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which she exhibits; the ripe, rich beauty of Autumn, and the changes she occasions; the cold, white shiveriness of Winter, and the mutations and sequences which he introduces; and the laughingness and glee of Spring, with her contrasts and her progress —all the appearances which, in her different aspects, Nature wears, are, so far as they are known, chronicled and registered for us in books.
It needs not the gaudy mimicry of eloquence to convince our readers of the vast help to self-culture books supply. History therein recites her tale of deeds of marvel done by living men; Science unfolds the vast record of her discoveries; Poetry thrills the soul with its potent lays; Fiction reveals her world of witcheries; Biography introduces all great men to us as friends; Philosophy informs us what men have thought regarding the mystery of being; Morals presents her estimate of right and wrong; while Religion
“With radiant finger points the way to God."
What need, then, for enlarging on the benefits the study of all these may confer, and their immense importance to the student of books. Verily, he who careth not for good books, my soul, come not thou into communion with him!
The soul of man is constantly exposed to influences which leave their impress on his nature. To determine, therefore, in the full plenitude of self-hood—to accept and welcome all and every influence which may aid in adding efficacy to the efforts of the intellect in its eager upward aspirations, is the duty of each earnest student. Nature should be mirrored in our souls truly and fully; Society should be the excitant to pure and noble thoughts and deeds; and Books should be our chief counsellors. Let enthusiasm nerve the mind; reason regulate its activity; imagination flash her intense irradiations over all our thoughts; morality reign in our hearts; scientific truth direct our work-day labours; and religion shed her hallowing incense over and around our whole mental life--and we need not fear that in the nobility of self-hood, we shall constantly advance. The full energy of one single soul devotedly consecrated to any great and heaven-loved object is powerful against innumerable objects; undismayed amid difficulties and disasters, success never fails the earnest. If we succeed in nothing else we at least fail not in showing how bravely and heroically the human soul may bear the destiny allotted it--fail not in manning the spirit to vigorous endurancy, to indomitable resistancy, and to nobility of being.
“ Fail! fail !
True self-culture will enable us to utter with our latest breath the words_" I have not failed!"
For my own part, I have ever gained the most profit, and the most pleasure also, from the books which have made me think the most; and, when the difficulties have been once overcome, these are the books which have struck the deepest root, not only in my memory and understanding, but also in my affections. If you would fertilize the mind, the plough must be driven over and through it. The gliding of wheels is easier and rapider, but only inakes it harder and more barren.--Archdeacon Hare,
Religion. WHICH SYSTEM IS MOST IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SCRIPTURES, AND PRODUCTIVE OF THE BEST RESULTS-EPISCOPACY, PRESBYTERIANISM, OR CONGREGATIONALISM?
First, true Christian government,
the masses of the people, his assertion is Jesus to His Church througb thee
belied by the actual and well-known condiLight and peace and strength hath sent. Be as of old thy banner wide unfurlu,
tion of the Church, which never showed so And wave in peace throughout the Christian much vitality, or made so much progress, as world.
now; but if he means by it a power to set In my previous articles on this subject, I the State at defiance, I can tell him that had occasion to state briefly what appeared there are very few English Churchmen who to be the leading arguments in favour of would ever wish to have this independence, Episcopacy from the scriptural and from the which history proves to be dangerous alike utilitarian point of view. It becomes now to civil and religious freedom, restored. If, my duty to consider some of the specific however, he intends by it such freedom as objections which have been urged against it, the Kirk of Scotland enjoys, I may remind and also the arguments adduced in behalf of him that the presbyteries are really subject the other two systems. The number, variety, to the Crown, which is represented in their indirectness, and occasional obscurity of the highest court by the Lord High Commislatter, render a formal and systematic reply sioner; and as they dare not make any enactto every allegation they contain impractic- ments contrary to State provisions, are as able; but, taking up the chief of them in the really subject to the State as the English order of importance, I shall, according to Church, while at the same time, the form of their nature, sometimes give a formal refuta- their relation to it renders them utterly intion, sometimes show the consequences to capable of influencing the higher and more which they lead, so as to leave, I trust, no intellectual classes of society. question raised by them unsettled.
