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is suffered to ferment after the separation of the crys. From time immemorial, and in almost every part of tallizable portion of sugar. Arrack is obtained from the globe, some men have exhibited a strong and per- fermented rice: it is an exceedingly strong and ardent aicious appetite for substances which produce an ex spirit, which is manufactured in the East, where it is citement of the spirits. This state being the effect of a no less destructive than rum is, to those who indulge foreign or adventitious cause, and not the natural result in it, in the West Indies or on the coast of Africa. of the well-being of the system, is only transient, and is Besides these spirits, various modifications of alcovery often followed by the opposite state of depression hol are found in the liquor-shops, under the names or dulness. To remove this unpleasant secondary state, of compounds and cordials. However they may be or to heighten the fascinating and seductive gratifi- modified as to taste, by the sugar, spices, and essencation of the first, or excited state, there is too often tial oils which they contain, they all agree in possesstemptation to repeat the exciting cause. In propor- ing the deadly properties of the spirit which forms tion to the extent to which this is carried, the spirits their basis. Some of these compounds contain and intelligence become more or less disturbed. The another poisonous principle, namely, prussic acid, senses are perverted, and reason, for a time, ceases derived from bitter almonds, and other kernels, with to have the control of the thoughts and actions. which they are flavoured. Though instances have This dangerous state is called intoxication. To give occurred of serious consequences having been proway to the temptation to produce it, has ever been duced by such cordials, the quantity of prussic-acid regarded as one of the most loathsome and degrading employed is very seldom sufficiently great for its pervices—the associate and promoter of almost every nicious tendency to deserve comparison with that of other. In the Old Testament, those addicted to it are the spirit. sometimes called sons of Belial, and representedi as It is worthy of remark, how the pernicious prothe perpetrators of the blackest and basest crimes. perties of ardent spirits have been attempted to be Even amongst the heathen nations of antiquity, the disguised under the names which have been given to vice of intoxication was strongly reprobated. Wine, them. Thus brandy, over a large portion of Europe, or the fermented juice of the grape, appears to have is designated by a name signifying “ water of life," been the first, as well as the most general means, em- probably in consequence of some traditional conployed in producing intoxication; hence the word nexion with the alchemistic notions of its first preparer, vine is sometimes used to denote the state of in- Paracelsus. Gin is called “ cream of the valley," a toxication.

name which would answer very well, if the words It does not appear that the ancients were ac- “ of the shadow of death" were added to it. Whiskey quainted with stronger liquor than wine, which, is dignified with the name of “ mountain dew,” which when perfectly made from the unmixed juice of the is often brought, in violation of the law, from barren grape, is certainly of great intoxicating power. mountains, where there is neither dew nor verdure;

It was not until the study of alchemy, that we and rum, which has been the means of all but exterbecame acquainted with the fluid called alcohol; for, minating the noblest of the uncivilized races of manin those days, there were no chemists. The alche kind, is introduced to the ill-fated American Indian, mists devoted their studies to the accomplishment of as “the milk of his father, the President.” two objects :--one, to make gold, or convert base It is needless to dwell on these liquors individually, metals into it; and the other, to discover what was as they offer only a choice of evils. They are, nevercalled the elixir of life, which was to destroy the in theless, sometimes useful as medicines; as, when life fluence of age and of death, and to preserve those appears sinking, or when the circulation becomes too who should take it in perpetual youth and vigour. languid; but, because in some cases of sickness it The desire to achieve these two objects led to the may be expedient to administer spirits, it is very making of experiments; in the course of which, it is erroncous to think that they may be taken with imsaid, that Paracelsus, one of the most distinguished punity in a state of health. alchemists, discovered alcohol, or spirits of wine, The effects produced by the immoderate use of and observed its exciting properties, which were con ardent spirits, are of two kinds :—first, the transient, sidered as an actual acquisition of permanent strength produced by large and overpowering quantities at onc and vigour. He eagerly used it himself, and led time; secondly, the more permanent, produced by others to follow his pernicious example. After having the continued and habitual use of spirits. This last boasted that he should enjoy extraordinary length of is the more decidedly likely to prove fatal. The first life, a preinature death terminated a course of violence may cause sudden death; but generally soon pass and intoxication. Alcohol is not formed by distilla. away, and leave no visible ill effect; whilst the second tion; it exists in simple fermented liquors, from almost inevitably leads to death, by the painful path which it is only separated by the still.

