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slavery, and bondage, are synonymes; they “ Are there any modifications of the principle express one general idea, but present it under of slavery which can in any cases render it different phases, and with various modifica- abominable?” the articles of my opponents tions. If, then, we point out this general would have served as a triumphant flourish idea, or social principle, we shall be able at of trumpets in honour of an affirmative reply. once to decide upon its morality or immo- It has been shown that the principle of rality, its justice or injustice (since the dif- servitude is the same as that of slavery. Is ficulties of moral science arise always in there, then, any propriety in the relation of particular applications only); this done, we superior and inferior, of master and servant? shall then have to decide on the effect of the Are such relations justifiable under any cirsuperadded modifications of the principle in cumstances? It can scarcely be supposed each of the three cases. Now the one general that any reader of the Controversialist will meaning of, or idea expressed by, these words, do otherwise than give an affirmative reply. is the subjection of personal freedom to the “ L'Ouvrier" seems to have felt this, and will of another. In the case of servitude, therefore tries to throw dust into our eyes by this subjection is only partial, both in nature the roundabout manner in which he estaband duration, and can only be enforced by lishes the old absurdity, “ All men are equal." negative or indirect means. Thus, my ser- Conscious of the inherent weakness of his vant must perform certain duties, during a position, he endeavours to compensate for it given time and within certain bounds: he or by a display of the outward apparatus of she must entirely ignore their own freedom strict syllogism, and (for what earthly object of body or of will, and follow my directions— it is introduced none but himself can tell) a the dictates of my will; and if they refuse so solitary axiom of “Euclid.” The fearfulto act and submit, I may enforce my claims looking syllogism contains a gross petitio indirectly by the aid of my country's laws, principii in the first or major premiss, and an or negatively by withholding those rewards equally gross error in the minor premiss. What or privileges which I should otherwise be can be meant by the preposterous assertion compelled to grant. In slavery and bondage, that existences having the same nature on the other hand, the subjection is absolute, and origin are naturally equal?” Are all and the compulsion direct and positive. The the apples grown on the same tree “naturally latter term (bondage), I believe, merely im- equal ?” I presume they all have the same plies aggravated slavery—the addition of a nature and origin!" Let me have the right needless cruelty and wanton oppression. of using these words in admitted acceptations, Here, then, is the first grand distinction, a and I could prove black to be white. The close attention to which will show the futility next assertion is equally absurd,—“All men (as a philosophic question) of most of the have the same nature and origin!" If by current declamation against slavery.* Bon- nature “L'Ouvrier” means the possession of dage can never be justifiable under any cir- two legs and the absence of feathers, his cumstances. This distinction between bon- assertion may pass. The truth is, the word dage and slavery the scriptural student will “ nature” has different meanings in the two remember to be very strongly marked in our premises. Here is an absurd argument, proadmirable translation of the Bible. The two duced by a similar play on the word “sinful;" terms, however, are carefully confounded by it may serve as an elementary lesson in logic ** L'Ouvrier” and G. F., who are thereby en- for "L'Ouvrier:”—“Christianity teaches us abled to make a display, by attacking that to hate what is sinful. All men are sinful. which no one asserts, and which (as has been therefore Christianity teaches us to hate all shown) is really excluded by the terms of the men.” The premises of the pretended sylloquestion. Had the question for debate been, gism being foolish, the conclusion may be

fairly doubted. Let it be examined. * I have previously endeavoured to impress

men are naturally equal!” Nay, surely not! phon all readers that this debate is one on abstract Are the Aztec Lilliputians physically equal principles ; but, at the risk of a charge of tau- to the gigantic Patagonians? Is the cantology, I feel compelled to repeat the warning. nibal dancing round his horrible feast morally dage is a dishonesty as gross as that of one, who equal to John Howard, or even the genepurposely confounds religion with superstition. rality of Englishmen? 'Are the generality

