« AnteriorContinuar »
with a smile or a dry laugh. It would be well, how- | elegance or grace, but they are suited to the taste of ever, were their diversions on these occasions confined the spectators, and always command applause. In to the mere repeating of jokes : for it appears that the city of Constantinople, the chief resort of the they are sometimes accompanied with practical illus- troops of dancers, musicians, jugglers, and buffoons, trations of the most barbarous kind. The same is the coffee-houses, especially those of the quarter recent traveller whom we have quoted above, speaks called Galata : “ You seldom fail,” says Sir John of some which he saw played off at a Turkish feast, Hobhouse, “ of being saluted with music or some upon the person of a buffoon, who was well paid for discordant sounds, in passing through the streets of suffering ther. “ It was,” he says, “ the poor that suburb. The wretched performers dance to the fellow's trade, and he bore the marks of its dreadful music of guitars, fiddles, and rebecks; and what nature upon his scarred visage."
with the exclamations of the master of the dances, The buffoon was sent out of the room, and during and sometimes the quarrels of the Turks, so much his absence a pipe was charged with gunpowder, over noise and disturbance ensue at mid-day, as to bring which a little tobacco was spread; he was then called the patrol to the spot.” in, and the pipe presented to him. Of course, he Our engraving represents a scene in an entertainhad scarcely lighted it, and given a single puff when ment, which was witnessed by the French traveller, the powder exploded, and drove the tube against the M. Choiseul Gouffier; it was given by the Aga, or palate of his mouth, with great violence; the sight Turkish governor of Eski-Hissar, which occupies the excited only a roar of merriment in those around. site of the ancient town of Stratonice, in Asia Minor, The next “amusement" was still more cruel. A or Natolia. On this occasion, the dancing was preplate was filled with flour; and in this were stuck ceded by a recitation of verses. twenty pieces of lighted candle. The buffoon and à companion of his, were made to kneel in the centre of the room opposite to each other; and with their THE BEETLE, AND THE HORSES OF THE PASHA; teeth they laid hold of the edges of the plate. At a A Fable, founded on an Arabic Proverb, directed against ridiculous given signal, they were to blow the flour in each
pretensions ;-" They came to shoe the Horses of the Pasha, and
ihe Beetle stretched out her leg." other's face, across the candles, and he who gave the
In Egypt's superstitions clime, quickest blast, would escape the volume of flame
“ It happened once upon a time,” which the ignited particles of flour sent forth. The
A BEETLE, vainest of his kind, fellow who sustained the first injury, had the good
And, therefore, not a little blind, fortune to escape unscorched; he completely singed
Presumed, so far as he could see, the bald head of his companion, and burned the
That nothing was so great as he.
He was not of the winged sort, upper part of his face and brows severely. There
Or flying might have been his forte; was another shout of savage laughter while the un
But wheresoe'er his walk he took, fortunate man was smearing oil over his features, to
He thought the ground beneath him shook, allay the pain. " I saw preparations," says the writer,
And when his perfect form they saw, “ making for further feats of Turkish humour, but I
His fellow-beetles gazed with awe. was thoroughly disgusted, and gladly left the place."
" Ah! those," said he, were wiser days, The amusements of dancing and music are pro
When ancient Egypt, to her praise,
“Adored such attributes as mine, hibited by the Mohammedan law;-at least to that
And bowed to beetles as divine * !" effect is the interpretation placed by the learned doc
Scornful he spoke: beside him stood tors, upon the traditions of their prophet. There
Four coal-black steeds, of gen’rous blood : exist, however, troops of dancers and musicians in
Full of all strength and grace he saw, their large eities; but thesë appear in public only on
The HORSES OF THE GRAND PASHA. extraordinary occasions, being chiefly employed in the
Lo! pond'rous shoes, of iron proof, houses of individuals when a grand entertainment
Were brought to arm each noble hoof; is given. The dancers consist generally of Greeks
When, fancying they were meant for him,
The Beetle raised his tiny limh, from the islands; a Mussulman is seldom or never
And held it forth, surprised and vex’d, found in their ranks, the gravity of his disposition
His turn was not to come the next! · leading him in this instance to observe strictly the
And whilst the blacksmiths' hammers rung, injunction of the law, It appears strange, unless we
These words were still upon his tongue; suppose the fact to arise from the absolute contempt
“ Of course, I think it mighty odd in which the Greeks are held by their conquerors,
Good people, that I am not shod.” “ that the Turks born in the same climate, and
Arabian sages teach from hence, mixed some centuries with them, have not yet adopted
Th’ absurdity of mere pretence,
Which, stepping from its proper sphero, their mirth and jollity, but hear and see them conti
Unmoved by modesty or fear, nually dancing and singing without stirring a leg
Would rudely try to reach a niche themselves, or joining in a chorus. Such of them as
Meant for the learned, great, or rich, are used to the sea, of necessity mix amongst some
And earn, by loss and ridicule, hundreds of Greek mariners, who when they are on
The bad promotion of a fool. shore, or indeed, on board their ships, are rarely
So have I mark'd th' inferior mind,
For plain, though useful, work design'd, without music and dancing; yet a Turk is never
With fretful emulation aim found revelling with them. Nay, the men of high or
At points of consequence and fame;even middling rank among them, seem to look on
Points that the waking dream reveals, dancing as unbecoming the dignity of man, befitting
A Coif, a Mitre, or the Seals. only the meanest and most abandoned of their species !
