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of these gymaastic recreacions. It must not, how-tant exception which must be made with respect to ever, be supposed, that these sports were made the those which are likely to stir up angry and ferocions subjects of compulsory education, which would effec- dispositions, and can scarcely fail to have a hardening tually deprive them of their charm. The powers and brutalizing tendency. Such were boxing and which they developed, and the emulation which they wrestling amongst the Greeks, and in a still greater excited, rendered them very attractive, and they degree the murderous sword-fights of the gladiators might easily and injuriously have withdrawn those in the Roman amphitheatres; and such are the barbaengaged in them, from the more useful, but severer rous prize-fights which disgrace this country. Their exercise, essential to the cultivation of the mind. demoralizing effect is by no means confined to the The gymnasium was therefore made subservient to parties actually engaged in these combats : in fact, school-lessons, and other mental exercises ; and the some of these may give proof of admirable courage, proper performance of these was made essential, as agility, and perseverance, which we must regret to a means of obtaining admission to the gymnasium, see prostituted to so base a parpose. Perhaps, in or place of exercise. A similar care would doubtless many instances, the greatest evil the effect produced be desirable, as a salutary restriction to the encroach- upon the spectators; for there can be no doubt, that ments which athletic games might make on business the habit of witnessing these spectacles blunts that or family duties, were they ever to become an objecti natural sensibility which must make every uncorof general interest with our operatives. Various rupted mind feel pain at witnessing the distress and healthful exercises, such as cricket and fives, per- suffering of others, even whilst he may admire the formed with a ball ; running and leaping, tend to prowess and fortitude which accompany theni. increase the useful powers of body and unbend the When this sensibility is destroyed, it is soon sucmind; but they may easily induce an excess of ceeded by the opposite state. Pleasure is felt in witexertion, by which irreparable mischief may be done. nessing these sufferings, and the desire to indulge in Swimming-schools, in situations which admit of this gratification grows to a detestable passion, and them, would give to many the means of saving either not only their fellow-creatures, but numbers of helptheir own lives, or those of their fellow-creatures. It less animals, destined for the use of man, and placed is a subject for great and increasing regret, that under his protection, are barbarously sacrificed to almost every open space in town or country, favour- satiate it. In short, they are become cruel in the able to indulgence in these and other healthful extreme, and cruelty is the associate, the twin-brother exercies, are becoming progressively and rapidly of the basest cowardice, and utterly repagpant to occupied. It is in fact a crying evil, which drives genuine courage and valour. boys and young lads to expose themselves, as well as
(HODGKIN on the Means of Preserving Health.] passengers, to the most serious accidents, from their playing in the high-roads : and what is far worse, it drives our young men to seek amusement and recrea- SILENCE does not always mark wisdom. I was at dinner tion in the odious retreats of idle, corrupting, and some time ago, in company with a man who listened to me dissolute association.
and said nothing for a long time; but he nodded his head In recommending the athletic exercises which were of the dinner, some apple-dumplings were placed on the
and I thought him intelligent. At length, towards the end esteemed and cultivated amongst the Greeks and table, and my man had no sooner seen them, thats be burst Romans, I must not omit to notice the very impor- forth with “ Them's the jockies for me!"—COLERIDGE.
LONDON: Published by JOHN W. PARKER, WEST STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers.
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
THE TOWN OF LUCERNE,
The most distinguished families of the town were
anxious for the restoration of the Duke's dominion, IN SWITZERLAND.
and a plot was formed for the assassination of the LUCERNE, or Luzern, the capital of the Swiss Can- confederates in their beds at midnight, and the subton of the same name, stands nearly in the centre of sequent surrender of the town to the Duke's partisans. Switzerland, upon the banks of the river Reuss, at “ It was already dark," says Zschokke," and they the points where it issues from the north-western were assembled armed within a cave situated on the extremity of the large lake, which bears the different lake beneath the club-room, frequented by the incornames of the Lake of Lucerne and the Lake of the porated trade of tailors, when their project was overFour Cantons, or, in German, Vier Waldstetten See. heard by a boy who happened to be passing by. It is one of the three towns which alternately enjoy They seized on the lad, and were going to despatch the honour of being the capital of the Swiss Confe- him, but finally contented themselves with making deration for the space of two years, the others being him solemnly swear not to reveal to any one what Zürich and Berne ; that distinction fell last to its he had heard. The boy, however, entered the room turn in the years 1831 and 1832, and will again fall belonging to the fraternity of butchers, where several to it in the years 1837 and 1838. The town is also of the tradesmen were still drinking and playing; the ordinary residence of the Pope's nuncio; Lucerne here addressing himself aloud to the stove in the being the first in rank and power among the Roman room, he related the oath he had taken to commu. Catholic Cantons of Switzerland. The population is nicate to no man what he had heard; those present, small, not exceeding 7000 persons.