* All

of woolly-headed negroes intellectually equal superior power. The whole object of society to "L'Ouvrier;" or he, again, to the Astro- is to abridge the natural liberty or powers nomer Royal or Baron Humboldt? One (rights) of the savage. He must no longer other phrase only remains, social equality. have an uncontrolled will; he must put his Now, "L'Ouvrier's" reasoning was to the neck under the yoke. As a member of sointent that, all men being naturally (what ciety, man must bow to its decrees. Obeis meant?) equal, therefore they ought to be dience to human laws, where they do not socially equal. Borrowing this scheme, I may absolutely clash with those of the Deity, is say, “ All men being naturally (i. e., in their imperative, and strongly enforced by scripphysical, moral, and intellectual natures) ture:-“Submit yourself to every ordinance unequal, therefore they onght to be socially of man;" • Render unto Cæsar the things unequal." Look round on human society; that are Cæsar's;" " Let every soul be subare men socially eqnal? No, we say. The ject to the higher powers;" “ Servants (i. e., wife is subject to the husband, the child to slaves. See Cruden's "Concordance," in loc.) the parent, class to class, subject to ruler, I obey your masters," &c. the apprentice to his teacher, the servant A few words with G.F.: we trust he is now (i. e, the half-slave) to his master; then in a calmer mood. With the true Pharisaic why not, also, the slave to his owner? The spirit he speaks of his “pious opponents ... only reply can be, that it is not necessary who garble scripture," by whom "holy writ to the present condition of this age and is desecrated," who "fully display Jesuitism," country; in other words, circumstances may and “ render apparent the selfishness and either justity or conderin it. It is relatively baseness of ... their cupidity and injustice," tinjust, and not morally wrong in itself. &c.! Not one word is addressed to X's Society is based, and depends for existence, arguments. No!“ The Bible cannot (?!) on an admission of the principle of slavery: defend slavery." There is the assertion; and it is nothing but an orderly arrangement of I., who reasons against it, together with all ranks and classes, whose existence and in- future writers who might adopt the same tendistinction depend on the acknowledgment conrse, were to be branded with infamy. Like and practical use of the doctrine, that beings certain Jews of old. G. F. stops his ears to naturally unequal should be so scially. our arguments, and rashes into the pages of And why should we indulge this foolish the Ceatrorersialist, exclaiming, “ Away longing after universal equality? Does no: with them! stone them! They are worthy each star dixer from all other stars in glory? to die!" I should be sorry to repay him in Can we suppose that God's universe is a kind; prejudice is the worst word I will disjointed series of creations without con- apris to him; to his arguments I can apply neeting ücks-a number of isolated classes, no other term than dogmatism, i. e., asserwhere each class is bat e muititudinous tions without proof, conclasions without prereproduction of the same type? Let the mises. “The Bible cannot defend slavery;" reader ponder on the fearful trurbs contained taererore, siater is nos right. Such is the in those pray and apposite remarks quoted ste of reasoning! The substance of his br“ Benamin" from tre pages of Tapper. whole paper is that cruel bondage is horri

We gezi not follor L'Ouvrier" any fur- fying to G. F.'s synpathies, as it is to all ealther. “Ben anin" has exposed, with great tiratei hearts; Š G. F. runs off into one of fare and ceanness, that old sbsurdity, ns- three fits of virtnous indignation so admirably tural rzata s rempant of the subtle erb described in Macaniay's “ Essays” (that rets o ibe scholastic age, which has been on Byron), and becomes a mere bull in the cast adde by ail the great modern writers on china-shop of arguments. He shuts his eyes scal ethics and arisprudence bas been and charges madir: The ada ce of slavery is stardeced by all fast thinkers." A "right" wrong and crael; therefore its use is so also

, is scess creature of law. The "rights" G. F. as into the same errors as "* L'Ouvrier" of a man in a state of nature are simpit his as to bumsn equality. I need reiterate Datural pwers to do what be pleases. It is their exposare. It his principles were care very unfortunate that our language should ried ont fals, sciety wald be at an end. cocfound - right," se nos wrong." with Wben nnable to mainile Christianity with right," sea privilege granted by some sarery, les him remember that Paul directed

that masters should treat their servants (ters to treat well their servants, and servants (slaves) well. Like many other things, to obey, &c., their masters; and every one Christianity will soften the horrors of bon- who has any knowledge of the social condage; it does not pretend to gratify all the dition of those days will be aware that their yearnings of our nature.

servants were slaves. Servus, a slave, is one The space I have already occupied com- of the first scraps of knowledge picked up pels me to pass over many interesting topics, in the Latin grammar. Moreover, we find or I might have shown that in some ages Paul writing an epistle to Philemon, and and circumstances of the world slavery has sending it by the hand of a fugitive slave been an absolute necessity, and a boon even (Onesimus), and entreating him forgive to its subjects; and that at others it has that slave's offence. Very strange, this, if proved a powerful agent of civilization. I slavery is intrinsically evil and unjust! Now must, however, confine myself to a very brief the question comes, Can anything which has notice of the most important phase of the been approved by God under certain circumquestion. X. bas pointed out sufficient stances be really unjustifiable under all? In instances in the Old Testament to show other words, Is God unjust? I leave the that slavery was admitted and approved by opposition to the consideration of this fearful God. Nor has the Gospel brought in any dilemma.

