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two round arches communicating with the great behind the ceiling, with some twenty pieces of gold laid western porch. The porch is now the site of the tower ; | there by a person a little before. This encourages the it had a raised platform eighteen inches high, form- souldiers in their work, and makes them the more eager in ing a step along the whole of the south side, where was breaking down all the rest of the wainscot. The book was the entrance to the chapel. Over the outer western door called Swapham,' and was afterwards redeemed by a were two verses from Eccles. v. A parvise over the porch person belonging to the minster for ten shillings. was formerly used as a schoolroom, and from the following “ There was also a great brass candlestick hanging in the entry it appears that the wardmotes were at one time held in middle of the quire, containing a dozen and a half of lights, it:“A wardmote was holden on Sunday, November the with another bow candlestick about the brass eagle. These 6th, in the church.” This was in 1592, and in the same year both were broke in pieces, and most of the brass carried is this entry: “ To be paid unto William Saker 201. in the away and sold. west porch of Faversham church.” Beneath the chapel is an "A well disposed person standing by and seeing the undercroft, having three small round pillars supporting a souldiers make such spoil speaks to an officer, desiring him chalk roof with stone groins. Much ancient stained glass to restrain them ; who answered, “See how these poor people was once in the church, but almost the only remains are in are concerned to see their idols pulled down.' the east window of St. Thomas's chapel, which was made at “When they bad thus defaced and spoiled the quire, they the expense of Simon Orwell, a brewer in Faversham, temp. made up next to the east end of the church, and there break Henry VI., and a leading man in Mortimer's rebellion. The and cut in pieces, and afterwards burn the rails that were remains consist of a small golden lion, some tracery, the about the communion table. The table itself was thrown hull of a boat, and a rebus-viz., the drawing of a well and down, the tablecloth taken away, with two fair books in the initials $. 0. There were two heater-shaped shields in velvet covers ; the one a bible, the other a common prayer the great east window, and six shields in other windows, all | book, with a silver bason gilt, and a pair of silver candlesticks containing arms of benefactors; there were also fifteen beside. But upon request made to Colonel Hubbert, shields in brass, all of which are missing. So far as I can the books, bason, and all else, save the candlesticks, were trace, there were no shields cut in the roof, either on the restored again. corbels or the woodwork. Six of the altars mentioned at “Not long after, on the 13th day of July, 1643, Captain p. 64 can be traced by the piscinæ or other evidence remain- Barton and Captain Hope, two martial ministers of Noting; of the other four, some at least were probably built tingham or Darbyshire, coming to Peterburgh, break open against the western side of some of the large pillars in the the vestry, and take away a fair crimson satten table cloth, nave, now destroyed with the exception of two; there were and several other things that had escaped the former soul. furmerly ten. In pulling down these pillars an ancient hol- diers hands. lowed stone, shaped like the smaller half of an egg, per “Now behind the communion table there stood a curious pendicularly divided, was discovered, and also an oblong piece of stone-work, admired much by strangers and tra. stone trough for baptizing children by immersion. The hol- vellers : a stately skreen it was, well wrought, painted and lowed stone was a small altar, quite black by a lamp being gilt, which rose up as high almost as the roof of the church, burnt in it, and has been called by some a Roman altar. In in a row of three lofty spires, with other lesser spires grow: 1444 five new bells were purchased of “ Johanne Hille of ing out of each of them. This now had no imagery work London, wydowe,” whose receipt for the money is pre- upon it, or anything else that might justly give offence, and served ; a sixth bell was added in 1459. The effect of the yet, because it bore the name of the high altar, was pulled new peal was that in 1479 it was necessary to rebuild the all down with ropes, lay'd low and level with the ground. campanile. Of the hermitage, which stood in the church
“Over this place, in the roof of the church, in a large oral yard, I have already given an account (see p. 20, ante), the yet to be seen, was the picture of Our Saviour seated on a chapel at the N. E. corner was, I suppose, a mortuary throne; one hand erect, and holding a globe in the other, chapel and wax house. No account of a churchyard cross attended with the four evangelists, and saints on each side, remains; and there is no yew-tree here, which is rather with crowns in their hands, intended, I suppose, for a repreunusual. The churchyard is full of Roman remains, broken sentation of Our Saviour's coming to judgment. Some of pottery, oyster shells, tiles, &c. Several urns and coins the company espying this, cry out and say, Lo, this is the were found in 1794 ; and at the east end of the churchyard a God these people bow and cringe unto, this is the idol considerable quantity of bones of oxen and other animals they worship and adore.' Hereupon several souldiers have been dug up at various times.
