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Secondly, I imagine that“ the massive portly cynic” had no small force of body to under-prop and sustain this “ giant force within ;" more at least than the majority of “ myriad-minded men,” whose corporeal energies are seldom to be computed by the same arithmetic as their mental ones. I imagine that he was at least a far better Centaur than S.T.C.* Such a man might sport for a while, in the hey-day of life, with“ poverty, pain, and all evil, as with bright-spotted wild beasts which he had tamed and harnessed;" but weaker-bodied men would perish by their fangs in the midst of the process; he might travel through a parched Sahara,” “ without losing heart or even good humor;" but to one of more delicate frame “the stern sandy solitude” would soon have yielded only a grave.f Men of letters and literary genius are too often what is styled, in trivial irony, “fine gentlemen spoilt in the making.” They care not for show and grandeur in what surrounds them, having enough within, beside “ the pomp of groves and garniture of fields,” and super-regal array of likes at their feet, when they go forth into outward nature ; but they are fine gentlemen in all that concerns ease and pleasurable, or at least comfortable, sensation. How can they live hard and sparingly who are relaxed and languid from muscular inaction ; exhausted by incessant activity of brain; rendered sensitive, and therefore, in some sort, luxurious, by refinement of thought and vividness of imagination ? difference to money matters," in men of genius, is for the most part more gentlemanly than wise : say rather downright incoherency and madness.

It is a noble doctrine that teaches how slight a thing is Poverty; what riches, nay treasures untold a man may possess in the midst of it, if he does but seek them aright; how much of the fiend's apparent bulk is but a fog-vapor of the sickly and sophisticated mind. It is a noble endeavor that would bring men to tread the fear of this phantom under their firm feet, and“ dare to be poor !"! Herein I see an analogy be

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recondite merits with those which it requires less intellectual refinement to appreciate. I conjecture, that the German public are more cultivated, intellectually at least, than the English: I do not say, upon the whole, better educated, or as highly polished and civilized.

* Both, however, died at about the same age, a few months before completing their 63d year. Richter was born March 21, 1763, died November 14, 1825. My Father was between nine and ten years younger, and lived six weeks longer. t “ And mighty Poets in their misery dead.” Resolution and Independ

St. 17, 1. 4. † At least in the sense of being unable to keep a gig.” I am glad that the last Quarterly notices with approbation “ a manly cheerful tone tween the teaching of a mighty Poet,--him who wrote of “ the Leech Gatherer on the lonely moor,"--and the writings of Thomas Carlyle. I see a similarity of spirit between them, inasmuch as both show how great a thing is man in his own original greatness, such as God made him and enabled him to become by his own energies, independently of all aid except from above; how noble he is in his plain native dignity, the network veil of social fictions and formalities, which “ the dreary intercourse of daily life” spins out, being taken from before his face. And in this theme the one has illuminated with the glories of the poetic imagination, the other with the lambent many-colored flame of wit and humor, and a playful yet powerful eloquence, teeming with bright fancies, like a river which foams and flashes and sparkles in the sunshine, while it flows onward with a strong and steady current. Nevertheless when we have blown into thin air and transparency whatever is unsubstantial in this object of dread, still Poverty, or an insufficiency of the external means of ease and enjoyment according to our actual condition, must ever remain one of life's greatest evils; if it be not the greatest of all those which we do not create by any acts of our own will, yet surely none is greater, seeing that it too often brings in its train all the rest—"cold, pain, labor," with unrelieved and unprevented sickness, and want or loss of lively joyous warm affection, that scatters flowers and sunshine on the path of life. It presses hard upon the body, and both directly and indirectly it presses



the mind. Richter, with all his superabundant energy, got rid of it as soon as possible, and no man who had not keenly felt how it can embitler and imporеrish even a brave man's life could have written as he has done in his history of Siebenkäse, the Advocate of the Poor. Indeed the thorns of this piece may be felt ;- the fruit and flowers we can see and admire, but scarcely seem to taste them or inhale their living odors. S. C.

