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lyricist, and with Alcæus himself, to drive the usurper from power. This they accomplished. Pittacus then framed a code of laws, which contained the conditions by which the political rights of the Lesbians were to be adjusted and conserved, and their behaviour and customs regulated.* The Mitylenæans, in gratitude for this service, conferred the supreme power upon him. He ruled with moderation, equity, and wisdom, for ten years, then voluntarily resigned his authority into the hands of those who had delegated it to him. During his governorship, Alcæus inveighed in satiric song against him as a tyrant; but, coming into the power of Pittacus, he showed he was a tyran nly in name, by dismissing him with this remark, “ It is better to pardon than to punish.” Here are a few of the sayings of
“Hyrradius' prudent son, old Pittacus,
The pride of Mitylene:"It is a hard task to be really good.” Speak evil, neither of your friends nor of your enemies." ' Power shows the man.” “Of all wild animals, the tyrant is the worst; of all tame ones, the flatterer.” He died in the third year of the fifty-second Olympiad (B.C. 569.) PERIANDER, the son of Cypselus, of whom the Delphie Oracle said
“Behold a man whom Fortune makes her care,
Corinthian Cypselus, Eëtion's heir;
But there the glories of his race must fail;"— was born at Corinth, in the first year of the twenty-ninth Olympiad (615 B.C.). He succeeded his father in the tyranny of Corinth, retained his power forty years, and died, aged eighty, in 535 B.C. He was a munificent patron of art and learning. Inextricable confusion exists in the ancient records regarding him. Diogenes Laertius, in his life of Periander, paragraph sixth, remarks that “Sotion and Heraclides, and Pamphila, in the fifth book of her Commentaries, says that there were two Perianders; the one a tyrant, the other a wise man, and a native of Ambracia. Neanthes of Cyzicus makes the same assertion, adding that the two men were cousins. Aristotle asserts that the Corinthian Periander was the wise one; but Plato contradicts him.”+ It appears to us, on account of this uncertainty, preferable to leave the events of his life and reign unnoticed, and to note only a few of his reputed sayings; these alone now interest us. We believe that Plutarch's “ Banquet of the Seven Sages” is generally regarded as inauthentic, if not altogether spurious, else we might here quote the interesting conversation said to have been held by them at the court of Periander. These maxims, attributed to him, deserve record:“Rashness is dangerous;" “ Practice does everything;” “ Whatever you agree to do, perform it;" "Pleasures are transitory, honour is immortal;" "Be moderate in prosperity, prudent in adversity;" “ Punish not only the accomplished crime, but the intended one;" “Be always the same to your friends, whether happy or unfortunate.”
* Aristotle's “ Politics," Book II., chap. 9.
+ See also “Herodotus," II., 20; III., 47; V., 92; besides Larcher's notes to the second editiou of his translation of “Herodotus ;" Aristotle's “Politics," I11., 8; V., 8, 9, and 12; Bayle's “Dictionnaire Historique et Critique." We believe there is a paper entitled, “Recherches sur les Années de Périandre," in the fourteenth volume of the “ Memoires de l'Académie des Inscriptions," from which some information might be gained; this, however, we have never seen.
CLEOBULUS, governor of Lindos, a town in the island of Rhodes, the son of Evagoras, was born about 631, and died about 561 B.C. (fifty-fourth Olympiad). His government was wise and just, mild and temperate. He is said to have been remarkable for personal strength and beauty, and to have studied philosophy in Egypt. His favourite maxim, pézpov äplotov-moderation is best-formed the fundamental principle of Aristotle's “ Ethics.” His other reputed sayings coincide with the character tradition gives him, e.g., “Do good to your friends, that they may become more friendly—to your enemies, that they may become friends;" “ Hear more than you speak;” “ Avoid injustice;" "Restrain the love of pleasure;” “ Be neither fickle nor ungrateful;" “ Be not haughty when prosperous, nor downcast in adverse circumstances;" “ Let daughters of marriageable age be women in understanding;" “ Devote your highest powers to the good of your country.”
We must defer till a future opportunity our notices of the maximists, Epimenides, Anacharsis, Pherecydes, the fabulist Æsop, &c., as well as our general remarks on this era of Greece and Philosophy, in which
“ Grave and time-wrinkled men, with locks all white,
HAVE WE SUFFICIENT EVIDENCE TO PROVE THAT COMMUNICATIONS
ARE NOW MADE TO MAN FROM A SPIRITUAL WORLD ?