charged their muskets (amongst whom one Daniel Wood, G. BEDO.
of Captain Roper's company, was the chief), and discharge
them at it: and by the many shots they made, at length do OUTRAGE BY CROMWELL'S SOLDIERS.—The following quite deface and spoil [the] picture. “ Short and true narrative of the Rising and Defacing the “The odiousness of this act gave occasion (I suppose) Cathedral Church of Peterborough, by Cromwell's soldiers, to a common fame, very rife at that time, and whence Mer. in the year 1643,” is taken from Gunton's “History of curius Rusticus might have his relation, viz. :—that divine the Church of Peterborough” :
vengeance had signally seized on some of the principal “The next day after their arrival, early in the morning, actors; that one was struck blind upon the place, by a re. they break open the church doors, pull down the organs of bound of his bullet ; that another dyed mad a little after, which there were two pair. The greater pair which stood neither of which I can certainly attest. For, though I have upon a high loft, over the entrance into the quire, was thence made it my business to enquire of this, I could never find thrown down upon the ground, and then stamped and tram- any other judgment befal them then, but that of a mad pled on and broke in pieces.
blind zeal, wherewith these persons were certainly possest. " Then the souldiers entered the quire, and there their first “ Then they rob and rifle the tombs, and violate the business was to tear in pieces all the common prayer books monuments of the dead. And where should they first that could be found. The great bible indeed, that lay on a begin, but with those of the two queens, who had been brass eagle for reading the lessons, had the good hap to there interr'd: the one on the north side, the other on the escape with the loss only of the Apocrypha.
south side of the church, both near unto the altar. First “ Next they break down all the seats, stalls, and wainscots then, they demolished Queen Katherin's tomb, Henry the that was behind them, being adorned with several historical Eighth his repudiated wife: they break down the rails that passages out of the old testament, a Latin distich being in enclosed the place, and take away the black velvet pall each seat to declare the story. Whilst they were thus em- which covered the herse, -overthrow the herse itself, disployed, they happened to find a great parchment book, 'placed the gravestone that lay over her body, and have left
nothing now remaining of that tomb, but only a monument were so dazzled, that they thought they saw popery in every of their own shame and villany. The like they had cer, picture and piece of painted glass. tainly done to the Queen of Scots, but that her herse and “Now the windows of this church were very fair, and pall were removed with her body to Westminster by King had much curiosity of workmanship in them, being adorned James the First, when he came to the crown. But what and beautified with several historical passages out of scripdid remain they served in like manner : that is, her royal ture and ecclesiastical story ; such were those in the body arms and escutcheons, which hung upon a pillar, near the of the church, in the isles, in the new building, and else. place where she had been interr'd, were most rudely pulled where. But the cloister windows were most famed of all down, defaced and torn.
for their great art and pleasing variety. One side of the “In the north isle of the church there was a stately tomb quadrangle containing the history of the Old Testament; in memory of bishop Dove, who had been thirty years another, that of the new; a third the founding and founders bishop of the place. He lay there in portraicture in his of the church; a fourth, all the kings of England down. episcopal robes, on a large bed under a fair table of black wards from the first Saxon king. All which notwithstanding marble, with a library of books about him. These men that were shamefully broken and destroyed. were such enemies to the name and office of a bishop, and “Notwithstanding all the art and curiosity of workmanship much more to his person, hack and hew the poor innocent these windows did afford, yet nothing of all this could oblige statue in pieces, and soon destroy'd all the tomb. So that the reforming rabble, but they deface and break them all in in a short space, all that fair and curious monument was pieces, in the church and in the cloyster, and left nothing buried in its own rubbish and ruines.
undemolisht, where either any picture or painted glass did “The like they do to two other monuments standing in appear; excepting only part of the great west window in that isle; the one the tomb of Mr. Worm, the other of Dr. the body of the church, which still remains entire, being too Angier, who had been prebendary of that church.
