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classical, and too much like sculpture, to become ge- latch, and the mill-wheel, all looking as they did ; but nerally popular. In 1793, when he was in Rome, the small shoot he gave her has grown literally to were published his outline designs for Homer's Iliad be “a rose-tree full in bearing;" and still more strikand Odyssey, for the Tragedies of Æschylus, and ing is the difference in the aspect of the young people: Dante's Inferno.
Elate in all the bloom of youth, But to return to Schiller, and the clever artist who
Heaven's image on his brow,has made known The Song of the Bell to many who With downcast blush and looks of truth,
The maiden greets him now. would otherwise never have heard of such a poem. The casting of a bell is, in Germany, an event of
A joyful marriage procession takes place, “whilst solemnity and rejoicing. The agreeable author of the merry bells ring round," followed, however, by An Autumn near the Rhine tells us that, in the neigh- a train of pensive reflections on the father's toils and bourhood of the Hartz mountains, and the other wanderings for the sake of his family,—the mother's mine-districts, one reads formal announcements in anxieties and household cares. In his absence,
She to the girls imparts her skill, the newspapers from bell-founders, that, at a given
And keeps the boys from doing ill; time and spot, a casting is to take place, to which they invite all their friends. An entertainment out of until he returns from a successful tour, and finds doors is prepared, and attended with much festivity. himself in a good estate, surrounded by a happy and Schiller, in a few short stanzas, forming a sort of thriving family. But here, we find, the poet has Chorus, describes, like one who well knows the trade, “chang'd his hand, and check'd his pride !" the whole process of melting, casting, and cooling The dangers attending the fusion of the metal of the bell; the sharp, clear rhymes, and the sound suggest a grand picture of the horrors and devastations of the words, forming an echo to the sense. In of fire !—the conflagration of the mansion, and the the intervals between these various stages in the sufferings of the lately-joyous inmates, while the loud art and mystery of bell-founding, the poet breaks and quick notes of the Bell give the dreadful alarm. forth into the most beautiful representations of the Their lives are, by God's mercy, spared; but scarcely chief events with which the sounds of the bell are has the father of the family had time to rejoice, on connected, " in all the changing scenes of life." seeing the circle so dear to him, safe, than there comes These views appear to be suggested by the alter- | an affecting strain of another sort;—the funeral Bell; nate feelings of pleasure and alarm excited in the
Hark from the tower minds of the master and his workmen, during the
With heavy dong,
Hoarse sounds of woe anxious progress of their task. There are forty-three plates. The first, entitled
The knell prolong!
Sad the swelling notes betray “The Vision," conveys, though somewhat mystically,
A wanderer on the grave's dark way. a general view of the whole; the shadowy figures of
It is the wife, the loved, the dear! Joy, and Discord, Suffering, and Peace, being led by
It is the mother, tender, true! the Hours round the Bell, which is first struck by the
From wedded arms the tyrant drear, palm-branch of Peace! The next plate introduces
The Prince of shades has torn his due ! us to the interior of the foundry, where the master
Torn from the fostering, care is giving directions, and the men are employed at their
Of those she blooming bare. various works. The mould for the bell having been
Ah! that circle's tender band
Is loosed for ever and for aye, completed, the furnace prepared, and the metal re
She dwelleth in another land duced to a molten state, the master-founder exclaims,
Who lately bore a mother's sway.
A more soothing view succeeds, arising from a
favourable turn in the process of founding :-rural Salt of ashes lightly throw
evening scenes; waggons returning loaded with So the fused ore shall flow. Quickly from the scum and froth
sheaves of corn,-the cattle lowing as they “ wind Cleanse away the whitening broth,
slowly" towards the stall,—the villagers dancing in That from metal pure and choice,
the twilight,—the lights glimmering in the cottages, May swell the full sonorous voice. (Plate 5.) -the creaking town-gate closing, and the silence, Plate the sixth, a family procession, on its way to stillness, and security of the inhabitants, reposing church, opens the story as applied to life, of which under the watchful eye of justice, and protected by the “the first step” is here bringing an infant to be bap- majesty of the law. This gives a hint for an address tized. The Bell is seen swinging merrily in the tower, on Order, and the blessings of peace; and then, by as the following lines of the poem will indicate : way of contrast, on the miseries of rebellion and Then with joy's enlivening strain,
insurrection, which are awfully and terribly depicted. The nestling infant's ear it charms;
At last the Bell is finished, raised and suspended; On his first view of life's wide plain,
and its first note is that of PEACE! In Love's enfolding arms. (Plate 6.)
