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but no other entrance could then be found for it; for generally supposed, which derives a gratification from of the other senses, the only remaining inlets of perceiving the resemblance of actual or probable knowledge with reference to an external world, there truth; or even, and sometimes in a higher degree, is not one, which, if unaided by sight, could be of from the delineation of fictitious characters and any practical value. With respect, indeed, to our scenes. Hence the art of painting is easily made the inward feelings, though we should, on the one hand, vehicle of the ludicrous and the horrible, no less than be spared by the privation of light, the worse than of the sublime and the beautiful; and hence, also, corporeal pain of the averted eye of those who ought the painter may incur a considerable degree of moral to meet us with gratitude and affection, we should, responsibility in the exercise of his art. But this on the other hand, lose the beams of filial or parental view of the subject, though fertile in reflections of love, of which even a momentary smile outweighs an great moment, and practically too much neglected, age of pain.

does not belong to the purpose of the present paper. In the vegetable world, upon the products of which

[Abridged from Kidd's Bridgewater Treatise.] animal existence ultimately depend, light is the prime mover of every change that takes place, from In general it is not very difficult for little minds to attain the moment the germ emerges from the soil. Ex- splendid situations. It is much more difficult for great clude the agency of light, and in a short time the minds to attain the place to which their merit fully entitles most experienced botanist might possibly be at a loss them. In the first place, elevation of sentiment is almost to know the plant with which he is otherwise most always an insurmountable obstacle to fortune; it is an familiar; so completely obliterated are all its natural of advancement; talents are even adverse to advancement,

effectual barrier against a thousand easy and certain means characters, whether of colour, form, taste, or odour. unless they be accompanied with vast intrepidity of soul; Thus the faded colour of the interior leaves of the with a sort of courage that men of truly honest and upright lettuce and other culinary vegetables, is the result of hearts do not wish to possess. For if, on the one hand, such a degree of compression of the body of the they multiply our means of attaining the proposed end, plant as excludes the admission of light beyond the they, on the other, place before our eyes, in but too forcible exterior leaves. Again, if a branch of ivy, or of a point of view, the obstacles we have to surmount. This any spreading plant, happen to penetrate, during is not always an advantage. I am persuaded that in care

inconvenience is great, and the multiplication of our means the progress of its vegetation, into a dark cellar, or

fully examining the conduct of those who have attained to any similar subterraneous situation, it is observable any extraordinary fortune, we shall be tempted to believe that, with the total loss of colour, its growth advances there is nothing so sure of succeeding as not to be overwith great rapidity, but the proportions alter to brilliant, as to be entirely wrapped up in oneself, and ensuch a degree as often to mask its original form. dowed with a perseverance which, in spite of all the rebuffs Lastly, which in a practical point of view is of the It is incredible what may be done by dint of importunity

it may meet with, never relaxes in the pursuit of its object. greatest importance, if a plant which has grown alone; and where shall we find the man of real talents who without the influence of light be chemically examined, knows how to be importunate enough? He is too soon its juices, it might almost be said, its whole substance, overcome with the disgust inspired by all matters which would be found to consist of little else than mere have interest only for their object, with the desire of perwater; and whatever odour it may have, is character. | petual solicitation; he is too much alive to all the little

movements visible on the countenance of the person istic, not of its original nature, but of its unnatural

solicited, and he gives up the pursuit. The fool sees none mode of growth; becoming, in short, very like that of these things, feels none of these things-he pursues his of a common fungus. The total result is, that all object with unremitted ardour, and at length attains it. the native beauties and uses of a vegetable growing BARON DE GRIMM. under these circumstances, are lost. The eye is neither delighted by any variety or brightness of A Christian, on his death-bed, being asked, “ Whether colour; nor is the sense of smell gratified by any gives me no uneasiness: if I die, I shall be with God; and

“ Yes," replied he; " but that fragrance: the degeneracy of its fibre into a mere

if I live, God will be with me." pulp, renders it unfit for any mechanical purpose; and the resinous, and other principles, on which its Some years ago a clergyman was addressed by his friend nutritive and medicinal virtues depend, cease to be thus :—“You have a very large family: you have as many developed. In some instances, however, the bleach- children as the patriarch Jacob." "True !" answered the ing of plants is useful in correcting the acrid taste good old Divine; “and I have also Jacob's God to provide

for them." which belongs to them in their natural state, as in the case of endive and celery.