high for them, and out of their reach. Yea, to encourage " In a place then called the new building, and since con- them the more in this trade of breaking and battering winverted to a library, there was a fair monument, which Sir dows down, Cromwell himself (as 'twas reported,) espying a Humphrey Orm (to save his heir that charge and trouble,) little crucifix in a window aloft, which none, perhaps, before thought fit to erect in his own life time, where he and his had scarce observed, gets a ladder, and breaks it down lady, his son and wife and all their children, were lively re- zealously with his own hand. presented in statues, under which were certain English “ But, before I conclude the narrative, I must not forget verses written :
to tell, how they likewise broke open the chapterhouse, ran" • Mistake not, reader, I thee crave,
sack'd the records, broke the seals, tore the writings in This is an altar not a grare,
pieces, specially such as had great seals annexed unto them, Where fire raked up in ashes lyes,
which they took or mistook rather for the popes bulls. So And hearts are made the sacrifice, &c.'
that a grave and sober person coming into the room at the
time, finds the floor all strewed and covered over with torn “Which two words altar and sacrifice, 'tis said, did so papers, parchments and broken seals; and being astonisht provoke and kindle the zealots indignation, that they re- at this sight, does thus expostulate with them : Gentlemen, solved to make the tomb itself a sacrifice : and with axes, (says he,) what are ye doing ? they answered, we are pulling poleaxes and hammers, destroy and break down all that and tearing the popes bulls in pieces. He replies, ye are curious monument, save only two pilasters still remaining, much mistaken : for these writings are neither the popes which shew and testifie the elegancy of the rest of the work. bulls, nor any thing relating to him; but they are the Thus it hapned that the good old knight, who was a con- evidences of several mens estates, and in destroying these, stant frequenter of Gods publick service, three times a day, you will destroy and undo many: With this they were outlived his own monument, and lived to see himself car. something perswaded, and prevailed upon by the same ried in effigie on a souldiers back, to the publick market person, to permit him to carry away all that were left undeplace, there to be sported withall, a crew of souldiers going faced, by which means, the writings the church hath now before in procession, some with surplices, some with organ came to be preserved. pipes, to make up the solemnity.
“ Such was the souldiers carriage and behaviour all the " When they had thus demolished the chief monuments, time during their stay at Peterburgh, which was a fortnights at length the very gravestones and marbles on the floor did space : They went to church duly, but it was only to do not escape their sacrilegious hands. For where there was mischief, to break and batter the windows and any carved any thing on them of sculptures or inscription in brass, these work that was yet remaining, or to pull down crosses where. they force and tear off. So that whereas there were many soever they could find them; which the first founders did fair pieces of this kind before, as that of abbot William of not set up with so much zeal, as these last confounders Ramsey, whose large marble gravestone was plated over pulled them down." with brass, and several others the like, there is not any such now in all the church to be seen; though most of the in ANCIENT ART TREASURES.—The following letter in the scriptions that were upon them are preserved in this book. Daily Telegraph, on the ancient art treasures for the British
“One thing, indeed, I must needs clear the souldiers of, Museum, by Mr. W. R. Drake, may be of interest to our which Mercurius Rusticus upon misinformation charges readers :- Great was the wail amongst lovers of art, when them with, viz. :-That they took away the bell clappers last year it was announced that the fine collection of Cypriote and sold them, with the brass they plucked off from the antiquities gathered together by General Cesnola, had been tombs. The mistake was this : the neighbourhood being allowed by the authorities of our great National Museum to continually disturbed with the souldiers jangling and ringing become the property of our transatlantic friends, instead of the bells auker, as though there had been a scare-fire, finding a resting place, as they might have done, in the (though there was no other, but what they themselves had British Museum. ' Now, there is another chance of the made,) some of the inhabitants by night took away the nation acquiring a collection of antiquities, of a different clappers and hid them in the roof of the church, on purpose character, it is true, but of far greater value and artistic only to free their ears from that confused noise ; which gave beauty than those which were found in Cyprus. A conoccasion to such as did not know it, to think the souldiers siderable portion of this attractive collection is now had stolen them away.