of sickness. There are various kinds of distilled spirits. Brandy A large quantity of spirits, taken at one time, prois, or should be, distilled from wine, or the fermented duces sickness with some persons; and in this case juice of the grape. Whiskey is obtained from fer- the evil is soonest got rid off. Some persons become mented wort, brewed from barley or other grain, noisy, as we find by the tumultuous uproar so often after it has been malted. Hollands and gin consist heard issuing from those haunts in which the vice of of alcohol, or spirits in a diluted state, flavoured drunkenness is usually practised: others become with the berry of the juniper, which possesses certain furious, and in that state commit the most odious medicinal properties, which may sometimes render crimes: others become torpid, or, as it is termed, these spirits useful. Yet this is more often urged dead drunk: these, if they escape apoplexy, probably as a merely frivolous pretext, than as a valid plea for lay the foundation of disease, which ends only with their employment. It is vulgarly believed, that in their lives. It is true, that some are so constituted gredients of an injurious tendency are substituted as to appear to be able to take large quantities of for the juniper-berry in the manufacture of gin, and ardent spirits, without producing manifest intoxicathe impaired health produced by it is ascribed to tion, or inconvenience; yet even these must ultimately them, rather than to the true cause, namely, the suffer. essential properties of the spirit. Rum is distilled The fatal influence of intemperance in drink, is from the residue of the juice of the sugar-cane, which occasionally seen a little beyond the middle period of

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life, at which time, persons are not very unfrequently and employment cut off the honest and lawful means subject to what is called climacteric decline. Some are of satisfying them. favoured so far as to recover from this attack; but, to The temper, which may have originally been mild the spirit-drinker, it almost always proves fatal. Pre- and placid, becomes fretful, irritable, and disturbed mature old age is another result of spirit-drinking; and by uncontrolable passion. Parents have been known this habit unfits its victims to bear the wounds, frac to cause the death of their children; children have tures, and accidents of various kinds, to which all are slain their parents; and the nearest friends have

It is also worthy of remark, that the spirit- been sacrificed. Even when the impulses of passion drinker is peculiarly susceptible of disease of all do not urge the drunkard to acts of extreme violence, kinds, and, consequently, is likely to fall the first the ties of relationship, and the general claims of victim to fevers, or other epidemic distempers. humanity are dissolved. Parents witness with seem.

It is generally supposed that spirits promote the ing indifference, the distress and misery in which warmth of the body; on which account they are they have involved their offspring; and, for the purfrequently taken by persons who have no inclination chase of a little gin, have been known to devote them, to intemperance, when they are peculiarly exposed to in helpless infancy, to the loathsome slavery of a cold. This is a very fallacious practice. A transient chimney-sweeper. Volumes might be filled with the glow may, indeed, be produced by the quickened cir- details of murders, incendiaries, and riots, perpetrated culation which for a short time succeeds the swallow- by those who have given themselves up to the deing of the dram; but this afterwards becomes pro- moralizing influence of intoxicating liquors. portionably more languid; in consequence of which, It is needless to detail the catalogue of crimes of the surface, and more especially the extremities, which drunkenness has been the parent or the probecome pale and cold, whilst the internal parts are moter. It is enough to allude to the many evils both stimulated by the spirit, and loaded with the which attend the various forms of gambling; and blood which has left the surface of the body. The the numerous snares by which hitherto untainted object of maintaining and equalizing the warmth of and unsuspecting youth is beguiled into irretrievable the body is completely lost; whilst the internal organs ruin, under the spell of inebriating liquor. are exposed to the danger of inflammation.

