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whether they be time-honoured customs, inhabitants, giving an aggregate of 250,000 venerable institutions, or century-moulded unrepresented in parliament. But there are laws, to the “light of truth,” and cheer- thirty English boroughs, whose whole comfully submitting them to the examination bined constituency does not amount to that of the rational faculties of man. We rejoice of Edinburgh, who return two members each that we live in an age when public opinion to represent them in parliament, being seven is respected in a country where that opinion more than that returned by all Scotland, is listened to by the government, in which whose populous burghs are grouped in halfthe utmost freedom of thought, inquiry, and dozens, and send only one member to each opinion is tolerated, and even encouraged. group. Is this justice to the northern half

We are convinced that on this question, of Great Britain? Does it now excite your also, the public opinion will be respected, for surprise that it is so difficult to get a hearing sure we are, that no government can with-on Scottish affairs in the House of Commons ? stand the united voice of its subjects, espe- But a second Scottish grievance is the cially when those subjects have a just cause want of some person to represent her inteof complaint; and we hope, ere we conclude rests in the cabinet, and who could be contithis paper, to convince our English friends nually attendant upon his place in parliament that the Scottish nation has grievances, and to watch over Scottish interests. True, we that of no light or ordinary character. have a Lord Advocate; but he is unable to

But it is necessary to premise that the attend to all the duties devolving upon him union betwixt the two countries of England as the legal and legislative representative to and Scotland is a union on equal terms, that the government. We, for our own part, the one nation did not merge into the other, cannot conceive how a lord advocate can but that both stand on an equal footing; execute thoroughly the duties of adviser to such, we believe, will be conceded by all who the crown, or public prosecutor in Scotland have studied the history of their own father of secretary of state for a country which is land, or who have read the Treaty of Union weekly increasing in wealth, population, and between the two integral portions of Great legislative business—and also to attend to his Britain; one of the articles in that union own private duties as an advocate, which he distinctly states, that all parts of the United cannot be expected to forget or forego. But Kingdom, for ever, from and after the union, that Scotland and her interests and affairs shall have the same allowances, encourage are neglected, from want of a qualified resiments, and drawbacks, and shall be under dent party to look after them, no one will the same prohibitions, restrictions, and regu- deny who reads the following list of comlations of trade, and liable to the same cus- plaints which wronged and ill-used Scotland toms and duties on export and import. Now, has to prefer against the government of the question is, has Scotland received the Great Britain. same allowances, in proportion to her popu

First. The boards of customs and excise lation, as England ? Has she received the have been abolished, and our metropolitan same encouragements ? We say she has establishments reduced to the position of not; but now for proof.

sub-offices. This is peculiarly felt in the And first, as regards the representative Scottish commercial capital, where the want system. Has Scotland the privilege of send of a customs and excise board is a serious ing as many members to the parliament of evil. Great Britain as England has? that is, in Secondly. The charitable institutions are proportion to the numerical amount of inha- entirely neglected by the British government. bitants. By the census of 1851 we find None of our maternity hospitals, our blind that Scotland has a population of 2,870,786, asylums, our royal infirmaries, or our houses which gives an average of 54,166 to each of of refuge, receive any aid from the governour fifty-three representatives. Applying ment. But we mistake. Government does the same rule to England, it will be found contribute towards the support of one of our that each of her five hundred members repre- charitable institutions: the government of sents only 35,845, which is a third less to each. Great Britain contributes the munificent Further, there are about seventy towns in sum of Two pounds per annum to the disScotland, possessed of from 2,000 to 9,000 pensary of Kirkwall. How stands the case

with England ? Is she placed on the same palaces and parks, whilst Holyrood, our footing? No! she is not. London received venerable palace, is fast crumbling into in 1852, for charitable institutions, the sum decay, and the garden let out to a market of £118,583; and those of the metropolis of gardener! Scotland is in danger of being Ireland, £41,790.