May that delightful word find an echo in the In the eighth plate, (the one we have selected,) the hearts of those who peruse this paper ! May they mother is seen tenderly watching beside the cradle of endeavour in each change of many-coloured life to her child, while her husband pauses in his employ- promote the ends as at this season commended to us ment, to contemplate the little slumberer:
in the Angels' hymn; “Glory to God in the highest, In Time's dark lap for him await
and on earth peace, goodwill toward men."
COUNT STRUENSEE. In plate the ninth, the boy is seen running towards JOHN FREDERICK STRUENSEE was born at Halle, a child, his playfellow, who is on her knees, tending in 1737; his father was an eminent divine, the pupil a little garden, and holding out her hand for the of Buddæus, and an intimate friend of Count Zinslip of a rose-bush he brings her. On this very spot, zendorf, the founder of the Moravian sect. He after the lapse of years, during which he has been carefully superintended the education of his son, en. absent, abroad, and in danger, they meet again. deavoured to inculcate on his mind the truths of There is the same garden, and door; and the very religion, and fondly hoped for his concurrence in dis
charging the duties of a Christian minister. Attached, of the kingdom were assembled, and measured their however, to society, easily influenced by its flattery, importance only by the favour that he showed, was and persuaded by his immediate associates, Struensee now confined in a dark dungeon, and loaded with the became the disciple of Helvetius and Voltaire, and was execrations of mankind.” He was indicted for highearly distinguished among his companions as a man treason, a charge against which he could proffer no of insinuating address, varied abilities, profligate defence, and which he felt as the sentence of death. manners, and abandoned principles. To advance his From this hour his manner became changed: he schemes of ambition, he sought and obtained the received with kindness, and subsequently with earnest friendship of the Count de Rantzau Aschberg, and pleasure, the visits of Dr. Munter, who had been M. de Brandt, of whom the former became the lead- charged by the court to administer to him the coning instrument, and the latter the companion, of his solations of Religion. Into the nature of these confall. By them he was recommended to the notice of ferences it is impossible to enter; they were daily conthe King of Denmark, who appointed him, in 1768, tinued while he was yet spared; and this able exposition physician to the court; in which capacity he accom of the truth, and the sublime morality of the Gospel, panied the king in his visit to France and England, soon influenced, by the mercy of the Almighty, the soon exciting in his favour the most favourable im- mind of one who had loved the principles of the pressions of his abilities and zeal.
Fatalist, and, for some time, shut out from his soul In May, 1770, Struensee was charged with the ino the hope and the belief of a resurrection. He daily culation of the Prince-Royal, and as this operation was renounced his atrocious opinions; the coming hour attended with anxiety, he soon obtained, by his subtle brought with it the conviction of his past crimes; he working upon the feelings of the parent, a similar as- indulged in no visionary excitement, but fortified his cendancy over the mind of the queen.
His rise ex mind by earnest prayer, by constant meditation, and ceeded his expectations: he abandoned his profession, the exercise of a sincere repentance. He endeavoured was made minister of Denmark, and, together with his similarly to influence the views of Count Brandt; friend Brandt, raised to the rank of an earl. His he avowed his conversion, and this with a simplicity brother was placed at the head of the finances, and of feeling and of manner which forms the strongest the court was crowded by his immediate connexions. evidence of its truth. Many of his friends," says Dr.