deposited in the British Museum, and will well repay “ Having thus done their work on the floor below, they examination by all who are interested in the marvellous are now at leasure to look up to the windows above, which art workmanship of the ancients. Greece, Etruria, and would have entertained any persons else with great delight Rome contribute to the collections. It would be impossible and satisfaction, but only such zealots as these, whose eyes I within the scope of a letter to give anything like a catalogue
raisonné of the several items; but I would call attention in the reign of Charles II. Archy, as he was called, lies to the fact that the collection consists of 21 pieces of sculp- interred in the churchyard of his native parish of Aruthret, ture in marble or stone, 175 bronzes, 108 terra-cottas, 160 in Cumberland ; and by an odd incident, suitable to his provases, 41 ivories, and 25 ancient ambers. Among the fession, the day of his funeral happened to be the first of marbles is the head of Hera, found at Agrigentum, of April. Archy had long shot his bolt with great applause, colossal size and of Greek work, in a style which would till he unfortunately fell upon Archbishop Laud, for which entitle it to a place among the foremost of the existing monu- he was degraded, had his fool's coat pulled over his head, ments of Greek sculpture, and which, in point of simplicity and was expelled the court. When the news arrived of the and dignity of expression, might well merit a place beside tumults in Scotland, occasioned by an attempt to introduce the head of Asklepios that unsurpassed type of ideal the Liturgy there, Archy unluckily met the archbishop, and beauty, now in the Museum. The bronzes include, amongst had the imprudence to say to his grace, “Who is fool other noteworthy objects, a seated male figure from Taren- now ?”. Of this the prelate complained to the privy councıl, tum, of matchless beauty, which, in the impression of heroic to which he was then going, and, in consequence, the folpower it conveys, is not unworthy of being compared with lowing entry was made in the council book : " Ordered that the Theseus of the Parthenon, which the attitude of the Archibald Armstrong, the king's fool, be banished the court figure strikingly recalls. Amongst the bronzes will also be for speaking disrespectful words of the Archbishop of Can. found one of great value from Præneste, being a strigil, terbury." According to Howell, Archy had the honour of which, judging from its size and beauty, was designed as attending Charles, when Prince of Wales, on his romantic a votive ornament; the handle is formed of a female figure expedition to Spain, where his fool's coat gained him admitexquisitely modelled. The terra-cottas are a series present, tance into the presence of the Infanta and her ladies of ing several new types of very graceful female figures, and honour, who were pleased with his wit and extravagance. include four very remarkable figures—believed to be unique | One day they were discoursing what a marvellous thing it -of actors of the ancient Roman stage, representing the was, that the Duke of Bavaria with less than fifteen thousand glutton, parasite, thief, and feeble old man.
The majority men,
after a long march, should encounter and defeat the of the vases are of great importance, including a remarkable Palgrave's army, consisting of above twenty-five thousand, archaic cenochoe, a number of rhytons or drinking-cups; in consequence of which Prague was taken. When Archy several likythi, remarkable for their fine condition, including heard this, he answered that he could tell them a stranger three from Athens, one of which is especially prized as thing than that, “fur was it not very surprising that, in the retaining its original colours; a small black cup, unique in year 1588, there should come a fleet of one hundred and forty having the figures rendered in intaglio instead of relief, as ships from Spain to invade England, and not ten of them usual in the black ware. The ivories include one specially could get back to tell what became of the rest." remarkable, found at Præneste, and apparently dating from a period when Greek sculpture was largely influenced by Assyrian art. To the above have to be added a further collection, including two chefs d'æuvre not yet arrived in this
Queries. country, but which, I am happy to say, are on their road. The most precious of these objects is a bronze head of Venus, WORLE HILL CAMP, WESTON-SUPERof heroic size, in the noblest and purest style of Greek art
MARE. probably the finest work, next to the marbles of the Par. thenon, yet known. It was found in Thessaly, and dates There is no notice of either town or camp in the “Beauties from a period later, perhaps, than Phidias, but not later than of England and Wales," nor in the older guides to wateringScopas. There is also an Etruscan terra-cotta sarcophagus į places ; and the more recent local ones are not very reliable. from Cervetri, a pendant to the celebrated one in the Louvre, Weston itself has entirely grown up within the present cenfrom the Campana collection, but even more interesting, as tury ; even in 1831, when Lewis brought out his valuable it has a long Etruscan inscription. It is surmounted by two
