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authors; but above all in the rudiments of of different ages, the surviving fame of litereligion, and the doctrine of the Thirty-nine rary greatness, the union of subordination Articles.”
with independence in college life, inculBut, after all, if our universities are such cating the manly self-reliance with the love dens of iniquity as “Rolla” describes, in of order which honour the British people; which "true Dissenters” would not willing- the intermingling of the flower of its arisly “incur the anger of heaven by violating tocracy with the scions of the great protheir conscience, or pollute their souls by fessions; the gentlemanly tone of social breathing the atmosphere of such haunts,” habits;-in a word, the spirit of religion why this agitation for them to be made pub- with the spirit of antiquity and the spirit of lic? Surely every well-wisher of his kind modern life; where else can powers of inwould be anxious to circumscribe their evil fluencing, so rich, so inspiriting, and so influence as much as possible. Now, we are genial, be found, training up the young in a no apologists for any evils that may prevail discipline worthy of a great and civilized at Oxford or Cambridge, for we deeply feel people?' “How empty learning, and how vain is art, Let it not be thought that Churchmen
But as it mends the life and guides the heart;" have anything to fear from the opening of but we believe that those evils are acci- the universities, or that they oppose this dental, and not for a moment to be weighed from any interested motive. On this great against the advantages which these seats of point it may be sufficient to adduce the evilearning afford. On this subject we would dence of the Rev. Henry Wall, one of the commend to “Rolla's” attention the follow- ablest gentlemen that appeared before the ing extract from a liberal but a somewhat late commission, a Fellow of Baliol, Viceunfriendly journal* :-“Where else is the president of St. Alban's Hall, and Prælector training of the young carried on under in- of Logic. He says:—“I believe that Disfluences so varied and harmonious, so well sent has much more to fear than the Church calculated to be truly educating of what is has from a university education.” And upon noblest and best in man? The youth of Eng- this the editor of the leading Dissenting land are reared in them amidst living memo- newspaper, the British Banner, adds:rials, which present to the eye of the imagina- “We cordially unite in faith with Mr. Wall tion, in undying freshness, the antiquity, the relative to the results which Dissent has to continuous life, and the greatness of their fear from a university education. We believe country. The dead and the living address the that one of the surest methods of bringing young together, and combine in moulding over the influential portion of Dissent to the the characters and sentiments of successive Established Church would be to open the generations. The splendor of the archi. universities." tecture, speaking with the voices of many Surely, Mr. Editor, this will be sufficient ages; the munificence of founders, attesting to convince your readers that the opposition the magnanimous liberality of England's an- to the opening of the universities is not from cestors; the solemn cloisters, the gothic any mere principle of policy on the part of halls, the venerable chapels, the intermisture the members of the Church of England.
S. S. *“Edinburgh Review."
zorial Economy. .
OUGHT GOVERNMENT TO PROHIBIT THE SALE OF INTOXICATING
AFFIRMATIVE ARTICLE.-II. It was with great satisfaction that I pe- | September number of the British Controrused the articles on this question in the versialist, as I consider it an auspicious sign
of the growing importance of this reform, instance of this kind of legislation, the supthat, after a short agitation of a few months, pression of gambling houses, which had it is recognized as worthy of discussion in become such pests, that on public attention
being called to them they were closed by that After due consideration of our opponent's compulsion of which J. G. R. has such horror. article, we must confess we have found no- We would ask our opponent why the whole thing sufficiently potent to modify our pre- community should suffer to such a fearful vious opinions on the subject; but, on the extent, because the prudent and sensible man contrary, when we compared it with that of loves his beverage? We certainly pay dearly our aily T. U., it tended to confirm us in our for his gratification. But J. G. R. is misopinion that, for the suppression of the taken; we do not deprive him of his beverage drinking customs of this country, a prohibi- by the Maine Law; it simply prohibits the tory traffic law is imperatively necessary. traffic in intoxicating drinks. Now, we canHaving arrived at this conclusion, it is not comprehend why legislation should be but right we should justify it, which we refused here, seeing that it is necessary for will attempt to do by exposing what we our protection against the ever recurring believe to be the defective reasoning of evils resulting from it; especially as our J. G. R.