That petulant arrogance of conduct, which is so Munter, “whom I told of his present turn of thought, common with men who have been raised by accident and of his conduct, would not believe it : however, I above their common sphere, was soon evinced by had not the least reason to doubt his sincerity.” himself and his companion. They showed the utmost It was on the morning of the 28th of April, 1772, contempt for the laws, the customs, lauguage, and that he was led out to die. He passed with humility manners of the people they were permitted to govern. through the crowd of spectators which surrounded the Influenced by no fixed principles, they respected none; scaffold. He was pale, and it was with difficulty that they exhibited themselves as professed sceptics, and he spoke, but he evinced both firmness and resignaridiculed all religious belief. The court became cor tion. He hastened towards the block that was yet rupt; foreign manners were introduced; the plain stained by the blood of his friend, and quietly suffered system of national society was abandoned; ancient the severe penalties that had been decreed. and strict laws were repealed,-measures which tended The character of Struensee has been variously to produce on all minds a belief that every restraint, described : by some he is considered as of a moral and religious nature, was withdrawn to sanc- political adventurer, whose rise and fall were equally tion the conduct of Struensee. But, in the midst of the consequence of intrigue. Here he is not thus his power, in the fulness of its indulgence, when his to be considered; but as a remarkable and inheart was drunken with the tide of prosperity, he was structive example of the influence of Religion on the awfully reminded of the constant merciful providence mind. It found him proud and sceptical, indifferent of the Deity whose name he had dared to despise. to the commands of the divine law, and a believer in
The king, who had been reduced by illness into a the perfection of unassisted human reason. state of the most helpless mental and bodily weakness, the slave of his own passions, and the patron of the was prevailed upon, by the artifice of Struensee, and passions of others. He considered that virtue conthe influence of the queen, to place the whole power sisted in nothing else but in actions which are useful of the crown at his disposal, Count Bernstorff, the to society, and of the principles of that utility he beloved minister, was dismissed; the influence of the formed himself the judge. He looked upon revealed Russian and English Courts sensibly diminished, Religion as unnecessary; and its effects, as he never while the doctrines of France met with willing atten had perceived them, he disregarded. But great was tion and kindly patronage. Opinions of this descrip- the change effected in his opinion. His conferences tion soon spread; tumultuous assemblies ensued; with Dr. Munter should be diligently read, as displaypetitions were presented; and the city became a scene ing the means by which that good man was successful, of riot and confusion. A conspiracy of the nobles, under the Almighty, in recalling his mind from its headed by the queen-dowager, was formed against past delusions, in rendering him a contrite and devout him; and such was the aversion to the favourite, that believer, restoring him to the sympathy of his fellowno one was found to excite his suspicions, or warn men, and teaching him to await, with faith and him of his danger.
repentance, the merciful dispensations of his Creator. Count Rantzau, his early friend, Prince Frederick, The case of Count Struensee, then, may be classed and Colonel Koller, who commanded the guards on among the many instances of the power of Religion duty on the night of January 16, 1772, after a to reclaim the infidel from the false reasonings of masked ball, entered the king's bed-chamber, ordered philosophical unbelief; to arrest him in his course his valet to awake him, and induced him to sign a of self-indulgence; in society, to "show him how to warrant for the immediate arrest of the Queen Ma- | live," and, in solitude, to “teach him how to die." tilda, and Counts Struensee and Brandt. The queen We may learn from it that the real happiness of this was immediately conveyed to the Castle of Cronen- life consists not in the pleasures of sense, nor in the burgh; and “ Struensee,” says an elegant writer of pursuits of ambition ; but is only to be attained by an that day,
who had seen himself the idol of a affectionate obedience to the Divine law, and the culcrowded levee the day before, where the first people tivation of inward purity.
GRAMMAR SCHOOLS IN ENGLAND.
