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after his defeat at Acre, on his return to to deceive our fellow man. This crime is Egypt, he gave orders to poison four hundred the more contemptible in Napoleon as he of his own troops who were in the hospitals exercised it alike on friend and foe; all at Jaffa, but of course this in him was no became his dupes, all fell into his snares. crime! Posterity will ever stamp with Ambition and perfidy are two of the worst indelible infamy these blots on Napoleon's passions existing in this fallen world of ours, escutcheon, while they will record with and the man who harbours them in his admiration the answer of the chief of the bosom is one who can not be trusted even by medical staff, when the proposal for the his friends, and all his contemporaries will poisoning was made to him_ “ My vocation join in despising his character. is to prolong life, and not to extinguish it.” But here we pause, not for want of addi
In conclusion, we have in opposition to tional matter, but in order that a wide field our friend T. U., attempted to prove that may be left for those who shall follow in the Napoleon was ambitious, and nothing less negative of this debate. We have presented than the dominion of Europe could satisfy concisely our own reasons for not according his insatiable thirst for power and glory, and to Napoleon that admiration which has been that this ambition led him to perpetrate too generously lavished upon him, and we acts of the greatest cruelty. But further, conclude with the heartfelt hope, that from we have endeavoured to prove that Napoleon amid our war of words, TRUTH will come was guilty of constant and systematic forth clothed in her proper apparel, and perfidy, and if there is one crime more armed with her native power, execrable than other, it is this propensity Glasgow.
CAN SCOTLAND REASONABLY COMPLAIN OF INJUSTICE FROM ENGLAND ?
“Be not a public orator, thou brave young In adopting the arrangement now stated British man, thou that art now growing to be something: not a stump orator, if thou canst
we respectfully crave a careful re-perusal of help it." "“ There where thou art, work, work; our introductory paper, and particular rewhatsoever thy hand findeth to do do it-with ference to the different parts of the articles the hand of a man, not of a phantasm-be that thy unnoticed blessedness and exceeding great
on the opposite side, to which we shall reward. Love silence rather
than speech in these reply:tragic days, when, for very speaking, the voice of 1. “Walter" asserts that Edinburgh has to man has fallen inarticulate to man; and hearts, maintain a prison, but that being the metroin this loud babbling, sit dark and dumb towards polis of Scotland, it ought to receive aid each other."-Carlyle.
from Government for that purpose, as London In our opening article we referred, by and Dublin do for their police establishments. anticipation, to the more prominent griev- We reply that London is the capital of the ances of which the advocates of Scottish empire, and the seat of the administration. Rights complain. We shall now reply, in Ireland has a separate government, situated the first place, to the additional alleged in Dublin. It is proper, under these cirgrievances brought forward by our opponents cumstances, that the police should be a Goin the course of this debate ; noticing, at vernment force. The capital, beyond any the same time, so far as we think neces- other part of a kingdom, should be carefully sary, the arguments introduced by them protected. There is as much danger from regarding the matters in dispute to which inattention to the seat of government, as we have already adverted. In the second from a stringent system of centralization. place we shall answer the remarks of our So far as the Legislature can make it so, opponents on our own article.