struck with horror and amazement, hurried away to The origin of Lucerne is unknown ; some writers give the alarm; the citizens instantly seized on the attribute it to the time of the Romans, and suppose conspirators, called in the assistance of the people of that the town existed in the fourth century, and was Unterwalden, and ultimately excluded the higher among the places which suffered under the merciless ranks from any share in the government, expelling inroad of Attila. Others date it from the establish them from the city they had before governed. From ment of a convent, which was built and endowed in this time the city council was composed of three the latter portion of the seventh century, by a noble hundred burghers, and the community assumed the priest named Wickard, or Wingard, the brother of a administration of the city possessions, the levying of Frank lord, according to Ebel, who had founded the taxes, and the conclusion of treaties and alliances. cathedral of Zürich, and, as others say, a cousin of Thus," adds this historian, “was the freedom of Clovis, the third king of France. The founder died, Lucerne saved by the discretion and patriotic feeling however, soon after the completion of his work. of a youth." Subsequent kings of France secured to his establish The entry of Lucerne into the confederation took ment the possession of the place, which then bore place in 1332; and in 1386 the citizens, with the aid the appellation of Lucerne, and under the protection of their confederates, gained the famous victory of of the inonks it soon became of sufficient importance Sempach over the Austrians, on the occasion of which to assume the title of town. In the year 768, King the Duke Leopold lost his life. From that time Pepin, father of Charlemagne, bestowed the convent forward the town gradually acquired dominion, by upon the Abbey of Murbach, in Upper Alsace, and conquest and other means, of the territory, which the town of Lucerne passed with it under the new was afterwards known as the Canton of Lucerne; dominion. In this state it remained for upwards of and in the year 1477, Austria concluded a treaty of 500 years, the abbot exercising over it a sovereign perpetual alliance with the confederates, formally authority, which was tempered, however, by many renouncing all claims to those places which they had restrictions tending to secure the liberty of the inha- captured from the house of Hapsburg. The town bitants. At length, in 1291, it was sold, together of Lucerne then remained for a long while free from with the convent and twenty neighbouring districts, the miseries of war; but it was occasionally the to the Emperor Rodolph of Hapsburgh, and thus it theatre of violent scenes arising out of the discontent came under the Dukes of Austria. Its new posses- prevailing among the country people of the canton. sors did not respect its liberties, and Lucerne began in the year 1652, the goverment made an alteration to experience bitterly the evils of a foreign yoke. in the coinage, which excited much dissatisfaction
The three Waldstetten, or Cantons of Uri, Schwytz, among the inhabitants of the bailliages, or baili wicks; and Unterwalden, having already secured their liberty the result was an open tumult and rebellion, which and independence, were continually engaged in hosti was joined by the peasantry of Berne and some other lities with Austria ; in these Lucerne was obliged to cantons, who had loudly complained of the grievances take a share, on account of its dependence upon the which they suffered under the oppressive system Duke. The result was of course highly injurious to practised by the citizens who enjoyed the supreme the happiness and prosperity of its citizens, whose authority. Threats were put forward of an attack grievances were still further increased by the imposi- upon the town of Lucerne, and the smaller cantons tion of additional taxes, as exorbitant as they were were obliged to contribute levies to garrison and unjust; and at length, when they became unable protect it; the malcontents even went so far as to any longer to bear such oppression, they began to hold a general assembly, and elect a peasant for their treat with the Waldstetten for a truce of twenty chief magistrate, and for leader of the confederacy years. The nobles, however, were still attached to of the four cantons of Lucerne, Berne, Soleure, and the Austrian rule, and the more popular party among Basle. But their proceedings were the offspring the burghers, fearing their designs, abandoned the more of rashness and violence than of prudence and project of the truce, and at once concluded a perpe- reflection, and the insurrection was subdued after tual alliance of reciprocal protection and defence some blood had been shed. with the confederated Cantons, Hostilities of course These discontents were revived about a century followed with Austria, and the citizens were attacked afterwards, when they gave rise to many disorders. by the nobles of the Aargau in the name of the In the year 1798, the council of Lucerne publicly Duke ; but, being aided by their new confederates, proclaimed the abolition of the ancient oligarchical they boldly stood forward in defence of their rights; constitution, and convoked the representatives of the but they had not the support of their own nobles. people for the establishment of a new one based upon
an equality of political rights. Soon afterwards a and 12 in breadth; the space comprised in it is about French army entered the town, and Lucerne became ! 180 square leagues, comprehending the whole of the the capital of the “ Helvetian Republic;" this dis- cantons of Lucerne and Underwald, a large portion tinction it enjoyed only until the month of March, of Uri, Schwytz, and Zug, and also some part of 1799, when the French having been beaten in Swabia, Berne, Zürich, and Aargau. Each square league of and the Austrians having penetrated into Switzerland, country covers in the model about 212 square inches; the seat of government was removed for security to and the highest mountains of 9700 feet, are marked Berne. By the act of mediation which Buonaparte by an elevation of ten inches. It is impossible, says promulgated in 1803, Lucerne was named one of the Ebel, to see this magniffcent work, without wondering six towns in which the diet was to be held alter- at the precision with which the forms of the rocks nately; in 1815, according to the arrangement pro- and mountains are given, the exactness which preposed by the allied powers, it became one of the vails throughout, in the minutest details, and the three towns which were to share in turns the honour striking accuracy which characterizes this imitation of being the seat of government for two years.