nor of their own creation, they are little likely to be Of the various methods which have been resorted to, tempted either to sacrifice it to their interests, or to of late years, to promote the cause of education, as disturb it by any undue interference. among the lower, so also among the middle and The Foundation Grammar School has, besides, a higher classes of society, perhaps there is none which past history, affording in many cases exciting and appears to hold out a prospect of more general suc- endearing recollections. Honoured names are recess, attended with less risk of failure, than a renewed corded in its archives,-masters or scholars, who, in and increased attention to the established Grammar former times, have given it reputation, and who are Schools, of ancient foundation, to be found, in a still remembered as objects of imitation, and of honest higher or lower state of prosperity, in almost every pride. If, in decay, it may have yet some period of part of the kingdom. The number of these is, in- past prosperity to look back upon, to show what it deed, so considerable, that, under proper manage once has been, and what it may again become. ment, they would seem adequate to the entire wants Moreover, it possesses local advantages not soon of the community, in so far, at least, as it is repre or easily to be created in favour of any new establishsented by the Established Church, with the exception, ment. Where the parent has been educated, there perhaps, of the neighbourhood of London, and some he naturally desires to send his child. other very large towns. The endowment of these locality of the school touches a chord of memory in schools, is, in many cases, little more than nominal; the minds of many, perhaps influential persons, in in others, it affords a competent remuneration for one the town and neighbourhood in which it is situated; or more masters, while, in some rare instances, it persons who cannot but take pleasure in its permasuffices for the support of a great and splendid esta- nence, and who may probably be induced to study blishment. This difference has existed, no doubt, in its improvement. This is a consideration of no small some measure, from the first. The munificent foun- moment; for it is from local patronage,—from the dation of a prince, a prelate, or a noble, (with whom fostering care and exertions of individuals personally the wealthy merchant may not unfitly be associated,) interested in the welfare of each particular school, may be supposed to have been placed, originally, on a that the greatest general improvement is to be antici. far different footing from those which owe their pated, rather than from legislative enactments, which, origin to a bounty, equally honourable in its character, however skilfully framed, can never be made to meet but less supported by opulence and power. This the varying exigencies of each particular case. disparity, however, has been prodigiously increased Lastly, the Foundation School has a substantive by the operation of other causes, affecting the value existence, independent of those favourable conjuncof property generally, more particularly by the great tures which fashion, caprice, and other causes of alteration in the value of money, as compared with transient operation, contribute to produce, and wbich that of land. In fact, where the ancient grant is an are usually too short-lived to ensure a continuance of annual payment of a given sum of money, it no a prosperity which rests on so uncertain a basis. longer fulfils, in the remotest degree, the intention of Schools, not protected by a foundation, are, indeed, the founder: on the other hand, where lands have peculiarly exposed to the mutability of fortune; being been assigned, they now, in most cases, produce an more easily raised to eminence, with no merit on the income exceeding almost in an equal ratio the en part of the master, than kept in repute, by the most dowment originally contemplated. These considera- shining abilities, and the most unwearied exertion : tions will have considerable weight in determining but the Foundation School outlives the periods of the present constitution of each particular school. declension to which it may be subject, and gathers A gratuitous education cannot now be afforded where strength again, on the first appearance of a favourthe provision bequeathed for the purpose exists only able change. in name.
On the other hand, where the funds are so These, and many other circumstances connected prodigiously increased, as they are known to be in with an anciently founded Grammar School, constisome instances, they will be disposed of in a manner tute that genius loci which exercises so peculiar and analogous to the intention of the donor, by the foun- so beneficial an influence in certain seats of learning; dation of scholarships and exhibitions, the erection an influence more easily appreciated by its effects, of splendid and suitable buildings, the establishment than referred to its causes, and which is far more of school libraries, &c.; in a word, by the establish-easily preserved where it is actually found, than ment of those seminaries of public education which created where it does not exist. have contributed so largely to the maintenance of On the whole, therefore, let our ancient Grammar sound learning in this kingdom, and to the forination Schools, however humble may be their foundation, of the national mind, as it is shown in the aristocracy be regarded with feelings of affectionate reverence, as at large, -in the senate, -and in the higher walks of monuments of a well-directed beneficence, which can literary and professional life.
never cease to deserve imitation, and to claim respect. The endowment, however, in most cases, may be True it is, that in too many instances they have considered as the least of the advantages possessed ceased, for a while, to answer the purposes for which by an anciently fo'inded Grammar School.