AFFIRMATIVE ARTICLE.III. THERE are some questions of importance man,” were frequently the media which the that possess but little interest, except to a Almighty used for communicating his mind few: they refer to certain branches of science and will; while at other times his servants or departments of knowledge about which saw visions, “ heard a voice,” or were directly only the professional or the studious are con- inspired by the “Spirit of the Lord.” These cerned. Not so with the question now before truths—which necessarily imply the existus; it refers to a subject which has interested ence of a spiritual world, and the fact that men of all classes in all ages of the world. communications from it have been made to Dan is conscious of the possession of a spirit man-will, we presume, be admitted by all within him which is superior to the frame who take part in the present debate; and the that it inhabits; and revelation comes to question here comes, Have we sufficient eviteach him that this spirit is divine in its dence to prove that such communications are origin and immortal in its nature. Revela- now made to man? tion comes to teach man that he may hold We have read with deep interest the affirfellowship with the “Great Father of his mative articles on the present question which spirit;” and, to excite his affections, it tells have appeared in the pages of this work. him how his Maker is still his preserver, We admire the ingenuity with which our kindly watching over him, supplying his friends have constructed theories to support bodily wants, and, by the influence of his their reasoning, and to account for the pheHoly Spirit and angelic agencies, ministering nomena of table-rapping and table-talking; to the necessities of his soul. This revela- but we are not at present prepared to admit tion from God to man was made“ at sundry the truth of those theories; and, fearing that times and in divers manners.” Dreams of the rejection of the theories by the readers the night, when “deep sleep falleth upon of the Controversialist might appear to necessitate the rejection of the affirmative of truth of this position; but two must suffice. the question, we desire to present a few plain Some of our older readers will remember a old-fashioned reasons why this should not be case that attracted great attention some the case.
years ago. A young woman was murdered That there is a spiritual world, and that in a barn and buried under the floor. She communications from it have been made to was thought by her friends to be still alive man, we shall not, as previously hinted, in another place; and the murderer remained attempt to prove ; but, taking this for not only undiscovered, but unsuspected for a granted, we proceed to maintain that there time; but the young woman's mother was is nothing in the character of past communi- warned repeatedly in a dream to search the cations to lead us to suppose that any period barn. She did so. The murder was thus would arrive in the world's history when discovered, and the murderer (Corder) contheir repetition would be impossible or un- demned and executed. The writer we have desirable. On the contrary, we find in the just quoted very properly asks, “ Now, but sacred scriptures a solemn declaration re- from what other cause than a supernatural specting the last days thus introduced :- | action upon the mind of the mother, could this
Saith God, I will pour out of my spirit dream have been produced? But men would upon all flesh; and your sons and your not perceive or acknowledge this. The counsel daughters shall prophesy, and your young on both sides, the judge, the jury, the remen shall see visions, and your old men shall porters, the editors—all
, with one consent, dream dreams.” And again we have another pushed this most prominent feature of the inspired penman recording the plain, unmis- case aside. It did not elicit one serious retakeable words, “Where there is no vision flection-one pious remark. It was to them the people perish;” perish not merely in the only a dream. To us it was the voice darkness of ignorance, but in the deeper of God responding to the cry of innocent gloom of unbelief.