left without a palace, unless her own patriotic Thirdly. The metropolitan character of sons will themselves undertake to maintain Edinburgh puts it to great expense in up- its once honoured, and its now revered, holding a gaol, the benefits of which are palace, dear to the heart of every true-hearted reaped by the country at large; it is also patriot, because it stands out in basso-relievo from the same reason exposed to a great influx to remind them of their independence--their of poor and destitute people from all parts of immunity from conquest; because it reminds the country, and who are consequently a them that the present royal family of Great heavy burden, either in their pauper cha- Britain received the crown from Scotland, in racter on the charitable institutions, or in virtue of their descent from our James VI. their criminal, on the police establishment. When the magistrates of Edinburgh peThe Commissioners of Police naturally titioned for funds for its repair, the Chanprayed government to assist in defraying cellor of the Exchequer answered that he the expense of these police establishments, had no funds for such purposes, although but were bluntly refused; nevertheless, Lon- the hereditary revenues of the Scottish don receives £131,000, and Dublin £36,000 crown amount to £10,000 per annum; yet annually.

in 1853, with no funds for the repair of Fourthly. With all our increasing com- Scotia's one palace, the British government merce with other nations, we only possess did expend £181,960 for the repair and one single harbour of refuge, viz., that of embellishment of royal palaces, parks, &c., Port Patrick. On the eastern coast, which is in England, besides £100,000 for Victoriarocky, dangerous, and stormy, and on which park, purchased for the convenience of the are situated the important seaport towns of East-end Londoners. Further, this is in Leith, Dundee, Aberdeen, and Montrose, gross violation of the terms of union, the there is no harbour of refuge. On our western nineteenth article of which expressly asserts shore they are less required, owing to the that Scotland shall possess her own Exchequer great number of bays and indentations of Court, which court had the power of making the sea along the greater part of that coast; grants for the repair of her public buildings; yet we have one harbour there, viz , that of but this was abolished in 1837, and amalgaPort Patrick, but which was not constructed mated with the Court of Session; and in out of any regard to the marine interests of consequence, Scotland has now to apply to Scotland-or more particularly, if you will, the English treasury when she wants assistof Glasgow and Greenock_but for the safety ance to enable her to repair her institutions, of the Irish mail steamers betwist that port and is generally, like a beggar, spurned from and Donaghadee. In the Pentland Firth, the door. But, not to multiply examples, from Duncansbay to Dunnet Heads, there is we will only glance at the remaining part of also no harbour, although one in that quarter the list of Scottish grievances. Our museums would be of great value to our whaling are not such as become the Scottish nation; interests. How stands the case with the more especially as regards the geological southern portion of Great Britain. In Eng- section. -As a nation rich in mineral proland there is at present five harbours con- ductions, we are without a museum,-withstructing, viz. : Dover - estimated cost, out a professorship of geology; while Eng£245,000; Harwich- £110,000; Alderney land, with inferior metals, has both. Our

-£620,000; Jersey- £700,000; Portland Ordnance survey, though begun in 1809, iş -£588,959 : a total of £2,263,959. To not yet completed; and in the report issued Holyhead has been voted, £91,270; but to by the parliamentary committee in 1852, repair the Scottish harbour of Port Patrick, Scotland is declared to be behind all civilized parliament has voted £2,556.

nations as regards its geography.—The GlasFifthly. The revenue of the Scottish gow Post-office is a positive disgrace to any woods and forests are transmitted to London, government; a roofless building, threatening and employed in the embellishment of English to topple down about the heads of the people

engaged in the public service, who, by the Can you think of these facts, and yet turn way, are grossly underpaid for their labour.— round and say that Scotland is fairly repreThe want of an official in Scotland who per- sented, or that her interests are properly mits the exchange of one stamp for another attended to? You cannot look fully at when one is spoiled, and which, when re- these things without perceiving that the quired, has now to be done in London.-Our Scottish nation is really an independent unprotected shores, where an enemy might nation. Look at the very trifle she receives land and possess himself of the whole country from government, and the great amount of without let or hindrance.—Our universities public work she performs, and you will perunrepresented, whilst Oxford, Cambridge, ceive the strugglings, the throbbings, of an and Dublin have each their members.—Our energetic, independent heart, pulsating university allowances, which is a very pit- through the whole length and breadth of tance.-Our medical diplomas, which are the land. Assuredly the time has come taxed, to the manifest injury of our medical for Scotland to assume one of two alternajurisprudence.-Even the regulations as re- tives, -either she must sink her nationality, gard the public health of Scotland are under and become an English county, or she must the management of the London board. struggle for her just rights; and, by the

And now we appeal to the readers of the memory of her actions from the days of BanBritish Controversialist,

; -we appeal to all nockburn to the present, we are persuaded intelligent Scotchmen and Englishmen,--to that she will do the latter. say whether these are grievances or not.

WALTER.