Note P., 343. Trois Lettres à Mr. Remond de Mon-Mort. 1741 (opp. ed. Erdmann Berol. 1840. P. II., pp. 701–2). “Outre que j'ai eu soin de tout diriger à l'édification, j'ai tâché de déterrer et de réunir la vérité ensevelie et dissipíe sous les opinions des différentes Sectes des Philosophes; et je crois y avoir ajouté quelque chose du mien pour faire quelques pas en avant.”

I suppose that most philosophers attempt to traverse the ground of all foregoing philosophies, and flatter themselves that they make quelques in some remarks on the improved condition of literary laborers” in Mr. Burton's Memoirs of David Hume, and is able to add :-" the fact of the general improvement on which he dwells cannot be doubted.”

pas en avant, while the unphilosophic insist upon it, that they do but move in a circle—that there is among them vertigo quædam et agitatio perpelua et circulus,--and the anti-philosophic poet is of opinion, that

never yet did philosophic tube
That bring the planets home into the eye
Of observation, and discovers, else
Not visible, his family of worlds,
Discover Him that rules them.

After the sentence quoted verbatim by Mr. C. the letter proceeds thus.

“ Les Formalistes comme les Platoniciens et les Aristotéliciens ont raison de chercher la source des choses dans les causes finales et formelles. Mais ils ont tort de négliger les efficientes et les matérielles, et d'en inferer, comme faisoit Mr. Henri Morus en Angleterre, et quelques autres Platoniciens, qu'il y a des Phénomènes qui ne peuvent être expliqués mécaniquement. Mais de l'autre côté les Matérialistes, ou ceux qui s'attachent uniquement à la Philosophie mécanique, ont tort de rejeter les considérations métaphysiques, et de vouloir tout expliquer par ce qui dépend de l'imagination.”

“ Je me flatte d'avoir pénétré l’Harmonie des différens règnes, et d'avoir vu que les deux partis ont raison, pourvu qu'ils ne se choquent point; que tout ce fait mécaniquement et métaphysiquement en même tems dans les phénomènes de la nature, mais que la source de la mecanique est dans la mitaphysique. Il n'étoit pas aisé de découvrir ce mystère, par ce qu'il y a peu de gens qui se donnent la peine de joindre ces deux sortes d'études.” I have often thought that probably there is much one-sided reasoning and halving of truth amongst us at this day, because the men who are mathematical are not deeply and systematically metaphysical, and vice versa ; those who are given to philosophical studies are not minutely acquainted with the history and present state of the Christian religion ; while the great patricians and theologians have not been regularly trained and disciplined in metaphysical science,—do not appear to have patiently examined what a large portion of the students would hold undoubtedly to be discoveries in that direction. They hear persons who have travelled in Germany, but never set foot in the region of German metaphysics, or inhaled one breath of its thin atmosphere, maintain that this science makes no real permanent advances,—that what one man builds up another pulls down, to erect his own equally unstable edifice in its place. Judging of the matter from without, and hearing only censure and contention instead of consent and approbation, they are not aware how large a part of his immediate predecessor's opinions the successor quietly assumes. It is strange, however, that they should be ignorant of the general fact, that a philosopher argues more against that teacher of philosophy from whom he has derived the main body of his opinions, whose system contains great part of that which his own consists of, than he does with the whole world beside. Could all that belongs to Leibnitz be abstracted from Kant, and all that belongs to Kant be abstracted from Fichte and Schelling, I should imagine that the metaphysical system of each would straightway fall into a shapeless, baseless wreck. There is perhaps no fallacy so common and so deluding as the imagination that we can understand another man's system of thought and sling by looking at it from the outside, without having entered into ii and abode in it, and learned experimentally its true nature and character. When a man is decrying German philosophy without having studied it, or perhaps read a word of what any German philosopher has written in his own books, his speech is sure to betray him : “ so dangerous is it for the ablest man to attempt speaking of what he does not understand."* S. C.