Government enacts statutes for the suppresWe are of opinion that lie has tanta- sion of kindred though minor evils. Strong mountly conceded to us the following:—the drink has been denounced by all the judges appalling extent of the evil of drunkenness, of the present day, as the great parent of and the efficacy of the antidote administered crime. Well may a writer in “ Blackwood” by our American brethren; for he antici- exclaim,-"Wine, wine! whose praises are pates the production of the proofs by inform- clamorously rung round the festive board, ing us that he wants no statistics of the and whose virtues supply the song with former, nor does he wish to know the success brilliant thoughts and ardent syllables; what attendant on the adoption of the latter; but need of eloquence and verse to sound thy what he desires “is a justification of the fame, whilst murder and seduction bear principles on which the law is founded; or, ghastly witness to thy potency! Is there a in other words, why the prudent and sensible greater crime than these? Name it, and man is to be deprived of the due use of a drunkenness shall claim it for a child.”. beverage, because his neighbour chooses to J. G. R. next infers from the objection abuse it.” As an objection against the propounded—that truth should not be proprinciple on which the law is sought to be moted by State aid—that those who think established, he commences by lamenting that in opposition to himself must be influenced we should, in the pursuit of truth, endeavour by error, and tainted with prejudice and to promote it through the intermediation of bigotry; and then commences an attack on the State, instead of relying on its innate them for forming themselves into a society power for its own advancement. We agree called the “ Alliance for the Suppression of with him that truth is puissant enough to Intoxicating Drinks.” Now, although our surmount all obstacles that may oppose its question does not embrace the opinions of any progress; but we opine that we are justified society or class of men, he devotes a great in furthering it by all legitimate means. portion of his space to a review of the “ AlliYet, according to the reasoning of J. G. R., ance" and its object; and though we are not men ought never to have enacted laws for bound to notice the new matter thus introthe prevention or suppression of any species duced into the discussion, as some may advoof crime, such as theft, murder, &c., but have cate the affirmative of this question, and allowed truth to assert its sovereign sway, disapprove of the declaration of the “ Alliwithout compelling man. to observe laws ance,” we do not hesitate to vindicate it from which he sometimes finds to militate against his animadversions, and predict that the the gratification of his passion. We expect object of his vituperation will be the means he will see the fallacy of such reasoning, as of achieving victory in the coming strife. it must be obvious that society is obliged to He thinks the term “intoxicating drinks” protect itself against such encroachments on improper, as they do not become intoxicating its rights. We may cite as a very recent till they have been improperly used. So that, if a number of men associated together in error, and that these societies still exist, for the purpose of cleansing dirty houses, he and prosecute their enterprise with their would stigmatize them as bigots for giving former energy; and will do so after the their object its proper appellation, as he “ Maine Law" has been passed; for its most might reply, that houses do not become most sanguine promoters cannot expect that dirty until they have been improperly used. drunkenness will immediately be extirpated He then proceeds,-"Well, this society, for by it. After our friend's premature elegy want of means more successful than those on the Total Abstinence societies, he once employed when known as the Temperance more turns bis attention to the real subject, Society, and anxious for something norel, by saying that England and America cannot and at the same time ultra, made choice of be fairly compared. He denies the capacity the ‘Maine Liquor Law,' as being likely to of the Americans to legislate upon such an compel submission, conviction being now to important question as the “Maine Law," as them a matter of indifference.” He after they have shown, within the last few years, wards charges them with having resolved to a great hankering after anything novel
. “shut up” discussion. J. G. R. labours under This is rather a serious charge to bring soine great misapprehension here, as they against our transatlantic brethren, whose hope to attain their object by discussion, country is one of the most flourishing and and always challenge it; and as to com- efficiently governed in the world, and it is pelling submission, this is equally incorrect, one of which they have reason to be prond, as before they can obtain the law, it must when it is allowed on all hands that their be sanctioned by a majority of the people, firmness and perseverance generally secure who must, in the first place, be awakened to success to the greatest and most perilous a sense of the benefits of this law, and then undertakings. But if they are whimsical, vote for it from conviction, certainly not from as he supposes, we can affirm that their compulsion. The “ Alliance” is 'nest ridi- whimsicality often takes them to the "safe culed as seeking to suppress drunkenness in side of the hedge.” He reminds us that public that it may flourish in private. J. G. the liquor traffic was originally introduced R.'s philosophy cannot comprehend the utility amongst small and uncivilized portions of of suppressing the traffic, if we permit the the States—chiefly Indians—who did not private manufacture. But this is easily understand the nature and properties of explained. The advocates of this law know strong drinks; and so far as they are conthat the traffic is chiefly instrumental in the cerned, the prohibition would be salutary. production of crime, as the numerous temp- In other cases, however, we contend that it tations now held out in divers forms,-gin is unfair, irrational, and despotic.” Any palaces, music saloons, &c., -almost pre- force his objection possessed, that truth clude the possibility of temperance amongst should not be promoted by State aid, is now the lower classes; especially those of social invalidated by this admission, as he justifies dispositions. Now, if this cause were re- the use of what he formerly repudiated. If moved, it is expected the consumption of just amongst the half civilized states, why spirituous liquors would decrease, which ex- not amongst civilized nations? Surely pectation finds confirmatory evidence in J. G. R. does not consider that strong America. It is not probable that every drinks are essential to the progress of family would turn their houses into small civilization! Let us contemplate civilized distilleries. But even the few who, imme- nations, and see what advantage is taken by diately after the passing of the law, might them of their snperior knowledge over their do this, would, in all likelihood, gradually less fortunate neighbours, the uncivilized. succumb to the force of public opinion, In England--a civilized country-why are which would gather strength from the efforts being made to eradicate the drinking beneficial results that would be brought customs of society? In civilized America, about.