London, in particular, should, in regard to protection and to decoration, be worthy of portant, and have long been needed along the the capital of the world. What patriotic coasts of the kingdom. Government has acFrenchman, inhabitant it may be of Nor- cordingly commenced this good work in cermandy or Burgundy, does not feel a just tain quarters ; and it has been actuated with pride in the strength, or noble buildings, a desire to supply the wants of the more imand fine gardens of Paris? He feels that portant maritime places first, or where wrecks those features of the capital exist not merely most frequently occur, irrespective of their for it, but for the benefit of France. It is being English or Scotch localities. English left for Scotchmen, in violation of the prin- vessels can find natural shelter on the Scotch ciples of the Union, to murmur at what is coasts, particularly in the West; but Scotch done for the capital of Great Britain. Edin- ships have little or no shelter on the English burgh can bave no claim for such assistance, coasts. These facts show that the Admiralty any more than Glasgow or Liverpool, al- has done right in establishing harbours of though the name of the capital is retained refuge in England, in the first instance. by it. We are certain that if the whole “Walter,” under his fifth division, enumerates question had been a demand of Edinburgh, a variety of alleged grievances. The first of for the support of her police establishments, these is the state of Holyrood Palace. On on account of her being the Scottish capital, this point Lord Eglinton thus supports his Glasgow would have resisted the claim, or friend" Walter;" —“We have no Windsor; no asserted her own claim in preference, as con- Buckingham Palace ; no St. James's ; DO taining the larger population, and would Kensington ; no Hampton Court; we have have treated with disdain the plea that Edin- only poor old Holyrood, with ber falling burgh was the capital. Indeed, the lord galleries, her roofless chapel, and her wasted of the treasury commissioned by Government park.” In answer, we refer to our opening to inspect certain parts of Edinburgh, with a article ; and we trust, looking to what view to the erection of a geological museum, Government has done for Holyrood and her was beset in Glasgow by an application to “wasted park,” we have satisfied Walter; give that city the preference; Scotchmen, at least, “A Thomac," seems, in his remarks
, therefore, if not primed by an absurd agita- tacitly to admit that there is here no grievtion, cannot see the claims of one of the ance, while he blames us for speaking of the Scottish towns beyond another, except on sum expended on Holyrood Palace prior to the ground of population. Regarding the 1830 as squandered. We have no hope
, Irish police, Sir A. Alison remarks that they however, that common sense, or plain facts
, consist of 12,400 “as brave and as good would satisfy one who can utter such rhodosoldiers as any in the world,” mainly paid by montade as Lord Eglinton has done. In Government. The police in Ireland are a addition to what we have previously said
, military force, kept up to prevent rebellion, we remark that since 1830 large sums have and that because they are unfortunately been laid out on Holyrood; and preparations necessary in Ireland, Government should are being made for various improvements on pay for a police establishment in Edinburgh it and the neighbourhood. In connexion is not, we think, a sound argument. “Walter” with the alleged grievance now referred to, says we have only one harbour of refuge in Walter complains that the Scottish Es. Scotland, whereas in England five are in chequer Court, which, he says, had the course of construction. Port Patrick harbour, power of granting money for the maintenance it seems, had only £2,556 expended on it; of public buildings, has, in violation of the and this sum, it is stated, was given merely Act of Union, been abolished, or rather to secure the safety of the Irish steamers, amalgamated with the Court of Session; and and from no particular regard for Scottish other gentlemen on the same side complain interests. Certain plans were no doubt of the discontinuance of certain courts
, beordered, and estimates taken, and the work sides that of the Exchequer, in Scotland. executed according to these. The smallness This kind of complaint goes far to prove of the sum expended proves nothing against that the movement we object to is a Tory Government. The statement that the safety scheme; at least that its spirit is of that kind. of the Irish steamers was the only object is Before the Reform Bill the sums expended groundless. Harbours of refuge are very im-on Holyrood were murmured against, as a
waste of public means. Some of our law | the words,“ subject to such regulations and courts, such as the Exchequer, Commissary, alterations as Her Majesty, her heirs and and Admiralty Courts, were regarded as successors, the Parliament of Great nearly useless, and as nests of political Britain, shall think fit.” It is true the corruption. This was the truth. The office fourth section concludes with the words, of judge was a political sinecure,—the ques- "except where it is otherwise expressly tions of jurisdiction which arose out of those agreed in those articles ;" but this is one of courts were numerous, perplexing, and led those legal subtilties the meaning of which to much expense. In the course of that Law in public Acts of Parliament is well underReform which was so loudly called for, the stood. Again, particular parts of the Act separate jurisdiction of the courts referred to of Union are declared to be fundamental and was taken away; and we think that this was essential conditions in all future time ; but a wise procedure. Referring particularly to such conditions are understood to be binding the Exchequer Court, we have no evidence only on the contracting parties, not on their that it had the right to make grants of money successors. According to the true import for Scottish buildings. The peculiar rights of the Union, England and Scotland were of the ancient Scottish exchequer, so far as made one people, acting through the same inconsistent with the supreme authority of