.
4. How is the basicity of an acid determined ?
5. How is hydrofluoric acid prepared ? Why is the atomic weight of fuorine said to be 19 ?
6. By what means can nitric acid be completely converted into ammonia ? Explain the method fully.
7. How would you demonstrate the composition of ammonia gas ? 8. Trace the products of the reaction of nitric with hydrochloric acid.
9. Explain the action of hydrogen peroxide on silver oxide and on lead sulphide.
10. Define the terms Atomicity, Atom, Acid, Salt.
DR E. PERCEVAL WRIGHT.
1. Describe the first appearances presented by the chlorophyl granule.
2, State what you know as to the division the nucleus.
10. Describe the inflorescence, flower, and fruit in any Angiosperm, naming it.
1. On what principles does Professor Huxley base his classification of Carinate Birds ?
2. Describe the muscular arrangements concerned in the act of perching.
3. How would you distinguish the skull of a Crane from that of a Heron ?
4. Describe the development of a feather.
7. Describe the arrangement of the movable bones in the skull of a poisonous Snake.
8. What are the principal forms of the exoskeleton in Reptilia ?
9. What are the modifications of the alisphenoidal and orbitosphenoidal regions in the skulls of Reptiles ?
10. How are the ribs articulated to the dorsal vertebræ in the Crocodile ?
1. Give an account of the character and pontificate of Gregory the Great.
2. Sketch the history of the successful and glorious middle period of the reign of Heraclius.
3. What battles were fought in the course of the Mahometan conquest of Persia ? What were the circumstances of the death of the last of the Sassanides?
4. Relate the story of the death of Hosein.
5. Give an account of the second siege of Constantinople by the Arabs.
6. What, according to Gibbon, were the principal causes of the decline and fall of the empire of the Caliphs ?
7. Speaking of Frederic Barbarossa in Northern Italy, Gibbon says, “ The fabric of oppression was overthrown in a day.” Explain.
8. Mention what you know of the proceedings of Otho III. in Italy.
9. What were the general causes which prevented the German Emperors from obtaining a stable dominion in Italy?
10. “Falcandus wrote with the feelings of a patriot, and the prophetic eye of a statesman.” What were the historical circumstances in which he wrote, and what were the events which more than fulfilled his prophecies?
1. “I will spin her such a thread as she will not easily unravel.” To whom is this saying attributed, and to what does it refer?
2. Who was the last of the Merovingians who invaded Italy? Against whom was his expedition directed ?