wby has the law been agitated for and passed J. G. R. appears to regret that Total Ab- by several of the civilized States ? Certainly stinence societies have been displaced by the not on account of any distinction that can “ Alliance,” and mourns their absorption into be shown to have been made in the use of it; but we can assure him that he is again the liquor; for if we imagine the worst amongst the uncivilized, we may realize it , infidel publications our population was deat home amongst ourselves. What retards moralized, and such injuries inflicted on the our civilization so much as the deteriorating community equalled those caused by the effects of intoxicating drinks? We see little sale of drinks, then it might be time to reason to saddle upon civilization, as its con- agitate for the suppression of the trafic. comitant, that which is so inimical to its Morality may exist irrespective of Christianprogress. It is a singular anomaly that a ity, and infidel opinions do not necessarily so-called barbarous people should take the annul our duties to each other in the social initiative in promulgating laws which may state. “Why, as Mr. Hume justly asked, ultimately rule the world, and this to remedy should not all the gold, silver, &c., be seized an evil introduced to them by ourselves, as and declared as illegal property, because it one of the blessings of civilization!
gives rise to theft, robbery, and murder?” Again, J. G. R. returns to the charge on We will give the reply made by the "Allithe unfortunate “Alliance," by adducing ance" to this. The use of these articles parallels-said to be made use of by them “has no casual relation to the crime of theft, to justify their aggression on the liberty of and therefore the disuse of such utensils the subject--which he designates as “ alike would not destroy the propensity to steal; amusing and instructing,” viz., “if it is but simply divert to other objects. Now, legal to punish the publishers obscene the use of the stimulant is the one sole, phypublications,” or “ provide sewerage for the sical, necessary, and universal cause of the streets, it is proper and just to adopt the drunkard's appetite." J. G. R. next inquires “ Maine Law. But, before these compari- “ wby the Bible should not be condemned as sons can be allowed, it must be shown that an heretical work, because it is frequently there is no nutritious principle in intoxica - made the authority for the worst of purting drinks, but that they invariably proc'uce poses?” We wonder he does not inquire injurious effects.” The only difference be- why Governments should not be subrerted, tween these things can be but in degree. because they sometimes make bad laws! In fact, some people of strong minds may The suhjects thus referred to do not exemperuse obscene publications without being plify our reasons for aggression in any way; contaminated, and at the same time derive but, to use bis own words, they are “ alike information, whereas, in the majority of cases, amusing and instructing.” many would be demoralized; and to preserve Space will not allow us to do more than the majority we prohibit the sale. In the reply to the objections of J. G. R.; but we case of sewerage, if the minority were par- fully rely on the strength of the position tially benefited by its absence, is it probable taken up by T. U. For the dispassionate that, to satisfy their squeamishness, the enunciation of his views he deserves the majority would permit them to be so? The earnest thanks of all, and especially so comparisons produced to show the inapplica- when we remember that those who hold such bility of the foregoing have, we think, no- views are often ridiculed as fanatics, caricathing whatever analogous. He inquires tured as bigots, and branded as persons miswhy vegetarians do not agitate for the sup. led by jaundiced prejudice. pression of the breeding of oxen, sheep, &c.? In reviewing what has been urged against In the first place, there is no proof that us, we believe we were justified in our asser- , flesh-eating is so detrimental to society as tion that no good reason had been shown the drinking of ardent liquors, nor that it why we should change our opinions. The entails the same insatiable craving; but, on objections are too trifling to be weighed in the contrary, may be discontinued when de- the balance against the great and lasting monstrated to be mischievous, without resort- benefits to be derived from this law. Eduing to such a law as this, which, as T. U. cation will go on, elevating and refining the says, ought only to be enacted in extreme ignorant masses, -unshackling the fetters
Why should not the Bible Society that bind their souls. Intemperance,-the apply for the destruction of infidelity, by fosterer of crime and pauperism, punishing those who professedly encourage condemned by the legislatural enactment of it?” We do not interfere with man's right a prohibitory law, will vacate its throne. to think for himself; but if by the sale of and the signal will thus be given for
commencement of a new epoch in the marching—as soon as our country is in a position of civilization. We must conclude by wish- / to receive it-an unequivocal MAINE Law.