You will, perhaps, be inclined to think that an The pernicious influence of ardent spirits is no less undue stress is laid upon extreme cases, that the strikingly exerted on the intellectual and moral feel- most is made of the evils and dangers which may ings than on the bodily health. It has long been proceed from giving way to a taste for strong drink, known, that, under the influence of intoxication, and that you see many indulge in it who have not secrets are betrayed; yet, although the impolitic or brought themselves to the brink of ruin, and blasted ill-timed divulging of a truth, may have its incon- their characters in the way described. But, in enveniences, this is, perhaps, the very least of the evils deavouring to point to the limits to which a course which attend this perversion of intelligence. The of intemperance is likely to lead, let it be asked veracity of drunkenness is as untrustworthy as im- whether any one who enters into such a course can politic; and instances are by no means rare, of per ensure himself against the dreadful chance of reachsons, in a state of intoxication, accusing themselves, ing those limits? and what there was to distinguish as well as others, of crimes of which they are alto the most profligate and abandoned alluded to, when gether innocent.

they began to gratify themselves with the fascinating Although the imagination may sometimes seem to pleasures of intoxicating liquors, from any of those be stimulated to extraordinary power and activity, whom you may see around you, and fancy to be under the temporary excitement of intoxicating liquors, innocently indulging themselves in the same fatal imagination as well as judgment, and every other pleasure? faculty of the mind, in time, becomes irreparably The majority, who may escape the worst extremes, injured or destroyed under the influence of strong have, nevertheless, to rue many evils and sufferings, liquors. Many individuals, whose cultivated talents which cannot fail to befal them in their deviation had gained them well deserved reputation, and might from virtue and temperance. Long before they have insured them an ample income, have irretrievably become notorious as decided drunkards, regular and ruined their abilities, lost their acquirements, and industrious habits are broken in upon, and lost, if sunk into beggary, the blots, instead of the ornaments, they had ever been formed. Earnings are diminished; of society. It is by no means uncommon for the whilst the money expended is more considerable, as injury of the intellectual faculties, induced by frequent well as injuriously, or less usefully applied.

The intoxication or habitual tippling, to amount to actual publican and the pawnbroker swallow up the wages insanity; sometimes in the form of mania, or raving of the workman; whilst filthiness and idleness intromadness; sometimes in that of the most wretched duced into his family, cannot fail to draw down upon and desponding melancholy, in which self-destruction them the contempt or the reproach of all around is sought for with persevering obstinacy; sometimes them. It is in vain that their relatives or friends resembling the vacant stupidity of a born idiot. take compassion on their miserable fate. Every

The moral feelings are not less impaired than the effort to relieve them is sure to be abortive; and intellectual faculties. A reckless disregard of right everything which is bestowed upon them, seems to and wrong is progressively induced, by which a path share in the curse which they have incurred. The is opened to the commission of every species of crime. melancholy picture which they present cannot be duly Veracity or bonesty of speech is violated for the appreciated, unless it be contrasted with the happy purpose of either concealing the intemperance itself, results which a steady course of industry, and prudent or the faults committed under its influence. Honesty, economy,—the offspring and associates of temperance, with respect to the property of others, is disregarded, cannot fail to procure. Your own observation and for the purpose of gratifying the appetite for liquor, reflection will enable you to draw the contrast; and or to meet the expenses which the extravagance of when you have conscientiously done so, you will not drunken folly may have occasioned, or to repair the only be struck with the beauty of the one picture, mischief which wanton destruction may have com and the deformity of the other, but you will make mitted, or to provide for pinching wants, which become the discovery that a large portion of the misery and progressively more urgent, as the loss of property distress at present dependent on poverty, and the in.