Topographical Dictionary of England,” there were only recumbent figures of a man and woman resting on a kind 738 inhabitants. Of the encampment, there is a brief notice of couch, which is decorated with bas-reliefs, representing in the discourse of Pettigrew (not Planché)
"On the Antibattles and scenes of domestic and public life. The atten, Iquities of Somersetshire, in the “ Journal of the Archæotion of the Museum authorities was called to the last-named logical Association,” Vol. xii. 297, et seq., in which, following precious objects in the autumn, by gentlemen who were well Mr. Warre, he considers the camp as neither Roman nor qualified to form an opinion on their merit and value, and Danish, but formed by British tribes, either Belgoe or also, from personal examination, were able to certify to their Hædui, who inhabited this district while Britain was as yet importance as an acquisition to the store of ancient art altogether divided from the Roman world. Mr. Warre already belonging to the nation. In addition, however, himself, in his interesting paper in the “Proceedings of the to the testimony thus given, Mr. Newton has recently in- Somersetshire Archäological Society," 1851, pp. 64-85, says spected them, and I believe I am not indiscreetly betraying of this most remarkable and mysterious relic of bygone times, my knowledge on the subject when I state that he has in that it may probably be of very remote antiquity, even as the strongest terms reported in favour of the purchase: compared with the Roman era ; and thinks it possible the Strenuous efforts were made by the agents of other countries fortifications on Worle Hill may mark the site of a town inhato purchase them, but fortunately an option was secured for bited in times of extreme antiquity by persons connected with England, and it is this option which the trustees of the this traffic (in tin), and that from them the primitive Britons Museum and the Government have now under consideration. My object in now writing is to call the attention of the may have looked down upon Carthaginian, or even Phæni. public generally to the matter, under the conviction that I can slips taking in their cargoes of the mineral wealth of they will concur in the expression of an earnest desire that Mendip, hundreds of years before the Belgic settlement at no niggardly considerations should be allowed to interfere almost certain the Phoenicians traded to Cornwall for tin, as
Bleadon, or the port of Axium were in existence.” It is with the acquisition of the treasures now within our grasp, or that the Government should doubt that the House of early at least as 1000 B.C.; and probably they came up the
The ancient Commons will hesitate to vote the sum fixed by Mr. Newton Bristol Channel, as they went to Ireland. as the money value of the collection, and for which sum the Belgic Britons, says Pettigrew, called Somerset gwlad-yrBritish nation may become the possessors."
haf, or country of summer, which was also a name applied
by them to Ceylon; and this may possibly point to a conARMSTRONG THE JESTER.-The custom of keeping nection with a people from the far east.
Hence, also, may jesters or fools at court ceased with Archibald Armstrong, I have originated the tradition recorded by Keating, that the
ancestors of the Irish passed by Ceylon round Asia on their Earl of Pembroke. Would any one be so kind as to point way to Ireland. Keating's traditions, however, though very out the grounds on which Mr. Gifford based his opinion? I amusing, are very untrustworthy. There is one circumstance should like to have some proof of Massinger's renunciation. which seems to me to point to a very remote antiquity in the He did not live so long ago as to admit of the events of his camp; the finding of the remains of Bos longifrons. Although life being shrouded in antiquity. this animal continued to exist, according to Professor Owen
SHAGRIT. (“Paläontology,” p.411), until the historical period, its bones have usually been found associated with those of the mam HOLYROOD CHAPEL.- What has become of the brazen moth, elephant, &c., animals which are now confined to font which was in Holyrood Chapel, before its destruction in tropical climates, and which have probably been extinct in 1554, and which was used as a baptismal font for the children this country many thousand years. "Lyell thinks the presence of the royal family? And where are the remains of James V: of the mammoth entitles a formation to be regarded as very now? They were so late as the middle of the eighteenth ancient, i.e., in the history of man (“. Principles of Geology, century in this chapel. IIth ed. Vol. I. 550, etc). Mr. Warre, in a second paper,
T. Astley. 1854, mentions the discovery of some Roman pottery and coins ; but quite at the surface, glass beads and fragments of MIDDLETON THE GIANT.—There was, some years ago, bronze ornaments, which belonged, he thinks, to some at Brazenose College, Oxford, a portrait of the celebrated Romanized Briton, who had sought refuge within the ram. English Giant, John Middleton, who was introduced to the parts at the time of Ceawlin's irruption.