When we consider how large a portion of tae divine moral The observation of those modifications which light law relates to our duty to our neighbours, and how much undergoes when reflected from the surfaces of bodies, | filthy habits are injurious to them, we surely need feel no has given rise to one of those impressive arts which hesitation in admitting the truth of the remark, that cleanare capable of contributing no less to the refinement liness is next to godliness.--HODGKIN. of society at large, than to the gratification of the Be cautious with whom you associate, and never give your individuals who cultivate or admire them. For who company or your confidence to persons of whose good princan look on the productions of such masters as ciples you are not certain. No person that is an enemy to Guido, Raphael, or Michael Angelo, without imbi- God, can be a friend to man. He that has already proved bing a portion of the spirit which animated them himself ungrateful to the Author of every blessing, will in the execution of their inimitable works? or, in the not scruple, when it will serve his turn, to shake off a retirement of domestic life, who can successfully to his own purposes, but he will never benefit you. A bad

fellow-worm like himself. He may render you instrumental describe those emotions which are excited by the man is a curse to others; as he is secretly, notwithstanding portrait of a beloved object, a child or parent, now no all his boasting and affected gaiety, a burden to himself. more; or by the representation of that home and its Shun him as you would a serpent in your path. Be not surrounding scenery, in which the careless and happy seduced by his rank, his wealth, his wit, or his influence. hours of childhood were passed ?

Think of him as already in the grave; think of him as The intrinsic source of the pleasure which we ex

standing before the everlasting God in judgment. This perience from the contemplation of a painting, is posing, and present him in his true light, the object rather

awful reality will instantly strip off all that is now so improbably to be sought for in that principle of our of your compassion, and of your prayers-than of your nature, of more extensive influence, perhaps, than is wonder or imitation. Bishop COLERIDGE.

When you

USES OF WATER.

DUTCH FARMERS AT THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. If we would have a familiar illustration of the im TAE Dutch farmer lives in a lonely sequestered vale, rieh portance of water in the daily and hourly occurrences

in flocks and herds, and abundantly blessed with the means of life, let us, in imagination, accompany an individual

of good living. Sometimes, like a patriarch, he presides

over a family of eighteen or twenty children, and a vast of moderate rank and condition in society, from the

retinue of slaves, when his station is one of no mean order. time of his rising in the morning, till the hour of He sits at the head of his table with his hat on, his pipe sleep at night, in order to observe the utility of water generally stuck in it by way of ornament. Previous to in administering, either directly or indirectly, to his dinner, a small tub of water is brought to hiin, in which various wants and habits. How great is the comfort,

his face, hands, and feet, are washed. The tub is then to say nothing of the salubrity of the practice, which

taken to the next in importance in the family, who is gene results to him from the application of water to the rally the eldest son or the mother, who go through the

same process; and afterwards the whole group do the same surface of the body, by means either of the bath or

in their turn. After this is concluded, a little boy, generally any simpler process! And, again, the change of the

some adopted or favourite slave, stands up and chants à linen in which he is partially clothed, is rendered long poetical grace, to which the most respectful attention equally comfortable and salutary, in consequence of is paid, and the repast commences. its having been previously submitted to the process

No one can stay too long at the house of a Dutchman,

nor can he ever wear out his blunt hospitality. of washing. The infusion of coffee or of tea, which

talk of leaving, the boor is distressed, and immediately is, probably, an essential part of his earliest meal, asks with the utmost simplicity, “ An't I nice ?-An't wife could not have been prepared without water; neither nice? An't slaves good ?" If business be advanced as could the flour, of which his bread consists, have the excuse to go, he urges you to stay with “Never mind been kneaded; nor the food of his subsequent meal,' the business now; do it another time." If you still persist, the broths, and most of the vegetables, at least, have

he is sorry; concern and regret are expressed by the whole been rendered digestible, without the aid of the family; and his slaves are drawn up to witness your same fluid; and, with respect to his common beve- departure. He expects no other acknowledgment of his

attention than a pinch of snuff to each of the slaves, who, rage, whether milk, or any form of fermented liquor, when they get it, immediately commence rubbing their teeth water still constitutes the main bulk of that beverage. with it.