sufficiency and want of success of nearly all the

ELECTRICITY-GALVANISMmeasures, public and private, employed to relieve

MAGNETISM. them, are in a great degree to be attributed, either The powers of Electricity, Galvanism, and Magdirectly or indirectly, to intemperance.

netism, are so curiously and intimately connected [Abridged from HODOKIN on the Means of Preserving Health.1 with each other, that it is almost impossible to un

derstand one without some knowledge of the other

two; and the wor: we inquire into the subject, the THE PALACE OF DEATH,

more probable does it appear that the three are but I saw a PALACE, wide and fair,

modifications of the same mysterious agent. And multitudes assembled there :

The most simple means of exciting the electric 'Twas open all the day, but shone

power, is by rubbing smartly a stick of sealing-wax, More gaily as the night came on.

or a rod of glass, on a piece of silk or woollen cloth. A massive Lamp, of curious mould,

When this friction has been continued for a few Displayed the front of white and gold,

seconds, it will be found that the sealing-wax or glass Whereon, with face of dazzling light, A Clock declared the time of night.

has acquired the power of alternately attracting and The doors unfolding, I begin

repelling small substances, such as fragments of paper, To note the busy scene within.

gold-leaf, and other light objects; and if the experiThe spacious Presence-room was graced

ment is attempted on a larger scale, by substituting a With columns in Corinthian taste;

large cylinder of glass, mounted in a frame, and turned Bright rays, from many lustres, fall

rapidly round by means of a handle, while a pad of Full on the veined and marbled wall, Which might with Scagliola vie,

silk presses tightly on its surface, a larger quantity Or hard and polished Porphyry,

of the electric principle is elicited; and this prinWhilst thickly-corniced ceilings lent

ciple, be it what it may, can be collected and conTheir aid of grace and ornament.

densed, so as to exhibit its powers in a much more Yet, contrast stiange to gaudy pride!

effective manner. In this case, if the hand, or any Huge, uncouth butts, ranged side by side,

metallic substance, is brought near to the receptacle Inscribed with some delusive name, A desolating use proclaim !

in which it has been collected, instead of showing But, stranger still, the crowds that prest,

its presence simply by attracting small substances, as Each like a free and welcome guest,

in the first experiment, it will appear visible to the To seize the cup, and drink it dry,

eye, producing a brilliant spark, accompanied by a Which painted menials quickly ply.

rrackling noise, as it passes from the receptacle to How shall I draw the motley band ?

the hand or metal, and, at the same time, communiThe sunken cheek, the palsied hand; The tattered coat, the squalid face;

cating a very palpable shock. To understand this The draggled train, the skulking pace :

better, it will be necessary to state, that all substances “ How ill,” said I,“ such sights agree

have been divided into conductors and non-conductors With glare, and cost, and finery!

of electricity: thus, for instance, glass and sealingAnd yet, for all the grand display, This miserable group must pay:”

wax are non-conductors, and metals, conductors. The

usual method of accumulating the electric principle And more than pay; for he who reign'd In this proud palace, basely drain'd

is by means of a conductor, formed of a cylinder of Their hard-got means; then oft withdrew

hollow metal, supported by a glass pillar: the conTheir reason and existence too !

ductor is then said to be insulated; for the glass “ And who is he, that horrid king,

being a non-conductor, will not allow the electric That gloats on human suffering ;

power to escape. At one end of the conductor is a Unfolds his wide, attractive door,

piece of metal with several points, like a fork : this And seeks his victims from the poor ; Wears, for their hurt, a winning face;

end is placed next to the electrical machine, and Then flourishes in their disgrace ?”