It is, or they were intended,—that the ancient school-rooms may be, conducted on established principles, arising have fallen to decay,—and the masterships, where the out of its acknowledged constitution, and not framed funds are considerable, reduced to sinecures. But to meet the opinions, or second the views, of any such abuses are not inherent in the nature of these particular persons or parties. Hence, in ordinary institutions. They have no necessary connexion with cases, it is looked on without jealousy, and conducted the lapse of years, but are to be attributed to change without interruption. Whatever control is necessary of circumstances, not met by a corresponding change or desirable, may and ought to be exercised by the of management; which, again, must be imputed to patrons and trusvees, especially in the choice of a the long-continued apathy of the public mind on master; who ought to be selected with the more care, these, and other subjects of equal or greater interest. impartiality, and discretion, as no subsequent inter- The same apathy which suffered the population vention, on their parts, short of absolute removal, throughout the country to outgrow the accommocan remedy an error committed in this most import dation afforded by the churches, to an extent which ant point: but as the school is neither their property, it is fearful to contemplate,-contenting itself with
barely keeping in repair, and this in the most tasteless local advantages, will probably always render it and niggardly manner, the beautiful structures left popular (when under able superintendence) in its to us by the beneficent piety of our ancestors. A immediate neighbourhood; while the remarkable saludifferent spirit is now awake, from which the happiest brity of the climate may occasionally draw pupils results are to be anticipated. The manner in which from a distance. A meeting of the gentlemen who several of the most important Corporation Schools have derived any part of their education from this have been disposed of within the last few years, and school, takes place, annually, on the first Wednesday the state in which they are at present found, evinces after the feast of St. Matthew, and is very largely that nothing more is requisite than to set the old attended. On this occasion, the pupils undergo a machinery at work, with such accommodation to public examination, and various prizes are awarded. existing circumstances as the change of times may The edifice of 1610 appears to have been sufficiently have rendered indispensable.
humble, and it was succeeded, towards the close of Of Helleston School, in Cornwall, a view of which the last century, by another of not much higher preis given in the above engraving, the foundation and tension. It has now been rebuilt in a very superior early history are entirely unknown. It appears, style, from the designs of Mr. George Nightwick, however, to be of considerable antiquity, and to have architect, of Plymouth. The entrance from the town enjoyed a certain degree of reputation at a very early is a somewhat enriched specimen of Tudor Gothic. period. From a memorandum in the register of the The north front, facing the play-ground, in which are parish of Landewednack, situate twelve miles from the windows of the dormitories, dining-room, and Helleston, we learn that the school was rebuilt in the library, as well as of the school-room, are of a year 1610; and as it is endowed with the sum of plainer character.
C. twenty marks, a denomination of money which had even at that time fallen into disuse, its foundation How delightful is the communication furnished to these may, with probability, be referred at least to the carly who places the old man before us, as stopping short one
volumes by Mr. Serjeant Coleridge, the Poet's nephew, part of the sixteenth century. Its central position, Sunday morning, as he entered the church-yard on Rich as respects the western part of Cornwall, in a clean, mond-hill
, and exclaiming, “ I feel as if God had given quiet, and highly-respectable town, with some other man fifty-two Springs in every year!"-Quarterly Review
By the periodical succession of night to day, we
are naturally disposed to yield to the sensation of AND ITS INFLUENCES ON ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE
approaching sleep. For, with the absence of light NATURE.
cease all the usual stimuli of that sense, which is The metaphorical expressions of all ages and nations, accommodated to the impulse of this 'agent, and with respect to light, sufficiently evince the value in which calls our faculties into action more frequently which that inestimable gift is held. In the sacred than any other. Scriptures, indeed, not only are temporal blessings Although it would be difficult to prove directly, compared to light, and temporal evils to darkness, that there is any necessary connexion between dark but holy deeds are frequently described under the ness and sleep, yet this connexion is rendered, at character of the former, and unholy deeds under the least, highly probable, by the effect usually produced character of the latter; and with respect either to on the approach of darkness upon animals in general, classical or oriental literature, a thousand instances but more remarkably on birds; for, with the excepmight easily be adduced, illustrative of the same me- tion of those whose habits are nocturnal, all birds taphorical use of the terms in question.