So far the use of water is directly and immediately The Dutch, at the Cape, appear to agree with the Spanish necessary to his comfort and subsistence; but its proverb that “Haste comes from the devil,” for they are indirect and remote necessity is equally observable in

most dilatory persons in transacting business. If a Dutchall that surrounds him. There is scarcely an article health of his wife, give him some refreshment and plenty

man calls on a person there, and you ask him about the of his apparel, in some part of the preparation of of conversation, the probability is that he will go away which, water has not been necessarily employed. In without transacting the business he came upon. He dethe tanning of the leather of his shoes; in the dress parts highly satisfied with you, and calls you "a nice man," ing of the flax of which his linen is made; in the and even a Christian man."—Webster's Voyage of the

Chanticleer. dyeing of the wool of his coat, or of the materials of his hat. Without water, the China or earthen cups, out of which he drinks, could not have been turned

The following is an instance of the sagacity of a Dog, and on the lathe; nor the bricks, of which his house is

of his capability of measuring time, if I may so call it.

There were two friends, one living in London, and the constructed, nor the mortar by which they are ce other at Guildford. These friends were on terms of great mented, have been formed. The ink with which he intimacy; and for many years it had been the custom of writes, and the paper which receives it, could not the London family to pass the Christmas at Guildford; and have been made without the use of water. The knife their uniform practice was to arrive to dinner the day before with which he divides his solid food, and the spoon

Christmas-day, and to be accompanied by a large spaniel, with which he conveys it; when in a liquid form, to

who was as great a favourite with the visited as with the

visiters. At the end of about seven years after this plan his mouth, could not have been, or at least, have

had been adhered to, the two families had an unfortunate not, probably, been formed, without the application misunderstanding, which occasioned an omission of the of water, during some part of the process of making usual Christmas invitation. About an hour before dinner, them.

on the day before Christmas-day, the Guildford gentleman, By water the medicinal principles of various vege- standing at his window, exclaimed to his wife, "Well, my table and mineral substances are extracted, and dear, the W—'s have thought better of it; for I declare rendered portable, which could not be introduced they are coming as usual, though we did not invite them

here comes Cæsar to announce them !" and the dog came into the animal system in a solid state: and this

trotting up to the door, and was admitted, as usual, to the element itself becomes occasionally a most powerful parlour. The lady of the house gave orders to prepare medicinal instrument by its external application, in beds; dinner waited an hour; but no guests arrived. Cæsar, every one of its forms; whether as a liquid, under after staying the exact number of days he had been accusthe name of cold or warm bath, or in the form of

tomed to, set off for home, and reached it in safety. The ice, in restraining inflammation and hæmorrhage; or

correspondence which of necessity occurred, had the happy lastly, in the state of steam, as in the application of and as long as °Cæsar lived, he paid the annual visit

effect of renewing the intercourse of the estranged friends; the vapour-bath.

in company with his master and mistress.—JESSE. [KIDD's Bridgewater Treatise.)

The generous never recounts minutely the actions be has Health is more frequently undermined by the gradual done, nor the prudent those he will do.—LAVATER operation of constant, though disregarded causes, than by any great and marked exposures of an accidental kind;

SUNDAYS observe; think when the bells do chime, and is, consequently, more effectually to be preserved by a

'Tis angels' music, therefore come not late: judicious and steady observance of the organic laws in

God then deals blessings. daily life, than by exclusive attention to any particular

Let vain or busy thoughts have then no part: function, to the neglect of all the rest.-COMBE.