attracts the electric principle as fast as it is generated. Sorrowing I spoke :-the crowds were gone; It was long ago shown by Dr. Franklin, that lightWhen in a deep and rattling tone,

ning is identical with electricity, and that the flash “Lo! it is I ! 'tis Death !" replied

produced is but the visible passage of this principle A grisly Spectre at my side:

through the air, and identical, although on a grander Intemp'rate creatures hither come, And leave the pure delights of home ;

scale, with the spark noticed in the last experiment, in Leave faithful wives disquieted,

which the crackling sound is the humble representaAnd children pinch'd for want of bread,

tive of the terrific thunder-clap. To lay their tribute at my shrine,

It may be worth while noticing here, that the injury And make the week's resources mine;

done to a building, or other object, in a thunderTill, like the sons of heathen sires,

storm, is occasioned by the passage of the electric Who pase'd to Moloch through the fires, Rack'd with an inward, craving strife,

principle, or lightning, and not, as is commonly believed, They yield their senses and their life!

by a supposed solid substance called a thunderbolt, War, earthquake, famine, fire, the sea,

which exists only in the fancy of the uninformed. Are several paths that lead to me;

Towards the close of the last century, another form But, lord of yonder poisonous stream,

of the electric principle was
I reign triumphantly supreme:

observed, which, from the name
To loss of soul and frame's decay,
This is the broad, the beaten way!"

of the inventor, Galvani, has

been called Galvanism. It was
discovered, that if any two

metals, on which acids would He who ventures into the river where the crocodile is bask

act with different degrees of ing, becomes himself the cause of his own destruction; violence,—such as silver and 2 and the serpent cannot be said to have occasioned the death of the man who has extracted the poison from his zinc, copper and zinc, &c., -were tooth, in order to try its effects. From the Arabic. placed alternately, with a piece

of woollen cloth, wetted in diluted sulphuric acid, Avoid luxury, but condemn not temperate or moderate between each, and a copper wire (A), soldered to the mirth and cheerfulness BUCER.

upper piece of copper, was taken between the finger and

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thumb of the left hand, the other hand, or any part into the form of a horse-sboe, weighing about thirtyof the body, being brought into contact with the four pounds. Several pieces of copper wire, each wire B, the galvanic power which has been excited, measuring ninety feet in length, are wound round will evince itself by producing what is called a shock, the iron, the wire being covered with silk, to prevent attended with pain and a peculiar sensation.

one piece coming in contact with another. The extreIf the galvanic apparatus is made on a larger scale, mities of these wires are soldered to two thick pieces and the ends of the wires are brought nearly in con- of copper wire, (B and c), so that one end of each tact, a continued stream of sparks is produced, so wire is at B and the other end at c. This arrangepowerful when proceeding from a very large appa- ment affords the means of transmitting an electric ratus, as to be capable of melting the most stubborn (galvanic) current through the whole series of wires toetals. In the engraving, the alternate letters, z at the same time. and c, point out the zinc and copper plates, and the dark space between represents the wetted wollen cloth.

The properties of magnetism we have already described in the Saturday Magazine, when noticing the Mariner's Compass *.

Having thus laid before our readers a short account of the distinguishing properties of these three great agents, namely, Electricity, Galvanism, ánd Magnetism, we shall endeavour to point out in what manner they agree with each other, in their effects upon matter; and, to render this more clear, describe several very ingenious and beautifully constructed arrangements of apparatus, which illustrate these effects in a most surprising manner, and which we have copied, with permission, from the machines themselves, in the Adelaide Gallery, at the Lowther Arcade, London.

Electricity has been considered as a more diffused, and rather a less concentrated, state of the threefold principle we are now speaking of, than either Galvanism or Magnetism; and, consequently, we are led to expect less powerful results from any attempts we may make to bring it, as it were, to a focus, so as to bear upon any particular point, although, as we have already said, when it appears in the form of lightning, prepared in the great laboratory of nature, its effects are terrific. There is a great resemblance between the two poles of the magnet and the two kinds of electricity, namely, the vitreous, produced by friction on glass, and the resinous, from sealing-wax, or amber; any light body, as, for in

TEMPORARY ELECTRO-MAGNET. stance, a delicate pith-ball, nicely suspended, will,

The battery (E) employed to excite the electroaccording to the state of electricity in which it is, be magnet is very small