presence of James I. by Sir G. Ireland. Is it still there, It is difficult even to form a tolerable conjecture as to and what is its size ? Dr. Plott's account of the giant is what may have been the precise relations of the sea and land that “his hand from the carpus to the end of the middle in this district some few thousand years ago ; whether the finger was 17 inches long ; his palm 85 inches broad; sea nearly surrounded Worle Hill, as there is reason to and his height 9 feet 8 inches, wanting but 6 inches of the believe that within the historical period it used to flow up size of Goliah. almost to Glastonbury. Lyell says but little, that “the fats
R. T. S. of Somersetshire have received enormous accessions, ie, from what was once sea; and Worle Camp may have stood HORSE-RACING.—Is it known at what period horse-racing originally at the end of a ridge extending far out into the was inaugurated in England ? Fitz Stephen, who lived in sea.” I should be glad to hear the opinion of any geologist the reign of Henry II., informs us, in his " Description of who has made this part of the coast his study.
London,” that horses exposed for sale were tested by being F. J. LEACHMAN. matched against each other; and Mr. Strutt in his work on
the “ Sports and Pastime of England,” states that several TRIAL BY JURY.-When was trial by jury introduced race-horses were given to Athelstan by Hugh Capet in the into this country? Some say it was in use by the ancient ninth century, on the occasion of the latter soliciting the Britons. Archbishop Nicholson claims the credit of its sister, Ethelswitha, of the former in marriage. But these institution for Woden, the great Saxon legislator and captain. facts prove nothing. F. T. R.
A. TAYLOR. EARLY PRINTING.—The first book printed in the English ORIGIN OF THE WORD GAZETTE.-To the Italians we tongue was “ The Recuyel of the History of Troy," dated are told we are indebted for the idea of newspapers ; the first 19th September, 1471. “ The Game of Chess,” dated one published by them being called the Gazetta. What is the 1474; was the first specimen of the art of printing known origin of the word ? Three theories are advanced, viz.in this country. The first book printed on English paper ist, Gazara, a magpie or chatterer ; 2nd, Gasa, from the
“ Bartholomew de Glanville,” 1495, translated into Latin, signifying a little treasury of news; 3rd, Gazetta, a English by John Trevisa, and printed by Wynkyn de Worde, farthing coin peculiar to Venice. at Westminster. The paper was made by John Tate, at
L. L. Hertford, the first paper mill having been set up there in the reign of King Henry VII.
GIORNO DEL PONTE.—Whence originated the well-known Are the above statements to be relied upon as accurate ? Pisan festival, Giorno del Ponte ? The Pisans say it may be
traced to a very remote period, but that is no answer to my SEVENTEENTH CENTURY MUSIC.—Have the musical Pisans themselves know anything about it previous to 1785;
question ; and I have not been able to find out that the works of the following composers been collected and pub- in which year the royal family of Sicily and the princes of lished ? If so, where can they be seen ? Benjamin Rogers, Tuscany and Lombardy were present at the sports.
I shall Henry Purcell, Dr. William Turner, Pelham Humphrey, be thankful for information on this subject. John Playford, Christopher Gibbons, Captain Henry Cook, John Blow, Dr. Nathaniel Giles, Dr. William Child, Dr.
HENRY A. K. John Wilson, Orlando Gibbons, Thomas Tomkins, Martin Pierson, John Hilton, Henry Lawes, and Elway Bevan. Scott' met by accident in one of his researches in the Record
WAVERLEY ABBEY.--I have heard it stated Sir Walter They all flourished in the seventeenth century.
R. DELAMERE. Office some documents relating to this abbey, and that these
suggested to him the name of his celebrated novels. Can Rousseau.—Is it true, as Madame de Staël states, that any of your readers inform me if this is so ? Is the charter Jean Jacques Rousseau refused a pension offered him by of this, the earliest of the Cistercian monasteries in this King George III. ? I have hitherto understood that the country, so pleasantly situated on the way near Farnham, pension was thankfully accepted, but some time afterwards still extant; and if so, where is the same ? given up in a hasty moment; and that Rousseau subse
ELLOE. quently endeavoured to get it renewed.
H. K. W.
Musical INSTRUMENTS.—What musical instrument was
first invented? Some say the lyre, others the flute. Have MASSINGER THE POET.-Mr. Gifford, the editor of we any data on which to form a judgment ? I should also Massinger's Works, gives as his decided opinion that the like to know if the Egyptian instruments are the first of which poet renounced the reformed religion for the Roman we have any knowledge. Catholic faith, and consequently lost the patronage of the