Legislature. It is essential to the spirit of the Legislature, were in effect destroyed by the Union that certain institutions, such as the Union. We beg to ask, did this court, the presbyterian form of worship, should be prior to 1837, bestow such grants ? If not, maintained in Scotland, as being most suited we lose nothing by its abolition. The powers to the genius of the people; but more than which it possessed were simply transferred this the Scotch have no right to demand. to the Court of Session. Walter complains There was, therefore, nothing illegal in the that Scotland must now apply to the abolition of a separate exchequer court, or * English treasury" for money to uphold in the transference of certain boards' to her public buildings. He should have said, London. The complaint of centralization is the British treasury. How can it be simply one which cannot be urged on the ground an English treasury, with a Scotchman for that the English and Scotch are two united first lord, and another Scotchman seated at nations; but, if just at all, it is as applicable its board, whose business it is to attend to to certain parts of England as to Scotland. Scottish interests ? England and Ireland We have entered into this question thus far are in this respect quite on a level with on account of the importance which our Scotland. If our country does not succeed opponents attach to it. The basis of the in her pecuniary demands, it is in her power agitation—the Act of Union—will not supto apply to Parliament through her repre- port or justify their views; and we beg to sentatives. Walter, however, maintains that remind them that if the Legislature had the transference of the powers of the Scottish acted according to their principles
, it could Exchequer Court was in gross violation of never have passed the recent Act for the the terms of union.” The nineteenth section Modification of the University Tests; and of the Act of Union, however, does in no they do not seem to have given any efficient sense prevent such transference. The Court assistance to the general Assembly of the of Session has been made, de facto, the Court Church of Scotland in opposing that Act as an of Exchequer
. Our opponents tell us that infraction of the Treaty of Union. “Walter” the Scotcł have not abandoned their separate complains that Scotland has no geological nationality, and that the union was that of museum. He cannot, however, be ignorant two distinct nations on terms of equality. of the fact that Government intends to estaUpon this general question we remark that blish such an institution. Our ordnance all treaties are susceptible of alteration, with survey will no doubt be completed without the consent of the parties, made by means the necessity of a national association. of the tribunal to which they have given the Regarding the Glasgow Post Office,“ Walter" power of carrying the treaties out.
But this has not chosen to state that Government matter is not here left in doubt.
Such had purchased ground for the erection of a alteration is allowed by the Act of Union new post office, and that it will soon be itself—almost every section concludes with built; and had it not been that the people of
Glasgow quarrelled amongst themselves as misleads no one. The Scotch themselves to a proper site, the complaint would long are not ashamed to use them. before this have been removed. We refer "A Thomac" has not been able perceptibly here to the excellent remarks of“ Gray” as to to enlarge the catalogue of grievances. As the want of a proper officer to attend to the to the question of a secretary of state, and exchange of spoiled stamps (!) and to the of an inequality in the representation as Scotch medical diplomas. We do not anti- compared with that of England, we can do cipate any danger of an enemy landing on little more than refer to our introductory our shores; but in addition to the observa- article. Scotland, which has various importions previously made by us on this point, tant interests requiring attention, and conit is proper to state that we are to have a tributes £7,000,000 annually to the imperial militia. Thus one grievance" after another revenue, it is alleged, is committed to the is being removed. We do not think charge of a single official. The Scottish favourably of university representation, al- Rights advocates frequently refer to the though we have no objection to an educa- revenue obtained from Scotland, and gravely tional franchise, if in any way practicable. inquire what sum she receives in return, The Scottish universities, however, are, by choosing at the same time to overlook the the new Reform Bill, to have three members. fact that there is any obligation on her to
Our next antagonist,“ Douglas," has pay a portion of the annual burdens of the touched upon three of those grievances to which empire. This shows the small value of our his coadjutor, “Walter," had more briefly re- opponents’ “statistics." They have made ferred; namely, the Glasgow Post Office, me- out no case of systematic neglect of Scottish dical diplomas, and want of a speedy exchange interests in parliament, which might call for of spoiled stamps. He has brought forward the appointment of a secretary of state, nor two additional grievances. First, the exis- have they proved how such a functionary tence of naval and military schools in Eng- could remedy the grievances complained of. land and Ireland, besides Greenwich Hospital The grievances alleged are being gradually in the former, ånd Kilmainham Hospital in removed, and they do not refer to Scotland the latter country, while Scotland has no such in particular. What kind of secretary, institutions ; and secondly, the use of the howerer, do our opponents desire ? When name “ England” in public documents, &c., the subject was discussed in the committee as descriptive of the whole island. To all of the town council of Edinburgh, it was of these points a very able reply has been insisted on by one individual that the made by “Gray;" and in order to shorten our secretary of state should reside in Edinburgh; remarks, we refer to his article. In addition by another, that he should be resident in to the medical grievance we observe that London. By one that