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For Greek Hexameters :

In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
A stately pleasure-dome decree :
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
Through caverns measureless to man

Down to a sunless sea.
So twice five miles of fertile ground
With walls and towers were girdled round:
And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills
Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree;
And here were forests ancient as the hills,
Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.

And from a chasm, with ceaseless turmoil seething,
As if this earth in fast thick pants were breathing,
A mighty fountain momently was forced :
Amid whose swift half-intermitted burst
Huge fragments vaulted like rebounding hail,
Or chaffy grain beneath the thresher's fail :
And mid these dancing rocks at once and ever
It flung up momently the sacred river.
Five miles meandering with a mazy motion
Through wood and dale the sacred river ran,
Then reached the caverns measureless to man,
And sank in tumult to a lifeless ocean :
And 'mid this tumult Kubla heard from far
Ancestral voices prophesying war!



1. Enumerate the reasons advanced for denying the common authorship of Iliad and Odyssey.

2. How does Professor Geddes propose to solve the problem ?

3. What books of the Iliad have been most generally regarded as additions ? On what separate grounds ?

4. Give an account of the critical marks in the Cod. Ven. Marc. A. What is the position of this ms. in the Homeric controversy ?

5. What texts had the Alexandrians at their command ?

How do the citations of Homer in the classical writers agree with our text?

6. Assuming the Iliad to consist of several lays, what various theories have been proposed to account for its present unity ?

7. Recent critics have asserted that there are three distinct dialects in the poems. State these, with examples of forms from each.

8. What is Fick's recent theory to account for these ? What other explanations have been offered of these facts ? 3. Discuss the variations in the alleged dates for Homer.

10. Give the full catalogue of the works ascribed to Homer by the Ancients. What early authority is there for some of the lesser poems ?

11. What is remarkable about the Hymn to Ares, and about the Hymn to Pan?

12. What is Kirchhoff's analysis of the Odyssey ? 13. What examples of false archaism are quoted by Mr. Sayce and by Mr. Monro ?

14. What general account of the Digamma is given by Mr. Monro ? Compare it with Mr. Sayce's account.

15. Quote the famous personal passage from the Delian Hymn. Discuss our authorities for the text of this passage.

16. What is Mr. Paley's view of the Homeric question ? By whom has this theory been recently supported in its most exaggerated form ?

17. How far does the society described in the poems agree with that of historical Greece ?

18. What Greek tragedies do we know to have been derived from our text?

Cite Aristotle's remark on this subject. 19. Discuss the evidence for the Commission of Peisistratus. 20. What light has been thrown on the Iliad by Dr. Schliemann's discoveries?

21. Enumerate the references to other bards in the poems.

What instances have been quoted of “deliberate silence” in the poems ?



1. What was Bentham's distinction between what was unconformable to experience in specie and in toto ? Explain the bearing of the distinction on questions of proof.

2. Distinguish the different kinds of approximate generalizations.

3. Give a clear account of the points at issue between Mill and Whewell as to the nature of the inductive process.

4. How does Mill attempt to show that mankind have not been unanimous in thinking that the action of matter upon matter was not conceivable, or that the action of mind upon matter was ?

s. What part of the principle of Conservation of Force is Statement of Fact, and what part is hypothesis? Does the principle in either part apply to the interaction of mind and matter, or of mind and mind

Suppose that all motion became converted into heat, and then an equi. librium of heat were established, in what sense would the principle of Conservation still hola

6. “The Law of Causation.... is but the familiar truth that invaria. bility of succession is found by observation to obtain between every fact in nature and some other fact which has preceded it."

How near is this “familiar truth” to being true? What would be required in order to make it true? Does the fact that it is not true affect Mill's reasonings as to the source of the principle of the Uniformity of Nature ?

7. How does the principle of the Uniformity of Nature differ from the principle of Causality as to source, vidence, objective certainty, ersality?

8. “In the case of the thousand balls (the announcement being always either 'black' or 'white'), if white was not drawn, and there was a false announcement, that false announcement must have been 'white.'

What assumption (not criticised by Mill) makes the case here put wholly unfit to represent all cases of coincidence; for example, of testi


9. State precisely the probability of a statement resting on the testimony of two witnesses of the respective credibility a and b, the antecedent probability of the statement being P, and that of its being incorrectly

made q.

1. Explain the reasoning by which Butler proves that in case of conflict a positive precept must give way to a moral one.

In stating the strictly logical' way of viewing the matter, guard against the objection that there must be good reasons for the positive precept, and that our not seeing them makes no difference.

Also explain precisely the force of the remark that positive institutions are means to & moral end.

Why is this strictly logical view not applicable to practice ?

2. How would you deal with the objection that the positive precept is unambiguous and clearly applicable to the case in question, while the very generality of the moral precept makes us more liable to error in applying it to the particular case ?