Social Eronomy.

IS SLAVERY UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES JUSTIFIABLE ?

AFFIRMATIVE ARTICLE.-I.

ried

PERHAPS upon no subject previously employing fiction for the purpose

of

reprebrought before the attention of the readers senting fact (!), it has gained the attenof this magazine has there been such need, tion of all classes of the community, exas upon this, for the exercise of a calm citing their imaginations, misleading their and unbiassed judgment, and an entire judgments, and arousing their passions. self-divestment of pre-conceived notions and The British public have thus been misled as popular prejudices. During the memorable to the character of a system, the scene of years in which the agitation for the abo- whose operations is too far removed from lition of slavery in our colonies was car- their observation to correct mistakes respect

on, popular feeling ran high upon ing it. Notwithstanding that public opinion this subject; but then it was the feeling of is in such an unfavourable state for the iman Engiish party, now it is too much the partial discussion of this question, we rejoice feeling of the British public. It is now the that it has been introduced into this magageneral belief, both of the educated and the zine, because we expect to find amongst its illiterate, that all slaves are the most mise- readers men and women who are prepared rable wretches beneath the sun, and that all calmly to consider the arguments that may slave-owners and their defenders are amongst be brought forward, and who are endowed the most demoniacal beings to be found in with courage and moral heroism enough to this fallen world. This state of opinion is, follow the truth wherever it may lead them. doubtless, for the most part attributable to Now, we are not about to assert that slathe universal perusal of that fascinating but very, or involuntary servitude, is a desirable untruthful work, “ Uncle Tom's Cabin.” social state, or that it is consonant with the Written in a most popular style, appealing highest developments of humanity; but we to the strongest prejudices, and avowedly maintain that there is not that moral evil essentially connected with it which is com- | and legislated for this state of things. If monly supposed, and further, that under there had been here any moral wrong, or some circumstances its existence is justifiable. essential iniquity, do our candid readers

From the earliest ages, and nearly in every think that such would have been the conduct habitable part of the world, slavery, in some of this man of God? or that we should have form or other, has existed; it has prevailed found, on the sacred page, such words as the in the most civilized, as well as in the rudest following, “ Both thy bondmen and thy bondnations; among the chosen people of God, as maids, which thou shalt have, shall be of the well as among the heathen whom they were heathen that are round about you; of them commissioned to destroy. Its principle is shall ye buy bondmen and bondmaids. found in our own constitution, and is carried Moreover, of the children of the strangers out, to some extent, even in our own day. that do sojourn among you, of them shall The majority of the ruling classes decide ye buy, and of their families that are with upon a certain code of laws for the govern- you, which they begat in your land: and ment of the body politic, and decree that the they shall be your possession. And ye shall infringement of those laws shall be followed take them as an inheritance for your chil with the infliction of bodily torture, or the dren after you, to inherit them for a possesloss of personal liberty, even for the term of sion: they shall be your bondmen for ever.a man's natural life. Now, few of our oppo- |(Levit. xxv. 44—46). But we know it nents will be prepared to denounce such a will be said that these words were uttered course as this as unwise or unjust; and yet under a dispensation that has now passed the principle involved in it is precisely the away: we admit it, but would remind our same as that involved in the system which friends that justice and injustice are the we are now discussing.

same at all times, and under all dispensaThat there is no moral sin in slavery ap- tions; and none can for a moment suppose pears evident from the manner in which it that God would, at any time, sanction an is referred to in the word of God, and the institution that was radically and morally relationship which eminently good men have wrong. But further, let it be remembered occupied in connexion with it, in all ages of that our Lord and his apostles, who so fearthe world. “ The 'servants' mentioned in lessly denounced every evil with which they scripture history were mostly unconditional came in contact, did nowhere, at any time and perpetual slaves; they were strangers, that we are acquainted with, utter a single either taken prisoners in war, or purchased word prohibitory of slavery. On the confrom the neighbouring nations. They and trary, “ The Divine author of our holy relitheir offspring were the property of their gion found slavery a part of the existing masters, who could sell them, and inflict institutions of society; with which, if not upon them corporal punishment, and even, sinful, it was not his design to intermeddle, in some cases, could put them to death.”* but to leave thern entirely to the control of Doubtless, of this description were the three men. Adopting this, therefore, as one of the hundred and eighteen servants of Abraham, allowed arrangements of society, lie made it who, we are told, were “born in his own the province of his religion only to prescribe house.” To prevent misconception here, it the reciprocal duties of the relation.” If it may be well to notice that the Hebrews had be necessary to adduce any proof of this, we slaves of their own nation, individuals who refer our readers to the numerous injunctions sold themselves through poverty, or had given by his apostles to servants-to“ sercommitted theft, and were not able to make vants under the yoke,” or slaves- as to their the restitution required by the law (Exod. demeanour towards their masters; and also xxii). These native servants, or slaves, be to the directions given to these masters as came free on the completion of the seventh to their conduct towards their slaves. If year of their servitude, or were liberated in these things are so,—and surely they cannot the year of jubilee. But not so the alien be denied, we think we have incontroverslaves; these were perpetual bondmen; and tibly established our position, that there is Moses, as the vicegerent of God, recognised no necessary evil or moral iniquity attached