Ar no period of which we are cognizant desire, to see a great moral reform effected, could the discussion of this question have should be so worked upon by appeals to our been more opportune than the present, inas- heart, that the judgment should be led to much as it is eminently calculated to accel- assent to propositions which the morning's erate the conviction-settlement of two of the reflections would how to be extremely fallamost important subjects which engage the cious. Temperate from principle, we deeply attention of the thinking portion of the com- regret the annount of drunkenness which munity, viz., the duty of governments, and prevails, and the amount of crime and the rights of individuals. At a time when wretchedness thus caused, and would work there exists such a diversity of opinion on unceasingly to remove these evils ; but to matters which command attention, from the the proposition to invoke the legislature to fact of their having the increased happiness pass an act which would place a degrading of man in view, the discussion of such sub- dietic restraint on the whole people for the jects is most important. Existing, as we liquid-gluttony of a portion, we emphatically do, in the first phase of intellectual man- dissent, and will try to give our reasons for hood and individual opinionism, such debates that dissent. But in order to be as concise as this are absolutely necessary to direct the as possible, we will try to establish, first, current of thought, and prevent it from as that such enactment as that proposed is not suming a form that would be as detrimental within the province of government. 2ndly, to the interests of humanity as those from That it is based upon an unwarrantable which these subsequent modifications take assumption. And, 3rdly, that the practical their origin. Nothing tends more to encou- carrying out of such a proposition would ultirage accurate habits of thinking among the mately be productive of more evil than good. people than thorough discussion. Nothing Theoretically, the British government is so surely indicates national prosperity as republican. Whatever may now be its conright thinking, for it is the forerunner of stitutional aspect, it is almost universally right acting ; and well-being follows as a acknowledged that this was its original nanatural consequence. It is by discussions ture ; and the number of proofs, which are that men are enabled to uplift the veil of every day advanced in attestation of that darkness and ignorance, and exhibit hydra- remark, render argumentation on the point headed prejudice in her hideous deformity. unnecessary. Republican governments reIt is to discussions that men who have been cognize the sovereignty of the individual, persecuted and maligned for opinion's sake inasmuch as it is by that very recognition iook hopefully to bring about the time when that the term is prevented from becoming man to his own self” shall be “true;" a misnomer. When individuals are thus and therefore not “false to
recognized as part and parcel of the State, Thorough and impartial discussion will effec- and are consulted as to the best means of tuate this; and therefore we hailed with governing it, it becomes a moral compact, gladness the intimation of the discussion of and must be adhered to morally. Wbenever the above question, and more especially as we any subject violates any of the recognized are convinced that, in this age of half-truth, laws, the government, in justice to the comfree inquiry must be made the antidote to munity, takes means to punish such violathat individual dogmatism which is the na- tion, though the said punishment lessens the tural product of a mental revolution, which amount of liberty originally possessed. This has been preceded by a long reign of intel- is not an infringement of the subject's right, lectual despotism that has •lethargized and because the form of government presupposes enthralled human consciousness, until the that, having taken a part in the making of breaking of the chain threatens to come with the law he has knowingly broken, he will such force that it shall destroy the forger. not, as a reasonable being, object to the for
In offering a few remarks upon this ques- feiture of a portion of his individual rights, tion, it behoves us to be careful lest our when his own misdeeds have been the cause