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transient surfaces of things, or is unaccustomed to yield prompt and habitual obedience to the control of reason and will, the character becomes facile, fixity of purpose becomes almost impossible, and good advice no more affects the mind than snow-flakes falling calm the surge-crests of the sea. Consistency and decision of character cannot co-exist with an undisciplined mind. Therefore, the great currents of thought ought to be so effectually brought under the control of the will, and so directed to the fulfilment of the purpose of life, that each several thought, as it infringes on the intellect, may be borne along in the usual direction of our ideas, and made to coincide with the general tendency of our thoughts rather than be permitted to act as disturbing forces capable of turning the current of our lives awry. Let us so regulate our minds that we may be able to associate our ideas with ease and readiness, in that manner which shall be most conducive to the ends in view; and let us avoid all frivolous, chance-joined notions. The true and permanent relations of things yield truth; their incidental connexions are fruitful in little else than error.
5th. The possession of careful, calm, and well-trained reasoning powers. A habit of examining every notion presented to the mind, according to certain clearly-defined and well-ascertained principles, cannot fail to impart a superior accuracy of thought upon the party who has acquired it. “A good logical method directs all our efforts to the right end, and furnishes a compendious and well-contrived mechanism for the attainment of that end. Hence, it abridges labour, and renders an equal amount of exertion more productive."* “The unassisted hand, and the understanding left to itself, possesses but little power. Effects are produced by means of instruments and helps,—these the understanding requires no less than the hand; and as instruments either promote or regulate the motion of the hand, so those, that are applied to the mind, prompt or protect the understanding." +
6th. Moral purity and submission to ethical law. A lofty purpose and a noble destiny are absolutely inconsistent with pruriency or sensualism. The assimilation of human nature to those conceptions which we form of the Divinity is the sublimest destiny of which we can entertain an idea. The entire and complete harmony of the intellectual activities
—the moral desires and the corporeal habits—with the moral law of God, seems to us the perfection of humanity.
“Oh! let us keep the soul embalmed and pure
In living virtue." Let every adverse propensity be kept in check. Let the intellect see to it that no sophism impose on the heart; let the heart warn the intellect against giving credence to principles alien to morality; and let the Will—while wielding an anchallenged sceptre over all purposes, habits, thoughts, desires, and powers—bend in ready submissiveness to the dictates of moral rectitude, revealed in the heart and written in the gospel.
“In this one thing all the discipline
Of manners and of manhood is contained."
N.B. The precepts contained in the foregoing paper are not only to be read but practised. -Eds. B. C.
* G. C. Lewis's " Treatise on the Methods of Observation and Reasoning in Politics," vol. i., p. 4. + Bacon's “Novum Organum," I., Aph. ii.
WHICH SYSTEM IS MOST IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SCRIPTURES, AND
PRODUCTIVE OF THE BEST RESULTS-EPISCOPACY, PRESBYTERIANISM, OR CONGREGATIONALISM?
EPISCOPACY.-ARTICLE I. “That ancient Fathers thus expound the page quences of evils and weaknesses which were Gives truth the reverend majesty of age; concealed in it, when it was in its best Confirms its force, by biding every test,
estate; that in that best estate it could not For best anthority's next rules are best; And still the nearer to the spring we go,
satisfy the wants of which they are conMore limpid, more unsoiled, the waters flow." scious."* On the other hand, it must be
allowed, the Congregationalists have made WITHOUT the pale of the Established great progress in this country, partly owing Church of this country, the two religious to the popular and almost conversational parties which chiefly claim attention by their style of their preachers, and their zeal and numbers, no less than by their proselytizing activity in making converts, but partly also activity, are the Presbyterians, represented to the very nature of their system. It by the Established Church of Scotland, and appeals largely to the conscious self-importthe large body of English Sectarists, who, ance and vanity of its followers, in the though often of widely-differing opinions, assertion of Independence: first, in the right are usually, from their mode of worship and of every congregation to be its own lawgiver, self-government, and their common antagon regardless of all other congregations or assoism to the National Church, classed together ciations; secondly, in allowing to each member under the name of Congregationalists. With of a congregation, without distinction of age, respect to both of these it may be necessary or sex, or mental qualification, equal liberty afterwards to show, by a lengthy examination to vote, and harangue, and determine on of their polity, how widely they have de- questions brought for discussion before what parted from the primitive and apostolical they call “ the Church.”