betake themselves to sleep as soon as night apWhen, after a dark and tempestuous night, the proaches; and if darkness should anticipate night by mariner first perceives the dawn of returning day, many hours, as happens when any considerable although that dawn discover to his view the evil plight eclipse of the sun takes place in the middle of the to which the storm has reduced his vessel, why does day, we still find that the birds of the field, as well he still hail day's harbinger as his greatest relief, but as our domesticated fowls, give the same indications because without the aid of light he could not possibly of composing themselves to sleep as at the regular extricate himself from the difficulties of his situation period of sunset. Or, when the child, awakened from its sleep, finds The privation of light is rarely, if ever, total; itself alone in darkness, why is it overwhelmed with though the empire of time is divided in nearly equal terror, and why does it call out for protection, but proportion between day and night, there are compafrom the influence of those undefined fears which ratively few nights in which there is not diffused naturally occur to the mind under the privation of through the air a sufficient quantity of light for many light?
of the purposes of life. Nor, with respect to those There is something so congenial to our nature persons who either were born blind, or became blind in light, something so repulsive in darkness, that, in early infancy, is the absence of light felt with any probably, on this ground alone, the very aspect of degree of severity; for, in such instances, although inanimate things is instinctively either grateful or the the individual may be made to understand that he reverse, in consequence of our being reminded by wants some faculty which those around him possess, that aspect of the one or of the other : so that, on there cannot be, however, any consciousness of prithis principle, perhaps, particular colours, through-vation where there never had been actually any enjoyout every province of nature, are more or less accept- ment; or where there was no recollection of it, if it able in proportion as they approach nearest, or recede had for a time existed. And even in the case of infarthest, from the character of light, whether reflected dividuals who have been deprived of sight long subimmediately by the heavenly bodies, or from the sequently to birth, although the recollection of the azure of the sky, or from the thousand brilliant hues former enjoyment must more or less imbitter their with which the setting or the rising sun illuminates present state, yet so long as the offices of surroundits attendant clouds.
ing friends are the means of administering to their The abundant supply of light, from its natural comfort, more especially if those offices are fulfilled source the sun, and the ease with which it is produ- with kindness, the mind soon becomes reconciled to cible by artificial means, during the absence of that the privation; for it is a fact repeatedly observed, luminary, render us habitually less sensible of its that blind persons, under such circumstances, are real value than, undoubtedly, we should be, were we usually cheerful. Nor ought we to forget the comto experience a long-continued privation of it. And pensation which nature affords to those who are as to the regularly periodical privation of it, which deprived of sight, in the consequently quickened we experience in consequence of the alternation of activity of some of the other senses. night with day, this is so far from being an evil, that Let us, however, suppose for a moment, that all it is obviously beneficial ; inasmuch as, in conse
the faculties and recollections of man remaining unquence of this very absence, sleep is both directly altered, and the general processes of nature continuing, and indirectly conciliated, without which gift of if possible, the same as they are now, the existente heaven, all our faculties would soon be exhausted, of light were withdrawn from the earth,—what would and all our happiness consequently extinguished.
then be the condition of mankind ? How could The beneficial influence of sleep on our whole frame those occupations of life be pursued which are necesis too obvious in its effects to require any formal sary for the supply of our simplest wants? Who, demonstration ; but it will be interesting to consider in that case, should yoke the ox to the plough, or its relation to the absence of light. It appears then, sow the seed, or reap the harvest? But, indeed, under that, by a fundamental law of our nature, a sense such a supposition, there would soon be neither seed of uneasiness invariably follows a long-continued for the ground, nor grain for food : for, if deprived exercise of our powers, either corporeal or mental ; of light, the character of vegetation is completely and, unless this sense of uneasiness have been pro- altered, and its results, as far as general utility is duced by too inordinate exercise, it is soon relieved concerned, destroyed. Or suppose, further, that these by that state of the system which we call sleep; during necessary supplies of life were no longer required, on the continuance of which, provided it be sound, and account of some consequent alteration in our physical of a perfectly healthy character, all the voluntary constitution, or that they were procured for us by muscles of the body become relaxed, and the nervous any unknown means; yet, in all the higher enjoy. system remains comparatively inactive; the whole ments of our nature, how cheerless, how utterly body acquiring, by this temporary cessation of its miserable would be our situation! Under such cirenergies, a renovated accumulation of those powers cumstances, wisdom would not only be which are necessary for the purposes of active and intellectual lite,
At one entrance quite shut out,