blood." The other instance which we would We have seen that dreams were, in olden adduce was first recorded in an American times, employed by God to convey intimations religious publication of high respectability, of his will to man—that prophecy speaks of the Watchman and Reflector. The writer is their being still so employed in the future; a minister of high position, and, according to and the question naturally arises, Are they the journal, deserving entire credit. The ever so honoured now? We maintain that story runs thus:they are. It may be objected that, since the “ In the summer of 1848, the Rev. canon of scripture has been completed, man of New York, sailed for England, on needs no further revelation of spiritual truths. board one of the packet-ships belonging to But we would remind the objector that few, the Collins Dramatic line, a short time before if any, of the dreams noticed in the scrip- the introduction of ocean steamers on the tures had reference to spiritual matters; we Atlantic. After a short residence of a few cannot, therefore, say that dreams have been weeks in England, he returned to New York discontinued for spiritual reasons, nor that by the same vessel. The voyage home was we need them less than our forefathers. It protracted, and far from pleasant. The winds has been well said by a living biblical critic, were, for the greater part of the time, con"The state of man may often require intima- trary, and the passengers, among whom were tions more distinct than can be conveyed by several ladies, were dejected and weary. One impressions upon the mind. These more morning as they assembled at breakfast they distinct intimations can only be conveyed by seemed to be more than usually desponding, words or signs. ... There is nothing which and one lady in particular, the wife of the man can learn in a waking state but may be captain, was more so than any of the others. imparted to him in a dream. It seems pro- Mr. rallied her upon her dejected apbable, or more than probable, that God still pearance, and asked her why she was so very speaketh once, yea twice, in dreams, yet desponding. She said her spirits were unman perceiveth it not.'"* Numerous cases usually depressed owing to a dream she had might be brought forward in evidence of the had the previous night, and which made a
very deep impression upon her mind; so much Dr. Kitto, “Daily Bible Illustrations," Vol. II. so, that she believed it was a reality, and not
• Do yoti
a mere imagination. She was urged by the lowing specimen from the pen of the Hon. company to tell her dream. She said that N. P. Tallmadge, a gentleman occupying a her son, whom they had left on their farm in high position in the New World:—“The Connecticut, appeared to her in her dream, following physical manifestation was made and, pointing to his side, in which there in the presence of General Hamilton, General seemed to be a deep wound, said, 'Mother, I Waddy Thompson, of South Carolina, and am dead,' and immediately vanished from her myself:sight.
“We were directed to place the Bible on a “All present at table sympathized with drawer under the table. I placed it there the lady, and the dream was immediately completely closed. It was a small pocket entered in the log-book of the vessel. After Bible, with very fine print. Numerous raps buffeting the winds for a number of days, at were then heard, beating time to 'Hail last they made the Hook, when they were Columbia,' which had been called for. Soon boarded by a pilot. On stepping on board, the sounds began to recede, and grew fainter instead of the usual cheerful salutation, he and fainter, till, like the music of the guitar, quickly inquired for Captain -, whom, they died away in the distance. The alphacoming upon deck, he immediately addressed, bet was then called for, and it was spelled saying he was sorry to be the bearer of sad out, “Look.' I looked on the drawer and tidings; but the letter which he handed him, found the Bible open. I took it up and he said, would inform him particularly of the carefully kept it open at the place as I found event. Without a word in reply, the captain it. On bringing it to the light, I found it went below and opened the letter, which was open at St. John's Gospel, Chapter II. being from the agents of the vessel. It informed on the left side, and Chapter III. being on the him that, on a certain day, his son had gone right side. I said, “Do you wish us to look out a gunning, and that, in crossing a fence, at Chapter II.?' Ans.— No. his gun went off and lodged its contents in wish us to look at Chapter III.?'
Ans.his side, killing him instantly. The log-book “Yes.' And it was then said, 'Read.' I was called for, and it was found that his commenced reading the chapter, and signideath corresponded exactly with the date of ficant and emphatic raps were given at many the dream.”
verses; and at verses 8, 11, 19, 34, most What say W. G. D. and his materialistic vehement raps were given. By looking at friend “Halket” to this? Here is something these verses, you will appreciate the signithe rationale of which is not found in their ficancy and intelligence of this emphatic philosophy.
demonstration. This manifestation purported Space permits us to do little more than to come from Calhoun, who had previously refer to the popular belief in apparitions and invited us three gentlemen to be present at å ghosts, which, like all others, doubtless has particular hour. some amount of truth for its foundation. “In reflecting on the preceding manifestaWho has not heard or read the narrative of tions, one cannot but marvel at the power by the
appearance of the ghost of “old Jeffrey” which they are made, and the intelligence by at the house of Wesley's father, at Epworth? which that power is directed. And it would a narrative which staggered even the seem impossible for one to doubt the source credulity of Dr. Priestly, and of which of that intelligence.” Southey remarks, in the Life of Wesley, Now, few we presume will have the hardi* such things may be supernatural and yet hood to assert either that these gentlemen not miraculous; they may not be the ordi- were deceivers or deceived, especially when nary course of nature, and yet imply no it is remembered that there are thousands alteration in its laws."