+ Hence, in the mode of worship; at present, however, it may election, suppose, of a minister to a Chapel, suffice to remark of the former, that the as females generally form the most numerous numerous schisms and secessions which have portion of every congregation, as well as of at various times broken out among them,* that part of it usually termed Church-memtogether with the little progress which their bers, and as the male portion are often also system appears to make beyond those coun very illiterate, there is reason to fear that tries to which it is endeared by education, by personal attractions or sectarian prejudices national antipathies and prejudices, by the may sometimes have more influence with the force of habit, or by historical and hereditary electors than moral or mental qualifications. reminiscences, would lead one to imagine it Possessing also no universally recognised as not altogether the best form of Church formularies of belief or practice, their minisgovernment, even if not injurious to peace ters may, of course, teach what they please, and unity. And there are those among the according to the ignorance or prejudices of Presbyterians who frankly “ acknowledge their auditory. I And personal experience that the system is worn out, that it has no longer power to produce energetic action,
Maurice's “ Kingdom of Christ," vol. i., 160, 1. + The National Church would probably be much strengthened if laymen were allowed more voice
in the direction of her affairs. They would then to fight with; that the symptoms which it
feel more of interest in, and affection for her. exbibits in its decrepitude, are the conse
See Hare's “ Means of Unity," note J., 144-154;
and xiii., on “the Visibility of the Church;" also, * As that in the last century, of the parties Guizot, “Histoire de la Civilisation en Europe, called Burghers and Anti-burghers. In 1843, p. 164, &c. (Paris: Didier.) there was a large secession of persons who style. Some, however, recognise a much mutilated themselves, “ The Free Church of Scotland." | version or the 39 articles. The Baptists have, at James v. 14. S. Ignat. ad Trall. iii. ad Magnes. 7. defensive, and proceed to examine the claims
leads me to a conviction of the truth of the Apostles and Prophets, Jesus Christ himself objection so often made against them, that being the chief corner-stone." their teaching is frequently of a merely! The following are the propositions which, negative character. “They feel more and after careful and anxious deliberation on the more," says Mr. Maurice, “ that they exist subject, I believe may be honestly predicated to oppose and destroy certain institutions, of Episcopacy, and which I shall endeavour, which they find established about them. If to the best of my ability, to establish: That we look at the sects separately, we find that it is of Apostolical and Scriptural origin; they are confessedly not spiritual bodies; That it is the most efficient and useful form only bodies professing to include within them of Church government. a certain number of spiritual individuals. In the New Testament and early Christian We find new congregations arising out of writers we find three distinct orders of ministhe old, protesting that these have become ters constantly referred to-episcopi, presbyearthly and corrupt, that the only hope of a teri, diaconi-corresponding to the High pure Church is in fresh division and seces- Priests, Priests, and Levites, under the sion. We find the members of the old Jewish dispensation.* The exact meaning societies denouncing these endeavours after of these three terms, which are not always an ideal perfection, and maintaining that uniformly rendered in the English version, experience has always confuted them. We will be of little consequence, if we can prove find accounts given by their own members that there was, from the foundation of the of proceedings resorted to in the election and Christian Church, a class of men corredeposition of ministers, and the formation of sponding to our Bishops, properly inducted congregations, which are, to say the least, into their office, superior to, and exercising what are commonly called secular. We find a general superintendence over, the other these sects engaged in angry controversies two; since among the Congregationalists and with each other.”* Could unity of faith or Presbyterians there is no such order. Now, practice, under such circumstances, ever there can be but little doubt that the exist? " Let the endless divisions,” says a Bishops, or episcopi, were considered by the Presbyterian divine, “and sub-divisions of early Christians as the immediate successors small parties among the Independents and and representatives of the Apostles. And Baptists, created by separation, decide. The although St. Paul has been alleged to have divisions among the English Independents used the terms "episcopos” and “presbuteros” in the time of the Commonwealth, and the indifferently, thus proving their identity, I numerous sects, particularly among the Bap- yet from a comparison of various passages tists, at the present day, testify to the same in his Epistles, it clearly appears that unhappy tendency.” One of the principal although Bishops were addressed sometimes points in which both the Kirk and Noncon- as Presbyters or Elders, on account of their formists differ from the English Church is , age or standing in the Church, yet that the their rejection of Episcopacy; the advocate term “elder" was applied to many who were of which, in a discussion on the merit of the not, and were never called “ episcopi," or three rival systems, is at liberty, besides Bishops. Or, if we reject this hypothesis, examining the constitution of the other, to and allow the perfect identity of the terms refer Episcopal regimen to, and consider it episcopos and presbuteros, we must then as a feature of, the Communion to which he have recourse to the supposition that an belongs. This being granted, I shall, as far as the nature and requisitions of the discus # Acts i. 20, vi. 1-5. 1 Tim. iii. 2. 2 Tim. sion will admit, act for the present on the i. 6, 14, and ii. 2. Titus i. 5,7. 1 Tim. iii. 8-13.