H. B. new doctrine: it specifically commands mas


of slavery,

WHEN we saw this question proposed on pretend to find that the Bible sanctions the the wrapper of the Controversialist, we at holding of their fellow men in involuntary once supposed that there would be no debate servitude. The advocates of slavery rest upon it. But, however, the reverse is the their defence of the system on the servitude case, and it appears that this. iniquitous which existed among the Jews, and many of system, like others, has its defenders. The them assert that the patriarch Abraham January number of the Controversialist was a slaveholder. But it is quite clear contains a pro-slavery article by X., in which, that no defence of modern slavery can be after declaring that “ Uncle Tom's Cabin” is based on the Jewish system of servitude; an untruthful book, he attempts to prove and we maintain that Jewish servitude was that the Bible sanctions slavery. He is not slavery, and that such a system can find followed by “ Benjamin,” in the February no support in the Bible. number, who maintains, that in the practice In modern slavery, the slave is the abso

no moral principle is violated. lute property of his master, who can barter With reference to “Uncle Tom's Cabin” or sell him like any kind of merchandize; being an untruthful book, we just refer X. to but in Jewish servitude, he was not conthe “ Key," lately published by Mrs. Stowe, sidered as a slave, but as a servant. The where he will find all the characters and servant, by voluntary act, bound himself

for incidents supported by real facts ; and we a sum of money to serve his master, who will proceed to show that no part of the did not regard him as a piece of property inspired volume contains an approval of the that could be bartered or sold, but allowed system of slavery, and that it is morally him many privileges, and after his time of wrong. Can our readers suppose that God, service, set him at liberty. In support of who in the moral law commanded his people this assertion, we quote the following, by the to love their neighbours as themselves, or Rev. J. Symington:-“ It will greatly assist that our Lord, who came breathing “ peace us in our inquiry, and remove a 'faliacy on earth and goodwill towards men,” could thrown around the question, to ascertain at sanction such a system of oppression and once the meaning of the Hebrew word, on

Our opponents do not the use of which some apologists rest their appeal to the New Testament to prove their allegation that Abraham was a slaveholder. arguments. They shrink from its glorious And notwithstanding the insinuations of light

, and hide among the dark shadows of learned Hebraists, that the word "eved is the Mosaic Dispensation ; and here they more cognate to the word slave than to

injustice as this!


6 And ye

servant, we are bold to affirm that the verb time they became free, and we assert that in

eved' signifies simply to serve, and the noun this year the alien slaves also became free. eved, servant. .

If eved' signifies Hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim slave, where is the Hebrew word for free liberty throughout all the land, to all the servant? . . There is not a word in the inhabitants thereof; and he shall return, Hebrew tongue to denote one human being EVERY MAN unto his family.”

There is no held as a piece of property by another.” exception here. Liberty was proclaimed to

In the Jewish system of servitude the ALL the inhabitants of the land, both Jews service was voluntary on the part of the and aliens, and every man was to return to servant. He sold his services to his master, his family, which they could not do very and received the money himself; in the same well were they still held in bondage. In manner as our English servants do, who connexion with this part of the subject, X. enter into a contract with their master, to quotes the following passage. serve him for a certain period, and for a shall take them as an inheritance for your certain sum. And how, indeed, could children after you, to inherit them for a Jewish service be otherwise, as stealing and possession; and they shall be your bondselling men were forbidden, as well as the men for ever.” At first sight this passage holding of them after they had been stolen, seems rather striking, and as if sanctioning as the following passage will show:—“He the holding of the servant in perpetual that stealeth a man and selleth him, or if he bondage; but it is thus very clearly and be found in his hands, he shall surely be well explained by the author before quoted. put to death." But how stands the case in “From the word 'bondmen,' nothing can be modern slavery ? The poor negro is stolen adduced in support of slavery, for it is the from the land of his birth, and condemned same word that is uniformly rendered serto involuntary servitude. His service is vant elsewhere. Nor does the phrase "for not purchased, as in Jewish servitude; but ever,' refer to the perpetual bondage of the he is torn from his home, put on the auction individual servant, but to the source from block, and sold to the highest bidder. which the Hebrews were to continue to And this is done by men who profess to draw their supply of servants.

As if God take the system of slavery from the Bible! had said, 'Ye must not make servants of Some of our American slaveholders bave your brethren, for ye are my servants. quite an honest horror of the practice of Here is a perpetual source of supply among man-stealing; but still the middle clause of the surrounding heathen nations. Generathe verse before quoted condemns them: “Or tion after generation, and jubilee after if he be found in his hands . . . he shall jubilee, although you must periodically set surely be put to death."

your servants free according to my laws, you In modern slavery, the service of the slave will here find a fresh stock. The source of is perpetual; in Jewish servitude it was supply was permanent; the service of the limited. The Jewish servant only remained individual bondman was regulated by specific with his master until the year of jubilee, laws, and universal liberty was proclaimed at when he was set at liberty, and might the jubilee." return to his native land; but not only The moral precepts and teachings, both does the modern slave serve his master, he of the Old and New Testaments, are directly may be bequeathed by him to another. x. opposed to slavery. Universal love and says: -“ These native servants or slaves affection among men are required by the became free on the completion of the seventh moral law, “ Thou shalt love thy neighbour year of their servitude, or were liberated in as thyself.” How can the slaveholder obey the year of jubilee; but not so the alien this law? For assuredly to take his fellowslaves, these were perpetual bondmen.” The man and place him to bondage, and deny latter sentence we positively deny. The him the blessing of liberty, cannot be loving Jewish servants, as above stated, became free his neighbour as himself. And also the in the seventh year of their servitude; or, if golden rule, quoted by G. F., " Whatsoever the year of jubilee happened before that ye would that men should do unto you,

ye even so to them," stands in direct opposi* United Presbyterian Magazine, August, 1847. tion to the “peculiar institution.”