of nature. Not a path, not a hut, not a cross, has The situation of Lucerne,-at the edge of a noble been forgotten. Every traveller, before his departure lake, and upon the banks of a rapid river, with lofty from Lucerne, may study in it the route which he mountains around it,--is very fine. The approach to intends to follow among the neighbouring mountains, it, both from the water, and along the road leading and on his return may extend and perfect the infrom Berne through the scenery of the Reuss, and complete knowledge which he has gathered in bis its neighbourhood, is spoken of in terms of high tour. M. Simond complains that the objects are praise." Few things among the finest, are better beyond all reason too large, "many a village steeple than this approach to Lucerne," says a recent female rivalling in height the neighbouring Alps!" and speaks writer, speaking of that by the latter route; de- of the work being clumsily executed; he admits, how. scending with the mountains full in view, and then ever, that “nothing in the shape of a sight ever gave following the windings of the clear river that sweeps him more pleasure. along between rich banks dotted with habitations, When the Rev. Mr. Coxe first saw this model, or hanging over the airy cliffs, and darkened by forests so much of it as was finished in the year 1776, the that if they have ever heard the sound of an axe, at general had been employed upon it about ten years, least say nothing about it. At the issue of this with the most astonishing patience and assiduity. . beautiful defile, Lucerne stretches out its towers and He had himself raised the plans upon the spots, battlements, assuming an antique and feudal bearing taken the elevations of the mountains, and laid them which it does not sustain quite so nobly on a nearer down in their several proportions. In the prosecu. approach." The approach from the lake though very tion of this laborious work he had been twice arrested beautiful, is not so striking as the other.
for a spy; and in the popular cantons he had freThe Reuss divides Lucerne into two unequal por- quently been forced to work by moon-light, in order tions, which communicate by three wooden bridges, to avoid the jealousy of the peasants, who thought one of which is 1380 feet in length. Two of the their liberty would be endangered, should so exact a three bridges are covered with a roof which protects plan be taken of their country. As he was obliged them from the sun and rain; “You may walk there to remain some time upon the tops of mountains on at all times,” says M. Simond, " and enjoy one of the which no provision could be found, he generally finest prospects in existence,-prodigious mountains carried with him a few she-goats, whose milk used rising at once from the tranquil and pure expanse of to supply him with nourishment. When he had the waters, at the distance of a few miles, between finished any particular part, he sent for the peasants Mount Pilatus, and the Righi on the foreground." and hunters residing near the spot, and bade them There is a fourth bridge which stretches across an examine the model, to see whether it corresponded, as arm of the lake, and leads from the larger division of far as the smallness of the scale would admit, with the the town to the cathedral; this, too, is covered, and original of nature ; thus, by frequently retouching, has a length of 1000 feet. Three of these bridges he managed to approach very closely to accuracy. are decorated with paintings. The Hofbrücke, (lite Ten years afterwards, when the old general was rally “ bridge of the court,") or that which crosses in his seventieth year, and had been employed twenty the river near its outlet, is 1380 feet long, and is years upon his model, Mr. Coxe again saw him, and adorned with a vast number of paintings from Scrip- found that he still continued his annual expeditions ture history; the kappel, or chapel-bridge-which is into the Alps with a spirit and ardour that would that crossing the lake, boasts the possession of 200 have fatigued a much youuger person.