“ Aristides," then, arraigning the hierarchiNow the opponents of Episcopacy, as T. R. cal system of England, asserts that it leads and J. S. J. have pointed out, attack it not to a servile spirit in the clergy, and afterdirectly, but the Church of England, of which, wards drawing a comparison favourable to in common with most other churches, it is a the ministers of the Kirk, says:—“No infeature only. Losing sight of its scriptural equalities of rank exist to abstract their origin, and of its fundamental principle, minds from their avocation." The first which is its regulative and corrective power, assertion has been ably rebutted by T. R. they fix upon what are mere accidents of With respect to the Scotch clergy, I may ask English Episcopacy:—the subordination of -does not the nominee to a ministerial the Church of England to the State; the charge ever feel himself in galling dependtemptations to secularity and subservience ence on his synods and presbyteries, and on to political ends in the clergy; their wealth, his parishioners? And if not in inequality &c.—though the example of the Free Episco- of rank, does the minister of the Kirk find pal churches of Scotland and America might in nothing else aught to abstract his mind have taught them that these do not bear at from his true avocation? As “Aristides" all upon the abstract question of Episcopal plumes himself upon the fact that “all the regimen, as proposed for comparison with ministers are working members," I may venthe other systeins.
ture to consider this question further. I Now, falling into this error, " Aristides” might add at once, “hence the need of a complains that the independence of the Eng- proper check upon their almost certain ignolish Church is destroyed by her subordina- rance and corruption.” But as
“ Walter" tion to the State. if by independence he doubts a statement I made as to the nature means her power of free healthy action upon of part of their work, illustrated from the
experience of Dr. Chalmers, it may be as only, “swarming multitudes” were found, well to give at greater length the substance "living in ignorance and guilt, and dying in of the passage referred to. In the large darkness.” What is there to wonder at if towns, we are told, ministers are entrusted parochial influence was a mere name, not with the administration of innumerable systematic, not understood; if there was no charities-in Scotland called “mortifica- machinery for the moral elevation of a town tions"—to old and infirm paupers. Mortifi- population; if the people were left alone, when cations indeed they prove to many a poor the entire responsibility fell on the poor and clergyman, who would, but cannot, devote overburdened clergy ? Could such clergy himself wholly to the ministry of the word. ever effectually bring the religion of Jesus His study is continually broken into by before the attention of those who most need hundreds of applicants for these charities, to have its claims forced on their notice,“ the nor can any remonstrances prevent a minis- purse-proud and the titled of the earth?" ter of a city being expected to perform a Were the Presbyterian inodel forced on this whole host of secular services. He is en- country, the result would be to drive all the cumbered with the disposal of numerous superior clergy from the Church's ministry. vacancies, each of which gives rise to innu- Aristides,” therefore, and his coadjutors merable candidates, and each candidate en- have utterly failed to prove that this system gages in his behalf a host of acquaintances, has any claim to that catholicity, that adaptwho worry the minister out of all patience by ability to all the external and internal coninnumerable written and personal entreaties.” dition of states and empires, that suitability Such is the testimony of one of the Kirk's to all classes and degrees of men, without most distinguished ministers, to the state of which it can never fulfil the true mission of things in his time (which “ Aristides” and the christian teacher, to “become all things J. N. appear to admire so much), and who, to all men, if by any means he might gain after showing the serious losses which the sorne.” learning and efficiency of ministers must Now, the union, in England, of the spiritsuffer from this cause, and the great advan ual and temporal Lords in the House of tages it gives to the enemies of religion, ex- Peers, cavilled at by “ Aristides” and others, claims, in words of burning indignation preserves at least the semblance, if not the against the folly of those who would have reality, of religion in that august assembly; their clergy thus overworked, when the it secures, at least, the outward inoral decointerests of religion require that they should rum of the aristocracy; and living, as they be a learned, spiritual, separated order, and do, one and all, under the very eyes of the rich in mental accomplishments—which, as nation, their example must tell immensely every one knows, they can only become by upon the general religious tone of all classes being allowed to give "their ample and of society. I doubt not, but this union of exclusive leisure to the labours of the the Spiritual and temporal powers-the one