The fearful plagues with which God Benjamin" asks, “Whence comes the afficted Egypt, are at once a proof of his doctrine, that all should be equal and free?" divine displeasure and disapproval of slavery. We answer, from the Bible! The declarations During the reign of that Pharoah who that “God hath made of one blood ail nations advanced Joseph, the Israelites were con- of men,” and “God is no respecter of pertented and happy in the land. But we are sons,” plainly show that all men are equal told that “another king arose who knew not and free, and that one has no right to submit Joseph," and who reduced the Israelites to another to involuntary bondage. slavery. “ Their cry came up to God by And now, reader, we have shown you that reason of the bondage, and God heard their there is no such system as slavery sancgroanings,” and he commanded Pharoah to tioned in the Bible; that it is opposed to emancipate them. On his refusal, God sent the moral precepts of the word of God, and grievous plagues upon him, and finally that it is viewed by God himself with disdestroyed him with all his host in the Rei pleasure. We think that we have establishSea. This is a standing monument which ed the fact that slavery is morally wrong, shall always bear witness that slavery is an and therefore unjustifiable. accursed thing that God hates.


The Juquirer.

QUESTIONS REQUIRING ANSWERS. when rising and setting than when it is at the

meridian.-TEXTOR. 203. I shall feel indebted to the writer of the 209. Your readiness to reply to the inquiries of article in favour of Shakspere in last September's your correspondents has induced me to send you Controversialist, or to any correspondent who the following, in the hope that you will give it a will inform me who is the author of those exqui- place in the next number of the Controversialist, sitely beautiful lines commencing

in order to have an explanation from some of your

readers :“Oh! I seem to stand Trembling, where foot of mortal ne'er hath been,"

1. Illustrate by examples from the predicable,

“ Vegetable," the meaning of the terms, species, and quoted, p. 335-6, Vol. IV. The context appears genus, difference, property, and accident. to intimate that Milton was the author; but I 2. Draw out a “tree of division" from the sum. believe that is not the fact; nor, indeed, the in- mum genus,“ body.”—J. C. tention of “ Excelsior."-B. S.

201. Milton says, in his preface to “Samson Agonistes," that the following verse (1 Cor. xv. 33),

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS. "Evil communications corrupt good manners," is from the writings of Euripides. In the British 177. Greek Syntax.-In reply to J. B. M'C.'s Controversialisi, Vol. III., No. 27, p. 247, it is question, I venture, in the protracted silence of said that it is from Menander's. Which of these all other correspondents, to offer the following is correct?-TEXTOR.

suggestions : 205. Could any of your readers, in the “In- 1. The particle pev is not seldom used in putting quirer's

" column, give me any particulars regard- a question, as implying that the querist expects ing Samuel Warren and his works. I would be to be answered in a certain manner, though he obliged if you yourselves could give me any in- speaks with some degree of doubt. I think the formation regarding his place of birth, &c.—J.C. phrase adduced might be orally translated by a 206. Can any of your readers oblige by answer- good elocutionist as an assertion,“ You are well ?" ing the following questions, through the medium his intonation conveying an interrogative force to of your valuable periodical-What are the best the hearer-a feeling that the speaker has a slight: and most modern publications on the steam- doubt of the truth of his assertion, and wishes to engine,

practical mechanics, and mechanical and have it fully dispelled. It is, however, difficult civilengineering ? and, which is the best (monthly to form an opinion in the absence of the context, on quarterly) periodical on the above subjects, and and I am unable at the moment to call to mind on modern machinery?–J.T.

appropriate examples of my positions. 207. What sort of a lamp-gas, candle, or oil- 2. This second question, I think, is answered by should a student use, when studying, which would the following quotation from Bloomfield's transbe least hurtful to the eyes? My eyes (and some- lation of Matthiæ's Greek Grammar (4th edition, times my head) feel sore and weak after study. Is vol. ii., p. 768):-“ Frequently the conjunctive there any means of remedying this disagreeable mood is used, although the preceding verb be in feeling by medicine, &c. Perhaps some of your the past time, viz., when the verb, which depends correspondents will kindly inform me.-J.W.B.

upon the conjunction, shows an action which is 208. How is it that the moon appears larger continued to the present time, e. g., Iliad, E' 127

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