He was a pictures, recording the great exploits of the Swiss. native of Lucerne, and had been an officer in the The third, and smallest of the covered bridges, ex service of France; when the troops of that country hibits the “ Dance of Death,” painting by Moglin- entered Switzerland at the end of the last century, ger, copied, according to Mr. Inglis, from Holbein's they were about to carry off his model, but “they famous work on the same subject. Near the centre were shamed out of it," says M. Simond. Shortly of the chapel-bridge, is the water-tower, which is afterwards, in the year 1802, the old man died, at remarkable for its antiquity, and for the tradition the advanced age of eighty-five, and in full possession connected with it,--that it served formerly as a light- of “his mountains and his fame," a full-length house, and thus gave its name of Lucerna to the town. portrait of him hangs in the room in which the It used to contain, and in all probability still contains, model is preserved, and in the house which he inhathe state treasure, and the great banner which Pope bited; he is represented in his working dress, and in Sixtus the Fourth gave to the city, together with the a climbing attitude, with his iron-shod galoches, or ring of Charles of Burgundy, and some other pre- clogs, his portable seat, and his mountain-stick. cious spoils.
One of the most curious objects of interest to the traveller at Lucerne, is a celebrated model in relief, wisdom and courage; wisdom to contrive, and courage to
He that would undertake great enterprises, hath need of which represents a large district of the most moun
execute; wisdom to guide his courage, and courage to tainous part of Switzerland. It was executed by second his wisdom; both which, if they meci with a good General Pfyffer, and is upwards of 22 feet in length, 'cause, cannot but succeed.-BISHOP HALL.
THE QURANG OUTANG.
FEMALE. An imperfect knowledge of the real nature and but “a careful investigation will show, that in all habits of the Qurang Outang, has been a source of those particulars of mechanical structure which have much error and misrepresentation for ages, and we a direct or remote reference to the emplɔyment of owe all our fabulous accounts of satyrs, and fauns, mind, the ape is perhaps as far removed from us in and wild men of the woods, to a casual view of this material formation, as any other animal of the same animal, or of the Chimpansée*, which bears a great class.” One great reason of their apparent supegeneral resemblance to it. In later times, when the riority to other animals, is the structure of their progress of maritime discovery ought to have been fore-paws or hands, which, from the possession the means of introducing us to an accurate knowledge of a thumb, but more resembling a great toe, enables of the animals and productions of the countries them to grasp an object, and to perform many other visited, the tales of wonder related of these larger acts in imitation of those of a human being. But kind of monkeys, were as ridiculous and false as although it can walk in a clumsy and unsteady man. those of the ancients, and more likely to mislead the ner upon its hinder legs, its general formation clearly judgment; for our modern accounts were founded shows that it never was intended for an erect posture. professedly on an intimate knowledge of the circum- Living in woods, and feeding upon fruits and berries, stances related, and from a personal observation of the Ourang has been provided with feet and hands, the individuals described.
so formed as to enable it to cling firmly to the branches All the Ourangs that have been brought to Europe, of trees, either with its fore or hiuder paws, which and retained in a state of captivity, have been very answer the purpose of hands; on this account, the young, and consequently their manners were playful monkeys have been placed by naturalists in a sepaand mild, and as may be seen by the engravings, the rate order, called Quadrumana, meaning four-handed. difference in character between youth and age is so The full-grown Ourang has never yet been known very great in these animals, that they would be hardly in a captive state, and its appearance and proportions recognised as belonging to the same species. At were hardly understood, until latterly, when the enterpresent, although great additions have been made to prise of European naturalists succeeded in killing and our information on the subject of these larger kinds of bringing home the bones and skin of several specimens. monkeys, still much remains to be discovered, before The annexed engravings represent the heads of two our knowledge of these animals can be said to be full-grown Ourangs, whose skins and skeletons are anything like complete.
preserved in the Museum at Leyden. The malc, The latest inquiries seem to have established the which is furnished with a beard and a curious profact that there are two distinct species of the large tuberance on each cheek, consisting of thickened skin tailless apes--namely, the Ourang Outang, Jocko, or and fat, is about five feet five inches in height; the Pongo, belonging to some of the Asiatic islands, female is rather shorter. particularly Borneo; and the Chimpansée, which is In order to show how great a difference there is found in the tropical parts of Africa. The most between the bones of the head of the young Ourang readily discerned distinction between the two, is the and the adult, we have represented the skulls of the colour of the hair and the length of the arms. In animal when very young, and when full grown: the Ourang the hair is of a red-brown colour, and it will be seen that that portion of the skull which the arms when the creature is erect reach nearly to contains the brain, is hardly more capacious in the ancles; while the hair of the Chimpansée is black, the old specimen than in the young, and that the and the arms reach very little below the knees. jaws are lengthened in a most extraordinary manner,
Much has been said of the great resemblance in giving to the creature a inost ferocious aspect. anatomical structure between the Ourang and man, In this stage of its life, the muscles by which the jaws See Saturday Magazine, Vol. I., p. 172.
are moved are amazingly powerful and a strongly