to a state of involuntary servitude. * Penny Encyclopædia.

All that now remains for consideration is,

the question of expediency; and this may be much connected with a portion of American dismissed in a few words, for here the testi- slavery that is contrary to justice and Chrismony of history will suffice, as she speaks tianity we freely admit; but that it has been in unmistakeable language as to the advan- of service to the state we firmly believe. It tages which youthful nations have derived has been one of the various means which from this institution. But we need not have been instrumental in so rapidly raising fetch our illustrations from the past; it will America to her present position; and, when be sufficient to glance across the waters of its work is completed, we believe it will be the Atlantic, and to contemplate the extent gradually removed, -as the slaves become and surpassing prosperity of our descendants better fitted for the discharge of the duties of there, and learn, from their presidents and social life, and the exercise of the privileges

men of mark,” the estimate which they put of citizenship. upon this kind of servitude. That there is

X.

NEGATIVE ARTICLE.-I.

ence.

“ God that made the world and all things | reason can command, and endeavour to bring therein, hath made of one blood all nations truth, drawn from the word of God, to bear of men for we are also his offspring."

St. Paul, Acts xvii. 24, 26, 28. upon their intellects and hearts. We must “Oh, give me liberty!

show them that slavery is essentially wrong; For were even Paradise my prison,

that the first law of nature and of pure Still I would long to leap the crystal walls."

Dryden.

eligion demands freedom for the slave, and

then their interest—the selfish interest of TIME, with inexorable precision, hath vitiated society_must give way to the dicmarked another period in the cycle of exist- tate of reason and a sense of duty. It must

The history of the past, with its be made manifest to them that “ Disguise comminglings of joy and sorrow, is realized in the present; while the future is full of thyself as thou wilt, still, Slavery! thou art

a bitter draught; and although thousands hope to the aspirant after truth and justice. old friends and new, we give ye all a happy less bitter on that account.”

are made to drink of thee, thou art none the greeting; and invite you, with us, earnestly

All men having descended from one comto address yourselves to the mental duties of the day, that we may be prepared for the mon parent, it will at once be admitted that

all men were once equal. It may be they future, as “ 'Tis the promised land,

differed in their moral and intellectual quaTo which hope points with prophet hand,

lities and acquirements, but still they were Telling us fairy tales of flowers

all equal in their natural rights. But we That only change for fruit.'

have used a phrase which may possibly be The expression of anti-slavery feeling re- misconstrued; we will, therefore, explain cently made by all classes society, may what we intend by it: a person has a right induce some to consider that a discussion to the use of his faculties and powers; he upon the question of Slavery is not merely has a right to enjoy the light of the sun, unnecessary, but an insult to the common and the air of the atmosphere; he has a sense of mankind. We do not think so. right to the use of his property, and the The waves of public excitement may dash fruits of his labour. These are self-evident with wild fury upon the rocks of existing propositions; and the meaning of the term evils, but by the consequent reaction, their right, which occurs in all of them, may be beneficial influence may be lost, and their collected from its uniform signification in onward motion stayed. Millions are still each; and from the nature of the proposiheld in those fetters by honest, good, and sitions themselves, the phrase natural right christian men--men who on all other topics is also easily understood. Agreeably to this of social economy can think and act as justly rule, right is the relation of a person to a as any anti-slavery advocate. They believe thing, in which no alteration ought to be themselves justified in the course they are made, without his own consent. In this pursuing; and we must meet them with circumlocution, the name of person and thing kindness and affection, yet with all the force imply that a right is the appurtenance of a

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