And this is what at present, on re-acting upon and preventing the undue J. N.'s own showing, if the quotation from influence of the other—has been the means, Defoe be applicable still, the ministers of the under God, of raising England to the high Kirk can rarely do; and this I believe is the moral position she enjoys among the nations, reason why, despite the examples of Drs. and has been powerfully instrumental in Chalmers, and Candlish, and Gordon, paraded raising the standard of European civilization. by“ Walter," in England so many, and in The Church cannot safely rule the State: Scotland so few, of the most distinguished but had religion been kept upon her knees, names in literature and science have been or with her face in the dust, to move the clergymen. Notwithstanding the vaunted contempt of the “purse-proud and the titled superiority of the Scotch to the English “in of the earth,” this country never could have vital religion and intelligence,” I yet find, attained her present intelligence and freefrom the same authority, that in Dr. Chal- dom. mers's time, in a single portion of Glasgow “And if two hemispheres prosper, the cause
Lies in Old England's religion and laws." *“Memoirs of Dr. Chalmers," vol. ii., p. 120, In J. N.'s papers there is little which is
not already satisfactorily disposed of by
J. S. J. and T. R. It can scarcely be neces- tles, or their deputed successors, ever did sary to point out how the scripture quota- ordain. tions he has given will not answer his pur- In his second paper J. N. has enlarged pose. Paul and Barnabas, it is evident, upon the comparison made between the Jewwere not first ordained ininisters by the ish and Episcopalian distinction of orders; presbyters of Antioch; that was impossible. and “ L'Ouvrier" has carped at my employPaul was already an apostle, called by Jesus ment of it. I may observe, that in referring Christ himself; but in this place, was merely to the aralogy between the two orders, which, set apart by the Holy Ghost to a particular notwithstanding what has been said to the work,—the preaching to the Gentiles. He contrary, undoubtedly exists, I did not was undoubtedly previously a minister him- intend it to be understood, as J. N. and self (see Acts xii. 25, and ix. 20). And others appear to think, that I considered where does J. N. find proof that Timothy the analogy a necessary one, the direct was ordained“ by the laying on of the hands result of Divine ordinance, or as in any way of the presbytery? What is there to show giving a sanction to the continuance of three any more than in the case just cited, that this orders, except in so far as“ a threefold minis"laying on” occurred at his ordination to try, distinguished into a ruling, a pastoral, the ministry, that it constituted him a pres- and diaconal function, is essential to the byter, or was in any way connected with his true order and well-being of the Christian ministerial character? The circumstances Church in all ages." of Barnabas, and Matthias, who were chosen In " Walter's” article there is not much by lot, being apostles, combined with that of requiring separate remark. How he could the plenary powers delegated by St. Paul to make that singularly unfortunate reference Timothy and Titus, prove that the apostolic to the Council held at Jerusalem, I cannot powers, of governing the church, of ordain- conceive; for a close inspection of the whole ing ministers, and enforcing discipline, were account of it gives strong reason to believe transmissible. But, as “ L'Ouvrier” sup- that no laymen whatever took part in the poses I was ignorant of the text on which discussion; and, secondly, from a comparison he and J. N. lay so much stress, I may in- with other passages, and the testimony of form him that I had referred to it in the the early christian writers, we know that original, and, nevertheless, was unable to James the Less, surnamed the Just, was at detect in it any satisfactory evidence that this time Bishop of the Church at Jeru"elders”
ever did lay hands, in order to salemt (which Church, be it observed, now ministerial ordination, on Timothy. For the probably included great numbers of persons, word which he has transposed into “ those far more than could be comprised in a single very officers,"—translated in the English congregation), and on this occasion he preyersion,“ presbytery” is in the Greek pres- sided at the council. We find him authori.. buterion, which Calvin himself, the great tatively claiming to be heard,—“ Hear me,” apostle of modern dissent, did not understand and shortly after,—“My sentence is,” łyus of the persons, but of the office, and accord- kpivw, “ I thus decide, judge;" had 'all in ingly did not apply it in the way “ L'Ouvrier" the council been equal in authority, would and his friends have so confidently done. he have ventured to employ so judicial a Now, in this, Calvin's, sense, the " presby- tone? And in the other passage cited by tery" might refer to the ordinance of Paul, Walter," he shows a want of candour in of Barnabas, or of other apostles. It was trying to make it appear that St. Peter admost probable Paul would ordain Timothy, dresses the “scattered strangers,”as co-elders who was “his own son in the faith;” and of the same authority with himself. In the this is almost set at rest by his words in the churches he addresses, scattered throughout second Epistle, i. 6, where he says, “ Stir up Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithe gift of God which is in thee, by the thynia, there must have been many bishops, putting on of my hands." Here at least and St. Peter evidently refers to the heads is no doubt as to whose hands were laid of the Church-the bishops and presbyters
And there are plenty of texts (as Acts vi. 6; viii. 14–17, &c.) which seem to me
* J. A. Baxter's “ Church History of England,"
vol. ii., p. 198. to warrant the assumption that only apos- + Bingham's “Antiq.," book ii., c. 1.