Bring not thy plough, thy plots, thy pleasure thitber

Christ purged his temple, so must thou thy heart. It is not from great occurrences alone, that a correct judg

HERBERT. ment is formed of men and things; it is more from the daily, common round, than from the great and blazoned

LONDON events, that a just knowledge is acquired of the characters

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST SI RAND, of individuals; perhaps, also of empires, nations, and

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NATIONAL STATUES. No. VII.

among colleges at Cambridge, both in classics and SIR ISAAC NEWTON.

mathematics; and while that royal foundation con

tinues to receive lustre from such names as LORD The white marble statue of Newton, represented in

Bacon, Isaac BARROW, Cotes, NEWTON, DRYDEN, our engraving, was erected in 1750, to the memory

BENTLEY, and Porson, (we refrain from citing living of that famous person, at the expense of Dr. Robert

worthies, of whom there are not a few,) it shows Smith, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. It

itself at this day not undeserving the place of emi. stands in the ante-chapel of the College, and is of

nence which it formerly enjoyed. Of this College, in first-rate merit as a work of art, being a finished

the ever-memorable year 1660, when he was eighteen production of the eminent sculptor, L. F. Roubiliae, years old, the great Newton became a member; Dr. about whom we might say much that would interest

Barrow, a Fellow and Professor, being his friend, and our readers. This, however, we shall reserve to

the director of his studies, another opportunity, and proceed at once to furnish

Having taken his degree of Bachelor of Arts in a memoir of the greatest philosopher that ever lived.

1664, he was driven from Cambridge in the following Isaac Newton was born at Woolsthorpe, in the

year, by the plague, which did not confine its ravages parish of Colsterworth, Lincolnshire, on Christmas

to London. It was at about this period of his absence day, old style, 1642. He was remarkably small and

from the University, perhaps when at Woolsthorpe, tender, as a child, and it was a saying of his mother, that the circumstance of an apple falling to the ground that at that time she could have put him into a quart from a tree, as he sat beneath it in a garden, gave mug; but, as he grew up, he became robust, and him the first idea of the law of gravitation, which enjoyed the blessing of health and a vigorous consti

he afterwards followed out into the most important tution till his eightieth year. At twelve years old, results. By unwearied application, he is said to have having received some previous instruction, he was

hence determined the principle of motion of the earth, sent to the grammar-school at Grantham, where, like

the moon, the several planets, and the comets, in their Bacon*, at about the same age, he showed remark- respective orbits! One of the best poets of our times, able proofs of a gifted and thoughtful mind. Instead

in his Lines on a Tear, exquisitely alludes to the appliof playing with the other boys, he was almost always cation of the same mighty principle to the greatest and busied in forming different kinds of models in wood:

the least of things :for this purpose, he procured saws, hatchets, ham

That very law † which moulds a tear, mers, and other tools; and even succeeded in pro

And bids it trickle from its source,ducing a wooden clock. The object, however, which

That law preserves the earth a sphere, chiefly engaged his attention, was a new windmill,

And guides the planets in their course. -ROGERS. building near Grantham. Watching the progress of

In 1667, Newton, having laid the foundation of his its construction, he made one on a very small scale,

great work,

The Mathematical Principles of Natural which in workmanship was considered equal to the Philosophy," returned to Cambridge, and was elected original. When finished, he set it upon the top of

Fellow of his College. In 1669, he succeeded Barthe house where he lodged; and fitting a small piece row, as Lucasian professor of Mathematics, and in of linen to each of the sails, saw how the wind turned 1672 became a Fellow of the Royal Society, an instithem. He put a mouse into the mill, and called it tution then in its infancy, to which he communicated the miller; who, instead of helping to turn the sails, his “ New Theory of Light and Colours." This was as his master wished, often stopped to eat the corn his favourite discovery, and had, previous to its pubthat was put in to be ground.

lication, employed him for thirty years. So early as We have not room, curious as it might be, to

1664, he bought a prism at Cambridge, and in 1666 describe all his various plans of this kind, the pursuit of which generally kept him low in his proceeded to try, by means of that simple but valuable class at school : but little did his master and school origin of which many and varying notions had existed.

instrument, the laws of colours, on the nature and fellows imagine, when noticing the neat kites he flew It is not within the compass of our present underat Grantham, and the transparent paper lanterns with taking, to enter fully into this subject, but we will candles in them, fastened to their tails, which looked only state, that the grand conclusion drawn by New. at night like so many comets, that the young inventor

ton, was, would one day astonish not only Europe, but the of which are more easily refrangible than others;" that