claims S. Iren. iii. 3, &c. Tertull. de Præscr. Hæret., of Episcopacy, as a member of that church 32, &c., &c.? which, more truly than any other, I believe # Wordsworth, “ Theophilas Anglicanus," 88, to be "built upon the foundation of the l&c. Bishop Pearson's Minor Works, by Churton,
vol. i. 283--6. Hooker ii. 336. Grotius, iv. 272.
Maurice's “Kingdoin," &c., ii. 187, 8, 9. varions times, put forth professions of faith. See I Acts xx. 17 and 28. Cf. Hooker ii. 340. Crosby's “ History of the Baptists," vol. i., app. 4, 2 “Omnis episcopus presbyter, non tamen vol. iv., app. 1.
omnis presbyter episcopus."-S. Hil. in Ep. i., *“Kingdom of Christ," vol. i., 161.
ad Tim, 3.
order of men superior to both these is recog- especially of ordaining bishops, priests, or nised in scripture, an order corresponding to deacons. “ Nulli unquam presbytero," says the Apostles, and receiving from them, and Bishop Pearson, in his masterly argument transmitting to others, Apostolic functions. on this subject, “ qua presbytero, concessa For Timothy was evidently one of a class est potestas ordinandi diaconum, aut presbysuperior to presbyters in general, and in terum, aut episcopum. Nulli regendi presthat, his higher capacity, was admonished byteros, aut per se excommunicandi Christiby St. Paul to honour the “Elders” who anos. Sed episcopis, quatenus episcopi sunt laboured well in the word and doctrine; to ordinati, hæc potestas omnino est concessa."* admit no man hastily to the ministry; not Wherefore, collecting into one focus the to rebuke an elder, nor receive an accusation scattered rays of light afforded by the against one but before two or three witnesses; scriptures on this point, we may at least clearly indicating his pre-eminence as insti- safely affirm, with Dr. Short, even of the tator, censor, and judge.* Titus, likewise, Apostolic age, that "if we suppose by way of who is addressed as “Episcopus," had power hypothesis that there were bishops, priests, to appoint elders and determine on questions and deacons, we shall find no statements left unsettled (Iεizovta) by the Apostle.t which cannot easily be reconciled with this “ Accordingly," says Dr. Bloomfield, in a supposition.” That the office thus early note on this passage, “the Presbyterians are instituted was universally adopted and conobliged to understand this appointing of tinued to exist, we have the evidence of an Paul's interposing his influence with the antagonist:-“The advantages of this Episcongregations to procure the election of these copal form of government,” says the historian persons as presbyters; than which, a harsher Gibbon, " which appears to have been introor more factitious gloss was surely never duced before the end of the first century, promulged even by the Socinians." Timo- were so obvious and so important for the thy and Titus, then, on this last hypothesis, future greatness, as well as the present peace should be called Apostles, as should their of Christianity, that it was adopted without successors in all ages down to the present. delay by all the societies which were already But this name, we know, came to be dis- scattered over the empire, had acquired in a tinctly applied to the Twelve who had been very early period the sanction of antiquity, commissioned by our Lord himself, with only and is still revered by the most powerful three exceptions, which prove, per se, that churches, both of the East and of the West, the apostolate was transmissible; while the as a primitive and even as a divine establishother, episcopi, was in like manner restricted, ment.”+ It is further worthy of remark, in honoris gratia, to their successors in the answer to an objection sometimes made, that Apostolic office; and so, although it might it is in the highest degree improbable this have originally designated those who were pre-eminence was the offspring of selfish and set over single churches, yet very shortly, ambitious motives, or that the light of scripeven in Apostolic times, applied exclusively ture could have been so early clouded by to those who had the care of many churches. “interested and disingenuous interpreta“Thus, then, while the scriptural names tions." | Had such been the case, had the have for good reasons been changed from objects of a man's heart been influence and 1, apostles, 2, elders and bishops, 3, deacons power, it might have been more safely and to 1, bishops, 2, priests, and 3, deacons— certainly attained by continuing a heathen. the scriptural fact of the three orders, with Of such motives, surely, those must be their scriptural functions, has remained un- acquitted who, in those early times, chose to changed.” 1
If we reject both these hypotheses as un * Minor Works, by Churton, vol. i., p. 274, &c. tenable. I do not see how we are to explain | The whole of Determinationes I. II., deserve the fact that we nowhere find the powers
careful study in connexion with this subject.
