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1. Write out a primary classification of Aves, including fossil forms, and give definitions.

2. Describe the arrangement of the muscles connected with the nicti. tating membrane in the eye of a Bird.

3. Describe the skeleton elements in the hind limb of a Bird.

4. Enumerate, and indicate the positions of, the principal feather tracts in a Bird.

5. Describe the digestive canal of the Common Fowl, and mention the principal variations obtaining in different groups of Birds.

6. Contrast the pelvis of a Bird with that of an Alligator. 7. Enumerate the elements contained in the carapace of a Chelonian. 8. Give a concise description of the skull of a Crocodile. 9. Describe the structure of the heart in the Turtle. 10. Contrast the shoulder girdle of a Chelonian with that of a Lizard.

Modern History.



1. Give a short history of the city of Lyons from the time of Louis IV. to its final union with France.

2. Discuss the historic doubt respecting Agnes Sorel. To whom ought, perhaps, a part of her credit to be transferred ?

3. When and how did the Guelf party at Florence acquire a final ascendancy? By what law was this ascendancy signalized ?

4. What were the (so-called) Ordinances of justice at Florence? When and by whom were they introduced ?

5. How was Charles VIII. enabled to set up a claim to Naples ? An Italian ruler excited him to the enterprise, and in doing so overlooked an important fact ?

6. What members of the House of Hapsburg held the Imperial dig. nity before 1485? Has the succession been continuous in that House since then ?

7. What were the nature and functions of the Imperial Chamber? When and by whom was it established ? What was the Aulic Council ?

8. What was the difference in general character between the feudal system in France and in England, and the reasons of this difference ?

9. What special causes tended to produce the gradual development of our Constitution ? During what reigns was most done for the consolidation of British freedom ? State particulars.

10. What are the historical instances of a Regency, and what is the constitutional doctrine on the subject ?



1. According to Hallam, the chief political error of Charlemagne arose out of one of his finest qualities ?

“From his reign we may date the systematic rivalry of the French and English monarchies.” Who was the King of France here spoken of, and what was the date of his accession ? What involved him in hostilities with England ?

3. Who was the wife of the Duke of Orleans murdered by John Sans

peur ?

4. Who was the Lady of Beaujeu ? Who was her political rival ? 5. Who were the principal candidates for the hand of Anne of Brit


6. What was the first ground of the action of Frederic I. against the Lombard cities?

7. What was the date, and what the object, of the Council of Lyons ? By what pope was it convoked ?

8. Who were the Ammoniti at Florence ?

9. What was the first Italian city which took a pride in architectural magnificence ? Mention some of the monuments of this pride.

10. What was the seigniory of Venice ? 11. What was praetaxation in the Germanic Constitution ? 12. What strikes us as strange in the list of the German Electors ? 13. Whence dates the connexion betweeu Hungary and Austria ?

14. The Anglo-Saxon texts which have been supposed to refer to the jury belong rather to another institution ?

15. What was the trinoda necessitas ?

16. “ The heir of the house of Cerdic had been set aside at the election of Harold.” Who was he? Trace his descent from Alfred.

17. What does Hallam mention as the earliest authority for the responsibility of ministers to parliament ?

18. How does it appear that even in the time of Edward III. the succession to the throne was supposed to be confined to the male line ?

19. Were the Lancastrian kings usurpers ?

20. An altercation between the two Houses in 9 Henry IV. affords “perhaps the earliest authority for two eminent maxims of constitutional law”?



1. Give the history of Edwin, fifth Bretwalda. What was the Tufa ?

2. A letter from Charlemagne to Ethelheard, Archbishop of Canterbury, is so honourable to the writer that Dr. Lingard transcribes a part of it. What is the subject of the letter ?

3. What account does Dr. Lingard give of Ethelwulf's pilgrimage to Rome? What important events took place in England during his absence?

4. In the reign of Alfred “neither birth, nor friends, nor power, could save the corrupt or malicious judge.” Several instances of this rigorous treatment of unjust magistrates may be found in the Miroir des Justices ?