“That light consists of different rays, some whole world, by his discovery of the intricate though is, " are more easily turned out of their way in passing harmonious laws of creation itself

, and aid in evincing from one transparent body to another: and it follows the wisdom of God in the most wonderful of His that, after such refraction, they will be separated, and works! And still less did his mother dream of this their distinct colour observed." mighty result, when she took him away from school, to help in keeping his late father's farm, and to attend his statue with the prism in his hand, and whom

Thus our great philosopher, who is represented in the Saturday market at Grantham. Often, indeed, Thomson well terms the “awful Newton," proved that did he stop between his home and that town, to study some old book under a hedge; or when set about sists of seven different colours ; namely, Red, Orange,

a beam of white light, as emitted from the sun, con. watching sheep, would he sit sadly, though not idly, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet; for into these beneath a tree. It has been said that a really clever

seven colours is the beam separated by the prism . person is seldom aitogether idle; and, doubtless, from the period at which Newton could think and reason,

This was a startling discovery. I could never think,"

says the celebrated Flamsteed , “ that whiteness his mind was incessantly and profoundly at work. Such a genius could not long remain concealed;

+ The law of gravitation.

# A Prism of Glass is, in the words of Sir Isaac Newton himself, and an uncle, who was a clergyman, and a man of "a glass bounded with two equal and parallel triangular ends, and excellent sense, became the instrument, under Provi. | three plain and well-polished sides, which meet in three parallel

lines, running from the three angles of one end to the three angles dence, of effectually directing the mind of Newton into

of the other end." the track for which it was formed, by getting him Ø The Rev. J. Flamsteed, the first astronomer-royal, an account placed at the University. Trinity maintained at that been edited by F. Baily, Esq., Vice-President of the Royal Society.

of whom, together with his British Catalogue of Stars, has lately period, as we believe it does now, the leading place The first effect of this work on the mind of the general reader,

would probably be to lower his opinion of Newton's character, See Saturday Magasine, Vol. VI., p. 247.

which Flamsteed, both in his history of himself and in his letters,

was a compound of all the different sorts of rays anecdotes of what we call absence are also related of mixed: but, upon trial, I found all the experiments him. But it is hardly fair to measure such a mind as succeeded as Newton related them."

Newton's by a common standard : his strength lay in Strange to say, this theory, when offered to the thinking deeply and correctly, not in speaking; and world, was received, in some quarters, not only whilst a member of parliament for the University of with feelings of jealous opposition, but of bitter un- Cambridge, for some years, he seldom addressed the kindness towards their author, whose peace of mind House. was, in consequence, much disturbed; as appears This great man, who is well said on the pedestal from the following passage in his letter, to a man of of his statue, to have “ surpassed all his fellow men science, dated 1675. “I had some thoughts of in genius,” expired on the 18th of March, 1727. writing a further discourse about colours, to be read Unlike the other philosopher of England, Lord at one of your assemblies; but find it yet against Bacon, he knew the proper value of money; and the grain to put pen to paper any more on that though far rinoved from meanness, became rich, subject:" and in a letter to Leibnitz, a distinguished and was thus enabled to do many acts of kindness, German astronomer, in the course of the same year, particularly to his poor relations. His London resihe remarks, “I was so persecuted with discussions dence was in St. Martin's Street, Leicester Square, arising from the publication of my theory of light, at a house which may still be seen. He was honourthat I blamed my own imprudence for parting with ably interred, at the public expense, in Westminster so substantial a blessing as my quiet, to run after a Abbey.

M.
shadow.” Nor did his anxieties, arising from the
spleen of his enemies, terminate here. He had, in-

THE BOUQUETIN, OR IBEX,
deed, been appointed Master of the Mint in 1699,
through the generous influence of the Earl of Halifax,