3. What is meant by an action materially' or 'formally' virtuous ? How does Butler use the distinction in discussing the relation of selfdenial to discipline ?

4. Give fully the proof that the perception of good and ill desert gives an explicit sanction to the dictates of the moral faculty.

5. What argument as to the nature of living beings is founded on the facts of bodily growth and change?

6. Kant compares the approach of finite beings to perfection with that of a curve to its asymptote, to which it is always coming nearer while it can never meet it. In what connexion, and for what purpose, does Butler express the same thought ?

7. In vindicating against Shaftesbury's objection the notion of discipline by hope and fear, Butler shows that from the nature of things such discipline must result in a moral character and in happiness. Develop the argument. What similar consideration from the nature of things does he use in proving that virtue is rewarded, and vice punished ? 8. The unsolved difficulty in connexion with freedom, it is said, is this : if the motives on one side have a force of the amount 12, and on the other side 8, then it seems as if the former must prevail as irresistibly as a weight of 12 lbs. against one of 8. Show from considerations which Butler supplies where the fallacy of the illustration lies; and that the use of it in fact involves a petitio principii.

9. Butler says that one man is not to be reckoned more compassionate than another, merely because the principle of compassion in the former is in itself stronger, if it is not stronger relatively to other principles. Consider what is meant by a comparison of the absolute strength of mental principles in different persons.


Candidates are requested to begin each answer on a new leaf. 1. What are the systems of Anaxagoras, Empedocles, and Heraclitus ? What is the relation of Anaxagoras to Protagoras and Socrates ?

2. Give an account of Neo-Platonism. 3. What is the meaning of transcendental in Kant? What is his 'transcendental proof? How far is it logical ?

4. What are the three divisions of the Critick of Pure Reason? Give plainly the logical result of each. On what supposition are they based ?

5. Pure Reason is related to objects in two ways. Show what these


6. Do you agree with Professor Bain that all propositions are finally analytic, or not? Give fully the reasons for your opinion.

7. What relation is there, if any, between Hartley and Kant ? Give fully the reason of your answer.

8. Exhibit in a table the possible theories of Space. What is the history of Kant's own opinions on that subject ?

9. Give Mill's view of Mathematics so as to bring it into direct collision with that of Kant, noting carefully the points of antagonism.

10. Define and exemplify the following terms:-pure, a priori, metaphysical exposition, transcendental exposition, universal, necessary, analytic, synthetic, imagine, conceive. Where did Kant get the term transcendental ?

1. Discuss fully the question whether 7 + 5 = 12 is analytic or synthetic. What is Mill's view on this point ?

2. How far would Mill agree with Kant as to the nature of relations ? What consequences can be deduced from Mill's doctrine ?

3. State in a systematic form the various theories of the Syllogism 4. State accurately in what particulars Kant is indebted to Locke.

5. Contrast Locke's “Categories" with those of Mill. On Kant's principles, how would you criticise both generally?

6. Give fully Locke's argument for the existence of God ? How far would Mill assent to the process ? Give your reasons.

7. What is Locke's Method ? Explain clearly what he means, and show how far he has been misunderstood. 8. What is Locke's account,

(a) of Infinity;
(b) of Power;

(c) of Cause? 9. State fully Mansel's views on

(a) the Ego;
(6) Substance;

(c) Cause. 10. Mansel quotes Müller as to the function of the nerves in Sensa. tion-on what point ? He quotes Descartes and Royer-Collard on the Ego, and Destutt Tracy on Voluntary Movement—to what effect ?


1. State exactly what experience teaches in reference to the connexion of motives and character with actions.

A partial fulfilment of the Law of Causality is sufficient to determine the position in time of every given event, and is likewise, in the case of actions, sufficient to satisfy the data of past experience ?

2. What, according to Mill, is meant by saying that a science is not an exact science ? How does Mill show that the impossibility of establishing any


approximate empirical laws of effects is no valid ground for disbelieving in the universality or simplicity of the ultimate laws on which they depend ?

3. One of Descartes' fundamental principles is regarded by Mill as the result of an a priori fallacy?

What was most probably the origin of the principle alluded to ? 4. The Art of Morality, according to Mill, is dependent both on a Philosophia Prima and on a subordinate science : what is the business of each ?

5. What are the fundamental attributes of Intelligence as stated by Bain ?

How does he describe the characteristic of the Intellectual Sensations ?

6. By what general principle does Bain account for the existence of Sympathy ?

The same principle enables him to account for a curious desire which some persons are supposed to have ?

What is the difference, according to Bain, between the Ideal and the Actual ?

7. How does Bain show that an acute ear for oratorical effect is an obstruction to the acquirement of a new language?

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