he should be a peer; the demands of the English Apothecaries' by another, a mercantile man. By one, that Company afford an example of those exclusive he should be a member of the Cabinet; by jurisdictions which exist in different parts of another, that he should be independent of the kingdom, to which liberal politicians Government, &c. It is evident that these have been always opposed. Again, while it are differences of great importance, and is notorious that the hospitals referred to are materially affect the question. If the British institutions, not merely English or secretary of state were to dwell in Scotland Irish, the sole reason why Government a certain part of each year, a local governhas not planted similar ones in Scotland is ment would be established having a separate that to do so would be a needless multipli- interest from that of Great Britain. Ireland cation of expense; and, after all, the gene has a secretary of state as well as a lordrosity of the juvenile establishments is some- lieutenant, and are the results so promising what diminished by the consideration that as to make it desirable to have similar the education afforded is of a military kind, functionaries in Scotland? We think not. and those receiving it expected to enter the To the existence of a separate government army or navy. The use of the word “ Eng- in Ireland we ascribe, in some measure, the land” or “ English,” does not in any degree attempts which have been made from time degrade Scotland. A certain conventional to time wholly to disunite the two kingdoms. meaning is attached to such terms, which I If the Scottish secretary were to be resident
in England, he would, according to the views |“large sums are granted for charitable purof our opponents, be unacquainted with poses, for the construction of national galleries Scotch business; and, in either case, the and museums, and for the purchase and office would tend to promote centralization. embellishment of parks and pleasure grounds We are not aware that the Lord Advocates in England, while Scotland is left to found have very much separate business requiring and uphold her own charitable institutions, attention. They generally hold the office to erect her own galleries and museums, and only for a few years, and it is a stepping to enjoy herself as she best may in the stone to the bench. Although some modi- absence of these other valuable adjuncts to fication of the office, or assistance may be a crowded city.” We have quoted this required, there seems no ground for the sentence as affording an example of the addition of a secretary of state. An inade- prejudice or carelessness of our opponents. quate representation is not a Scotch evil, According to it, any one who did not know but a national one. Scotland has been the truth would be led to believe that deprived of no substantial justice by not throughout England Government has estabhaving a larger number of members. What lished museums, and public parks and other good, on the other hand, have the “ Irish places for recreation, while Scotland has Brigade” done for their country? We very been passed over ; whereas, it is only a seldom, or never, find the English members question between London and Edinburgh. uniting against anything desired by Scotland, The Queen's Park, near Edinburgh, was and urged by her representatives; and a purchased for a large sum; and a considernumerical addition would either tend to the able sum has been expended on a national formation of a purely Scotch party, powerless gallery, and a museum is promised. The for good, or to the return of certain obscure other complaints of “A Thomac" are the local politicians and fanatics, who would be same as those on the same side, previously swamped by the talent and moderation of commented on. the Legislature. Our opponent enters into a 2. “Douglas” asserts that we have vilified graphic account of certain evils flowing from the persons and misrepresented the motives the alleged centralization caused by the of the leaders of the movement in question, Government offices being placed in London. by alleging that it is calculated to foster He says, the parties to whom we must appeal national hatred, and that their language is are removed from us, are ignorant of our "extravagant, bombastic and inflammatory;" wants, and have no interest in us. The that we are wrong in fearing evils from the picture is a distressing one, but entirely agitation; and he inquires how such agitaimaginary.
There is a unity of interest tion can be a crime. In animadverting on between the different parts of the kingdom; the remarks of " Benjamin,” “ A Thomac" and the men who know little of, or have no defends the agitation, and the bonâ fide care for Scotland, are incapable statesmen. character of the movement. It is intended A certain degree of centralization is the to be a national movement; the people of price which must be paid for the union. Scotland are to be roused and excited in To appoint a secretary of state would only order to procure the abolition of certain increase the evil. It is one of which England petty grievances, which, even if some of has as much cause to complain as Scotland; them are real, are not felt by Scotland and hence there is no need of a Scottish in particular. It is alleged that the two agitation. We dissent from the propriety of parts of the island are distinct countries, the grants for charitable institutions, and think Act of Union recognising separate nationalit honourable to Scotland that she receives ities; that the public power of Scotland is nothing for this purpose; and we earnestly not merged in the Legislature of Great trust that our opponents will not succeed in Britain. Hence the Act of Union is examined degrading Scotland by obtaining such grants. to ascertain if the two nations have been The Poor-law has destroyed the indepen- treated strictly in accordance with it; and a dence of the Scotch peasantry, and the right is implied to agitate for the dissolution Scottish Rights Association seem desirous of the Union. In consistency with those to do this good work for the remainder of views, heraldic grievances, and the like, are
“A Thomac" tells us that urged as matters of overwhelming impor