(Capra Iber.)
and knighted by Queen Anne in 1705; but in 1714, This animal, which is one of the most elegant of the
whilst much regarded in the court of George the Goat tribe, was formerly found in the Alps and the
First, we find him involved in a troublesome quarrel Pyrenees in considerable abundance, but has latterly
with Leibnitz, who contested with him the credit of a become much more rare, owing to the constant efforts
valuable invention in mathematics—that of Fluxions, of the hardy hunters of those regions. The whole of
and who tried to undermine him in the good opinion the goat tribe are noted for their cunning and lively
of the then Princess of Wales, (afterwards Queen- physiognomy, their fine sense of smelling, and great
consort of George the Second,) by representing our activity and sureness of foot. Unlike inany of the
great philosopher's views not only as false, but as antelopes and stags, the female goats are all furnished
tending to irreligion. Newton, however, is known with horns, which are, however, much smaller than
to have been a firm believer, and a sincere Christian. those of the male. The favourite haunts of all these
His discoveries concerning the frame and system of animals are the highest ranges of mountains to which
the universe were applied by him to prove the vegetation extends, where they may be seen perched
being of a God, and to illustrate His power and on the summits of the steepest peaks, or on the edge
wisdom in the creation. He likewise studied with of the profoundest precipices. From these lofty situa-
the utmost attention the Holy Scriptures, and con- tions, their quickness of sight enables them to per-
sidered several parts of them with critical care, par-ceive their enemies from a great distance. If pursued,
ticularly as to the series of prophecies and events their activity is such, that they can spring from rock
relating to the Messiah ; and he left behind him an to rock with the greatest rapidity. If, by any means,
elaborate treatise, to prove that the famous prophecy | they should be brought to bay, and obliged to act on
of Daniel's weeks was an express prediction of the the defensive, the danger to which the hunter who
coming of the Messiah, and fulfilled in Jesus Christ, ventures to approach is exposed is very great: this
the eternal Son of God.

more particularly applies to the species represented in He was eighty years old, and appeared to be enjoy- the engraving. ing a green old age, when first seriously attacked by

The following account of the habits of the Ibex, is disease. It was then, after many years of robust extracted from Coxe's Travels in Switzerland. health, that he was called to suffer agonizing pains,

The male Bouquetin is larger than the tame goat, but which, though they sometimes caused large drops resembles it much in the outer form. The head is small of perspiration to run down his face, he bore with in proportion to the body, with the muzzle thick, compressed, entire resignation to the will of the Almighty. A and a little arched; the eyes are large, round, and have delightful instance of his mild and amiable temper much fire and brilliancy. The horns large, when of a full is on record, as having occurred in the height of his beard long, tawny, or dusky. The body short, thick, and

size weighing sometimes sixteen or eighteen pounds. Tlie fame. One day, on his having been called out of

strong. his study into an adjoining room, a favourite little The female is one-third less than the male, and not so dog threw down a lighted candle, by which a quan- corpulent; her colour is less tawny; her horns very small, tity of papers, and in them the labours of years, were

and not above eight inches long. The young are of a consumed. When Sir Isaac returned, and noticed the dirty gray colour. injury he had sustained, he merely rebuked the dog the head low, but in running holds it high, and even bends

In a state of tranquillity, the Bouquetin generally carries by exclaiming, “ O Diamond ! Diamond! thou little it a little forward. He mounts a perpendicular rock of knowest the mischief thou hast done !" In proof fifteen feet at three leaps, or rather three successive bounds of the deep sense he entertained of his own insuffi- of five feet each. It does not seem as if he found any ciency, and of the Divine perfections, we are told, in footing on the rock, appearing to touch it merely to be

Spence's Anecdotes," that once, when complimented repelled, like an elastic substance striking against a hard on his great discoveries in philosophy, he answered, body. He is not supposed to take more than three suc

If he is between two rocks,

cessive leaps in this manner. “Alas! I am only like a child, picking up pebbles on

which are near each other, and wants to reach the top, he the shore of the great ocean of truth.” Some amusing leaps from the side of one rock to the other alternately, till

he has attained the summit. He also traverses the glaciers would lead us to dislike : but those persons who look below the with rapidity, but only when he is pursued, for otherwise he surface, will perceive in the language of the latter person, a querulous

avoids them. and pettish tone, when speaking of Newton, and an eagerness to take offence where none appears to have been intended. Still, the volume The Bouquetins feed, during the night, in the highest is curious, and the editor's task has been faithfully executed, woods; but the sun no sooner begins to gild the summits,

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