--and in ver. 5 adds, “Ye younger, submit on religious worship, that the Church of yourselves unto the elder," where elder is the England has attending its three services same word-presbuteroi. With far greater more persons than all the other bodies put reason might this text be quoted as proving together (3,773,474 against 3,487,558); that apostles had successors in the Church, and moreover, the inaccuracies in the attendas far as equal powers are concerned. Fur- ance tables, which are probably considerable, ther, “ Walter" brings an unfounded charge go against the Church. Dissenters in work. against me of asserting that “the priests are houses usually leave to go to a neighbouring equal to the bishops of apostolic times.” Our chapel, not so Episcopalians. At Preston,
priest” is derived from the Greek word the evening attendance at church is put presbuteros," signifying a superior, properly down at 180, while frequently, at one church in age, and thence also in worth and gravity; there, the evening congregation has amounted and the terms bishop and presbyter, or priest, to a thousand. “But if clergymen will not rever meant the same thing, though they give answers to Government inquiries, as sometimes may have designated the same they at Preston did not, they cannot find person, who was called episcopos with respect fault if misrepresented."* My own personal to his office, and presbuteros with respect to knowledge of inore than one dissenting chapel his age and dignity.” * Neither has the and its minister, and of their general eagerAnglican Church abolished an office, or ness to depreciate the Church's strength, and brought in a new one, for we have strong “ make the most of themselves,” leads me evidence not only that the term “apostles” firmly to believe that the tables do not adecame to be distinctively applied to the Twelve, quately represent the Church's strength. with only three exceptions, but that imme- They prove, however, that she out-numbers diately after, if not during apostolic times, all the dissenting sects put together; which the term episcopoi was applied only to the is enough to satisfy one that Episcopacy is highest officers of the Church, the presbu- not at fault. teroi or priests being the second. Neither Now, a word as to Episcopal revenues. is to be understood as involved in the term On this subject much misapprehension, and “priests” the offering of sacrifice. Their I must add much misrepresentation exists. duties are, as defined by Richard Baxter- In the report of the Commissioners appointed “ To be the guides of the congregation in to inquire into the ecclesiastical revenues of public worship, and to stand between them England and Wales, in 1835, it appears that and Christ in things pertaining to God as the total Episcopal revenues amounted to subservient to Christ in his priestly office; £160,292, in the proportions of £120,568 and so both for the people, and in their to the see of Canterbury, and £39,724 to names, to put up the public prayers and the see of York, distributed in various propraises of the Church to God. It is their portions among the archbishops and bishops. † duty to administer to them, as in the name Since then, however, the Episcopal revenues and stead of Christ, His body and blood; have been, I believe, reduced, and more and to subserve Christ, especially in His equally distributed. Then, with respect to priestly office." +
the incomes of the inferior clergy, they are “Walter" alludes disparagingly to the by no means great-scarcely enough, on the church accommodation provided by “ Episco- average, to keep a family upon. And, with pacy, with all its vaunted wealth and rank,” respect to deaneries and cathedral dignities, in England, as compared with that provided which offer far more ground for animadverby the Kirk; and as “ L'Ouvrier” descends sion than Episcopal revenues, even Dr. Chalto employ the same kind of argument against mers said that he would be glad to have Episcopacy, I cannot pass it wholly without them in his own church; his opinion being comment. First, then, in respect to "the there should be some learned men maintained influence of the Episcopal pulpit on the Sabbath day;" it appears from the official report for this month (September) on “The Church
* See an able article in “ Fraser's Magazine"
among the Tall Chimneys," p. 281, &c. • Wordsworth's “ Theophilus Aug.," pp. 85, + See the “ Penny Cyclopædia," under “Bi. 89.
shops," p. 456. + Idem (quoted from “Christian Directory," p. * See" Edinburgh Review," No. 201, "Church 714, ed. 1673).
Parties;" and " Fraser's Magazine," as above.