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instructed Addison to compose a suitable poem; at the same time giving him a Government appointment worth £200 a year. The poem produced was entitled The Campaign. In 1708, through the influence of Lord Wharton, Addison was elected M.P. for Malmesbury. It is said that he only once attempted to speak in the house, when he said, "Mr. Speaker, I conceive-I conceive-I—" and sat down embarrassed. In 1709 Addison commenced to write for the Tutler, and iir 1711 for the Spectator. In 1713 the tragedy of Cato was produced, and it met with unbounded success. In 1716 Addison married the Dowager Countess of Warwick, and resided for the most part at Holland House, Kensington. In the following year he was made Secretary of State, but owing to increasing illhealth he resigned his post in less than twelve montlis on a pension of £1500 a year. Two years later (in June, 1719) Addison died at Holland House, aged forty-seven.

Though it is as a writer of prose that Addison is best known, some of his poetical pieces will endure as long as the language, e.g. the odes commencing with

The Lord my pasture shall prepare."--p. 92.
When all thy mercies, O my God."--p. 138.

The spacious firmament on high."
Dr. Johnson has said of Addison, “Whoever wishes to
attain an English style, familiar but not coarse, and elegant
but not ostentatious, must give his days and nights to the
volumes of Addison.”

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1. I have observed, that a reader seldom peruses a book with pleasure till he knows whether the writer of it be a black or a fair man, of a mild or choleric disposition, married or a bachelor, with other particulars of the like nature, that conduce very much to the right understanding of an author. To gratify this curiosity, which is so natural to a reader, I design this paper, and my next, as prefatory discourses to my following writings, and shall give some account in them of the several persons that are engaged in this work. As the chief trouble of compiling, digesting, and correcting will fall to my share, I must do myself the justice to open the work with my own history.

2. I was born to a small hereditary estate, which, according to the tradition of the village where it lies, was bounded by the same hedges and ditches in William the Conqueror's time that it is at present, and has been delivered down from father to son whole and entire, without the loss or acquisition of a single field or meadow, during the space of six

There runs a story in the family, that before I was born, my mother dreamt I was to be a judge. Whether this might proceed from a

hundred years.


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lawsuit which was then depending in the family, my father's being a Justice of the Peace, I cannot determine; for I am not so vain as to think it presaged any dignity that I should arrive at in my future life, though that was the interpretation which the neighbourhood put upon it. The gravity of my

. behaviour at my very first appearance in the world, and all the time that I sucked, seemed to favour my mother's dream; for, as she has often told me, I threw away my rattle before I was two months old, and would not make use of my coral till they had taken away the bells from it.

3. As for the rest of my infancy, there being nothing in it remarkable, I shall pass it over in silence. I find that, during my nonage, I had the reputation of a very sullen youth, but was always a favourite of my schoolmaster, who used to say, that my parts were solid, and would wear well. I had not been long at the university, before I distinguished myself by a most profound silence: for, during the space of eight years, excepting in the public exercises of the college, I scarce uttered the quantity of a hundred words, and indeed do not remember that I ever spoke three sentences together in my whole life. Whilst I was in this learned body, I applied myself with so much diligence to my studies, that there are very few celebrated books, either in the learned or the modern tongues, which I am not acquainted with.

4. Upon the death of my father I was resolved to travel into foreign countries, and therefore left the university, with the character of an odd unaccount

able fellow, that had a great deal of learning, if I would but show it. An insatiable thirst after knowledge carried me into all the countries of Europe, in which there was anything new or strange to be seen; nay, to such a degree was my curiosity raised, that having read the controversies of some great men concerning the antiquities of Egypt, I made a voyage to Grand Cairo, on purpose to take the measure of a pyramid; and, as soon as I had set myself right in that particular, returned to my native country with great satisfaction. 5. I have passed my latter years in this city, where

, I am frequently seen in most public places, though there are not above half a dozen of


select friends that know me; of whom my next paper shall give

; a more particular account. There is no place of general resort wherein I do not often make my appearance; sometimes I am seen thrusting my head into a round of politicians at Will's, and listening with great attention to the narratives that are made in those little circular audiences. Sometimes I smoke a pipe at Child's; and, while I seem attentive to nothing but the Postman, overhear the conversation of every

table in the room. I appear on Sunday nights at St. James's coffee-house, and sometimes join the little committee of politics in the inner room, as one who comes there to hear and improve. My face is likewise very well known at the Grecian, the Cocoa-Tree, and in the theatres both of Drury Lane and the Haymarket. I have been taken for a merchant upon the Exchange for above these ten years, and sometimes pass for a Jew in the assembly of

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stock-jobbers at Jonathan's. In short, wherever I see a cluster of people, I always mix with them, though I never open my lips but in my own club.

6. Thus I live in the world, rather as a spectator of mankind, than as one of the species; by which means I have made myself a speculative statesman, soldier, merchant, and artisan, without ever meddling with any practical part in life. I am very well versed in the theory of a husband, or a father, and can discern the errors in the economy, business, and diversion of others, better than those who are engaged in them; as standers-by discover blots, which are apt to escape those who are in the game. I never espoused any party with violence, and am resolved to observe an exact neutrality between the Whigs and Tories, unless I shall be forced to declare myself by the hostilities of either side. In short, I have acted in all the parts of my life as

life as a looker-on, which is the character I intend to preserve in this paper.

7. I have given the reader just so much of my history and character, as to let him see I am not altogether unqualified for the business I have undertaken. As for other particulars in my life and adventures, I shall insert them in following papers, as I shall see occasion. In the meantime, when I consider how much I have seen, read, and heard, I begin

Ι to blame my own taciturnity; and since I have neither time nor inclination to communicate the fulness of my heart in speech, I am resolved to do it in writing; and to print myself out, if possible, before I die.

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