who would bear a similar testimony. The Of course in treating upon a subject like spread of the belief in these manifestations this, it is to be expected that we should has no parallel in history, either in regard refer to that greatest marvel of modern to the numbers or the intelligence of the times, spirit-rapping and table-talking. individuals by whom it has been received. We might crowd the pages of this magazine Upon this point Judge Edmonds, of New with the testimonies of witnesses of these York, says: "Scarcely more than four years wonderful phenomena; but we give the fol- I have elapsed since the · Rochester Knock
ings' were first known among us. Then W. G. D. nor his colleague“ Halket” attempt mediums could be counted by units, but now to deny the reality of these phenomena; they by thousands; then believers could be num- only oppose“Benjamin's” theory of accounting bered by hundreds, now by tens of thousands. for them, and seek thereby to draw attention It is believed by the best informed, that the from the phenomena themselves. But this whole number in the United States must be will not do; we must press them to an honest several hundred thousands, and that in this avowal of their belief or disbelief in these city and its vicinity there must be from matters; for, to use the words of an adverse twenty-five to thirty thousand. There are critic in the Eclectic Review, “ According to ten or twelve newspapers and periodicals the laws of evidence, an absolute refusal of devoted to the cause, and the spiritual credit would in this case be misplaced. library embraces more than one hundred
Tacit admission we cannot withdifferent publications, some of which have hold.” If our opponents go as far as this in already attained a circulation of more than their admissions, as we feel sure they must, ten thousand copies. Besides the undis- we respectfully but earnestly ask them how tinguished multitude, there are many men they will account for these phenomena except of high standing and talent ranked among on the supposition that they are communithem; doctors, lawyers, and clergymen, in cations from the spiritual world? It is not great numbers, a Protestant bishop, the enough to discuss the existence of Hades, we learned and reverend president of a college, need not leave terra firma, for here our senses judges of our higher courts, members of convey to us "sights and sounds” about the Congress, foreign ambassadors, and ex-mem- origin and import which we are so deeply bers of the United States Senate."
concerned. It is worthy of remark that neither
OUR theme is dangerous to sober thought. and discourse of the “charms" of bygone After reading the articles of " Benjamin” days; of the ibis and scarabæus; of Soloand his alter ego of the hieroglyphic arrow, mon's seal and Aladdin's ring; or of that we feel so perfectly bewildered that we yearn wondrous crystal, described by the veracions for relaxation and relief. The terrible "hard William Lilly, which had the names of Rawords,” the gigantic sentences, the inexpli- phael, Gabriel, and Uriel engraved uponi' cable“ postulates," which we may not deny and which possessed such virtue that those under pain of becoming either idolatrous or who looked into it could hear the angels atheistical (p. 12, col. 2), and the extraor- speak, and thereby discovered the singular dinary reasoning, flit before our minds like fact that angelic pronunciation was very gigantic spectres; boding evil, but yet so much like that of the Irish, much in the unreal, so untangible, and so utterly beyond throat!” Not a look or an act in the our comprehension, that we feel strongly circle around us, hut would have its own inclined to rush into an opposite extreme. appropriate tale. If a sneeze was heard
, Our ordinary weapons will surely be vain. we might relate how the ancient heathens We would fain try some cunningly devised believed sneezing to be a “communication" scheme. Our foes are too vague and sha- of approval from the gods; so that when dowy for the bayonet; perhaps their gar- Telemachus sneezed with unusual vigour, ments may be fired by a squib. We are “ The smiling queen the happy omen blessed:" strongly tempted to invite our readers to a how the grave Aristotle investigated the friendly gossip; to admit all that has been subject, and found it too abstruse for s said and sung of spiritual existences, and to satisfactory decision; how the famous “me; pour forth all our gleanings of legendary treat of the ten thousand” owed its successful lore. We might then speak of the whole issue to the sneezing of a solitary soldier
, round of that
while Xenophon barangued the dispirited “Mystic learning, wondrous able In magic, talisman, cabal,
army after the assassination of Clearchus; Whose primitive tradition reaches
how, as Catullas and Propertius aver, As far as Adam's first green breeches," sternutation of the gentle fair was a certain