Note Q., p. 366. See his Treatise concerning the Search after Truth.—De la Recherche de la Vérité, book iji., especially chap. 6.

Father Malebranche was born at Paris, 1638, died in the same city, Oct. 13, 1715. Cousin speaks as follows of this pious philosopher.

“ Nicholas Malebranche, l'un des Pères de l'Oratoire, génie profond, caché sous un extérieur peu avantageux, et incontestablement le plus grand métaphysicien que la France ait produit, développa les idées de Descartes avec originalité, en les reproduisant sous des formes plus claires et plus animées ; mais son tour d'esprit éminemment religieux lui fit donner à sa philosophie un caractère mystique qui lui est particulier. La théorie de la connoissance, celle de l'origine des erreurs, surtout des erreurs qui tiennent aux illusions de l'imagination, enfin la méthode


bien conduire notre pensée, telles sont les parties dont il a traité avec le plus de succés. Malebranche admit la théorie de la passivité de l'entendement et de l'activité libre de la volonté ; il considéra l'étendue comme l'essence des corps, l'âme comme une substance essentiellement simple, et Dieu comme le fond commun de toute existence et de toute pensée : ces doctrines l'amenèrent à combattre les idées innées par des objections pleines de force, et à soutenir que nous voyons tout en Dieu : Dieu, suivant lui, comprend en soi toutes choses de la manière dont elles s'offrent à notre intelligence ; il est l'infini de l'espace et de la pensée, le monde intelligible et le lieu des esprits.” Manuel, vol. ii , pp. 113-14.


Spoken by Mr. Dequincey in reference to a celebrated German writer

It has been thought that there is a resemblance between the peculiar tenets of this philosopher and the doctrines of George Fox concerning divine illumination. They certainly prepare the way for the Idealism of Berkeley.

Among the posthumous works of Locke is An Examination of P. Malebranche's opinion of Seeing all things in God (Works, fol. 1751, vol. iii., p. 410), which examination is examined again by Leibnitz in his Remarques sur le sentiment du P. Malebranche, &c., 1708 (Opp. ed., Erdmann II., p. 456). To compare those two discourses is highly instructive and interesting. There are other critiques by eminent men of the Father's doctrine. The following account of the last days of Malebranche is given in the Life of Berkeley prefixed to his Works, the materials of which were chiefly furnished by his brother. “ At Paris, Mr. Berkeley took care to pay his respects to the illustrious Père Malebranche. He found this ingenious father in his cell, cooking in a small pipkin a medicine for a disorder with which he was then troubled, an inflammation on the lungs. The conversation naturally turned on our author's system, of which the other had received some knowledge from a translation just published. But the issue of this debate proved tragical to poor Malebranche. In the heat of disputation he raised his voice so high, and gave way so freely to the natural impetuosity of a man of parts and a Frenchman, that he brought on himself a violent increase of his disorder, which carried him off a few days after.”

Thus did the illustrious Father Malebranche melt away, as it were, like a man of snow, before the vigorous sun of Berkeley, who was then about one and thirty, splendid in mind and person, and potent with his tongue, while the Father had entered his seventy-eighth year; his great metaphysical mind,—the greatest perhaps that France ever produced, joined with an cager spirit, proving at last too much for the decaying tenement of his body, which appeared from the first so weakly put together that the wonder was how it kept the metaphysician within the bounds of Time and Space so long. Yet his term of earthly existence exceeded by eight years that of his robust rival, who expired Jan. 14, 1753, “as he was sitting in the midst of his family listening to a sermon, -an end very suitable to the tenor of his gentle and pious yet strenuous life. S. C.

Note Q. 2, p. 366. Etienne Bonnot de Condillac was born in 1715 at Grenoble, died in 1780. Cousin says that he labored to perfect the empirical system of Locke, and attempted to trace up all the active faculties of the soul to sensibility by means of the transformation of sensations. Others, as La

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