, composed of a double concen. attracted by the one and repelled by the other. Its tric cylinder of copper, and a moveable cylinder of resemblance to Magnetism was also shown by Dr. zinc between the two copper cylinders. Diluted acid Franklin, who passed a violent shock through a sew being poured into the battery to excite its action, ing-needle, by which the needle became sufficiently the two extremities of the combined copper wires are impregnated with the magnetic power to range itself connected with the battery, by placing one end of the north and south, when allowed to traverse by being thick wire in each of the small cups which form part nicely balanced on a pivot. An electric shock will of the apparatus. As soon as this is done, the soft also at times change the poles of a needle; and iron becomes a very powerful temporary magnet, this has not unfrequently taken place at sea, when, capable of sustaining between four and five hundred after a thunder-storm, the north end of the needle pounds weight; but immediately the connexion is has pointed to the south, thus placing the safety of broken, the magnetism almost entirely ceases. the vessel in jeopardy until by observing the heavenly There are several other machines illustrating, in a bodies the error has been discovered.

most beautiful manner, this curious subject, which Although there is little doubt of the identity of we shall figure and describe in a future number of Electricity and Galvanism, from the effects produced the Saturday Magazine. by both being of the same description, differing only in intensity; yet, as the galvanic power appears to The following account of a particular process for the purbe excited' by chemical agency, that is, by the action pose of obtaining salt, well illustrates the ingenuity of the of acids on metals, and the electric power by friction, human mind in taking advantage of natural hints. In or by induction from the atmosphere, there is much Guiana there is a very common species of palm, the towers variety of opinion as to the points in which they many pints of water, and the density and general nature

of which are enveloped by a sheath, capable of holding agree or differ. We thus find that the electric principle identifies be heated over a fire without destroying its substance ; and

of the sheath is such, that the water contained in it may itself with Magnetism and Galvanism, at least in its the Caraïbs actually employ these sheaths, in evaporating effects. The following engraving shows the mode in the sea-water, for the purpose of obtaining a quick supply which a most powerful magnetic effect is produced by of salt.—Diction des Sciences Nat. the action of a very moderate galvanic battery. The apparatus consists of a bar of soft iron (A), bent

See Saturday Magazine, Vol. IlI., p. 115.


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I ring.

When mirth and joy are on the wing

of which the above engraving may be considered a To call the folks to church in time I chime. When from the body parts the soul . I toll!

specimen, though certainly, (as a copy, and on wood) Translation of an Old Motto on a Church Bell. an imperfect specimen of the original. We alluded

to this eminent engraver two years ago, in our paper Part of our pleasure, on viewing a good drawing in on Albert Durer*, and compared him, in some meaoutline, is derived from the surprise we feel at so sure, to his ancient and highly-gifted countryman. much being accomplished with such small means. The subjects which Retzsch has chosen for illustration We have sometimes, in this way, a history con are, the Faust of Goëthe, by which he is chiefly known; veyed to us by a few touches; and, if the touches Fridolin, by Schiller ; the Fight of the Dragon, being be simple and correct, the mind is amused by the the story of St. George, founded on the well-known act of filling up for itself the colours, or shadows, tale in the “Seven Champions of Christendom; Macwhich are omitted. Those of our readers who have beth and Hamlet, in which, though fine works, he apseen a mere sketch by the hand of a master,–West, pears to us to have failed in embodying the beings or Lawrence, for instance,—will agree in the truth that Shakspeare drew; and, lastly, The Song of the of this remark; the story being as well told, or the Bell, an original and elegant poem by Schiller. expression of the face as well given, in mere outline, This style of art is by no means new, some of the as by a high finish of the pencil.

earliest being in outline. Flaxman also adopted it Moritz Retzsch, a living artist of Germany, has with success, though his drawings were too strictly for many years been employed in the kind of etching

• Sec Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 226. Vol. VII,


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