+ “Decline aud Fall," &c., vol. ii., p. 52 (Bohn's above referred to attributed to presbyters, edition). See also Capefigue,“ Histoire de France
au Moyen Age," vol. i., p. 10, &c. Hooker, vol. * 1 Tim. iii. 1, and v. 22, also 1, 17. and 19. lii., p. 329. Maurice, “Kingdom of Christ," vol. + Titus i. 5, 6, 7. Note by Peile, iii. 198. ii., 140-1-2.
Neander's "Church History," vol. i. p. 256. # Alford, “Greek Testament," vol. ii., note on Note by English Editor.
Acts xx. 17.
ally themselves with the despised and down- men, or else they, together with the whole trodden Christians;* especially when we Church, judging it a fit and needful policy, consider that to be in any way eminent did agree to receive it for a custom; no among them, was to court danger, often to doubt but being established by them on whom challenge, as it were, an excruciating the Holy Ghost was poured in so abundant death. The persecutions fell chiefly upon measure for the ordering of Christ's Church, the bishops, and the punishment of death it had been either Divine appointment beforewas frequently reserved for them alone. t It hand, or Divine approbation afterwards, and has already been observed that Episcopal is in that respect to be acknowledged the regimen obtained very soon in the entire ordinance of God." Christian world. So much was this the But space forbids my entering now upon case that that was not reckoned a church the second part of my proposition, viz., the at all which had no bishop. “ Ecclesia est superior utility and efficiency of Episcopacy, in Episcopo," the bishop constitutes the the consideration of which must be deferred church, was an ancient Christian maxim, to another number; meanwhile, I request of almost universal acceptation. Hence, my readers' attention, in conclusion, to the although at the very first, ere the Church following summary of the argument by the had assumed, as a distinct spiritual consti- learned Dr. Isaac Barrow: “How can we tution, a clearly defined form and outline, conceive that all the best monuments of there may have been equality among presby- antiquity down from the beginning (the ters, yet all alike were subject to the Acts, the Epistles, the Histories, the ComApostles, who possessed episcopal authority mentaries, the writings of all sorts coming over them, and afterwards transferred it to from the blessed martyrs and most holy others; the alleged cause being those strifes confessors of our faith) should conspire to and contentions “ for remedy whereof," con- abuse us: the which do speak notbing but tinues the judicious Hooker, “whether the Bishops; long catalogues and rows of Bishops Apostles alone did conclude of such a regi- succeeding in this and that city; Bishops
contesting for the faith against Pagan idol. * See the opinions of the heathen, as expressed
aters and heretical corrupters of Christian by their mouthpiece, Cæcilius, in the Octavius of Minucius Felix (ed. Holden, p. 65 to 79).
doctrine; Bishops here teaching and planting + R. W. Evans's “ Biography of the Early our religion by their labours, their sufferings, Church," Ist series, pp. 20,59, 86, 153, 267, &c. 2nd and watering it with their blood." series, pp. 80, 81, 221, &c. Jeremie's “ History of
F. J. L., B.A. the Church," pp. 18, 24, 25, 31, 69, 70. Neander, vol. i., p. 185, or any early Church historiun. Trinity College, Cambridge. Paley's “Evidences," part i., chap. 1–5.
PRESBYTERIANISM.-ARTICLE I. WHATEVER may be our station or profes- | However much the respective writers may sion, we are each interested in the settlement now be able to control the feelings of intense of this question in ascertaining the purest partizanship which the discussion of this and most efficient form of church government question is calculated to excite, time was -the one of all others the most likely to when the differences were sufficient to embroil foster in the hearts of our people the princi- the nation in civil war. We have at length, ples of vital religion, and, at the same time, by dint of experience, arrived at the concluthe least susceptible of being made to sub- sion that such was rather an untoward mode serve political purposes.
ntation, and have abandoned it for For the sake of method we will consider the war of controversy—a more polite and the conflicting claims of Congregationalism rational mode of correcting errors of opinion, and the endowed churches, and afterwards a mode of warfare which we hope to see rage discuss the respective merits of the Anglican with peculiar energy in the pages of this and the Scottish establishments; in this way serial. we shall be enabled to disembarrass the The question of Church and State Alliance question in a measure of the perplexity is one upon which, at the time of the Reforwhich the stating of it given above may be mation, there was almost no dissent; nearly, calculated to introduce.
| all the great names in the ecclesiastical