5. Who was Olaf Tryggvason ? 6. Compare the characters of Alfred, Louis IX., Charlemagne, and Edward I.

7. What circumstances led to the quarrel between Harold and his brother Tostig ?

8. What account does Lingard give of the slave trade in England during the Anglo-Saxon period ?

9. What are the principal theories which have been proposed to account for the origin of trial by jury in England ?

10. Point out the most important differences between the original Magna Charta and the ninth of Henry III.


1. What was the battle of the Maserfield ?
2. Who was Quendreda the wicked ?
3. Date of the battle of Brunanburh ?

4. What was “the last struggle of Northumbrian independence," and what was the result?

5. Who was Godric of Croyland ?
6. What were the limits of “the king's peace"?
7. Describe the “ordeal by hot water.”
8. What was a “hlothe"?
9. What were “ assizes of darreign presentment”?
10. Meaning of “constabularius” in Magna Charta ?

II. • Monopolies in general are against the enactments of the Great Charter.” How does this appear ?

12. What are the material portions of the Confirmatio Chartarum, 25 Ed. I. (Creasy) ?

13. When was the modern form of creating a peer by Letters Patent introduced ?

14. When was the title of Parliament first given to the Great Council of the nation ?

15. What are the advantages of the “Bicameral System” (Creasy)?

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1. Write a note on the formation of plurals of substantives in fourteenth century English.

2. Mention some of the chief differences in the conjugation of the verb between the northern and southern dialects.

3. Explain the following passages :
(a) “Ther heo is wel with the kyng, wo is the Reame !

For heo is Fauerable to fals, and fouleth Treuthe ofte.
Barounes and Burgeis, heo bringeth to serwe,
Heo Buggeth with heore Iuweles; vr Justises heo schendeth.
Heo lihth ageyn the lawe, and letteth so faste,
That Feith may not han his forth, hir Florins gon so thikke.
Heo ledeth the lawe as hire luste, and love-dayes maketh,

The Mase for a Mene mon, thaugh he mote euere.(6)

Mekill pride was thare in prese,
Both on pencell and on plate,
When the bare rade with-outen rese

Unto Cane the graythest gate.' (c) “Notheless, by commyxstion and mellyng furst with Danes and afterward with Normans, in menye the contray longage ys apeyred, and som useth strange wlaffyng, chyteryng, harryng and garryng, grisbittyng.”

4. Translate the following sentences :

(a) Geynest under gore; (b) “ Brihtest under bys"; (c) “She gaspeth with a drechinge onde."

5. What account does Mandeville give of “the begynnyng of Machomete"?

6. Relate “how Galahad got him a shield, and how they sped that presumed to take down the said shield.”

7. Give an account of the battle which was begun “by misadventure of an adder."

8. Give the meaning of the following words—taches, umberere, jesseraunt, besaunt, covin.


1. Explain the origin of verb, and preposition.

2. What is the essential character of the pronoun, according to Whitney?

3. Explain the origin of the following compounds : harbour, neighbour, threshold, leman.

4. How do you account for Chaucer's accenting the final syllable of gladness, and Spenser's accenting the final syllable of shallows ?

5. What letter changes do the following words exhibit when compared with earlier forms : ant, colonel, cobweb, vixen, periwinkle ?

6. What do we mean when we say the grammar of this language is synthetic and of that analytical ?

7. What languages are included under the groups Low German and Scandinavian?

8. From what sources do we obtain the words chess, (run) a-muck, carnival, cigar, cruise ?

9. What dates does Mr. Morris give as dividing the history of our language into periods ?

10. In describing the commencement of the love of Palamon and Arcite for Emilia, Chaucer has entirely departed from Boccaccio in three principal circumstances ?

11. Describe Chaucer's Frere.

12. What is the substance of Theseus' speech on the occasion of giving Emily to Palamon ? 13. Explain

(a) Alle the feeldes gliteren up and down.
(6) A sotil gerland.
(c) Squar as eny sparre.
(d) I noot which hath the wofullere myster.

(e) The lovers maladye of Hereos. 14. Which of the Canterbury Tales are of early and which of late workmanship?

15. What references occur in The Squieres Tale to Gawayn, Lancelot, Telephus ?

16. Write a note on the characteristics of Anglo-Saxon poetry.

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