See Saturday Magazine, Vol. VII., p. 68. they think with the ancient Romans,“No one dances unless he is drunk or mad.'”
When a rich Turk gives a feast to his friends on It is not so much the being exempt from faults, as the the important occasion of a birth, or a marriage in with the follies of the mind, as with the weeds of a field,
having overcome thein, that is an advantago to us; it being his family, the most acceptable entertainment which which, if destroyed and
consumed upon the place where he can furnish, is the exhibition of a troop of dancers; they grow, enrich and improve it more than if none ha their performances are not, indeed, distinguished for ever sprung there.-Swirr.
qualities which distinguished Luther* should be aided by Erasmus, Carolostadius, and Melancthon.
Philip Melancthon, “one of the wisest and greatest men of his age," was born at Bretten, in the Palatinate of the Rhine, on February the 16th, 1497. His family name was Schwartserd, or Schwartz-erde, meaning, literally, black earth, but which, agreeably to the custom of the times, he changed to Melancthon, a compound Greek word of the same signification. His early education was intrusted to the care of his maternal grandfather, who placed him at a school in Bretten, where he soon evinced the vigour and extent of his capacities. From this school he was removed to the college at Pfortsheim, where he studied two years, acquiring the friendship of John Reuchlin, better known to the learned by the name of Capnio. His studies were continued at Heidelberg for about three years, when, in 1512, he removed to Tübingen, lecturing and applying himself to the continued study of the word of God. In 1513 he was made master of arts, and attracted the notice of Erasmus, who conceived the highest estimation of his abilities. At the request of Reuchlin he was nominated to the office of Greek professor at. Wittenberg, where his learning, suavity, and ability;removed the prejudices that his youth was calculated to excite. It has been well observed, " that the history of piety is even more interesting than the history of genius." In the latter case, however elevated the object to which genius has been directed, or however great the difficulty that it has surmounted, we read and we admire, in proportion as we are interested in the success of the statesman, the warrior, or the poet. But to discriminate between the different states of the mind, to ascertain the progress of religious influence, to note the establishment of moral character, and to mark it in the fulness of matured power, devoted to the task of fixing the ordinances of God upon the hearts of men, is a theme more instructive from the reflection it awakens, and the example it details. It is in this light we
must now view Melancthon, who, having acquired That great and good man who was undoubtedly the worthiest of all the Reformers.-BOEWELL's Life of Johnson.
the friendship of Luther, and adopted his religious
principles and feelings, accompanied him in his first THERE is no truth which a religious and a reflecting disputation against Eckius, upon the sale of Indu.. people will more readily admit, than that of the un- gences. ceasing providence of their Creator. Of this Scrip But as there can be no real reformation in the ture history is an illustration, and Scriptural biogra- human heart, no true knowledge in a nation, without phy an example. When the idolatry of Paganism religious instruction, he determined, by every method had overspread the world, it was reduced by the in his power, to speak and to explain the truths of mild influence of the Christian truth; and when the Gospel. For this purpose he gave public lectures Christianity had become corrupted, forgotten, or ex- on the Epistles of St. Paul : these were subsequently plained away, it was purified from the stains of time, printed, with a preface and additions by Luther. and separated from the dross of tradition by the In 1527, he was appointed by the Elector to visit permitted efforts of the ministers of the Reformation. the churches in his dominions, to form schools, and This evidence of design in the preservation' and pro- organize a uniform system of instruction. The motion of pure Religion is too apparent to escape Reformation might now be considered as established; attention; and it is with a hope of animating piety for though some principles were yet matters of disby the history of the past, that the life of Melanc- pute, yet so much attention had been excited, that thon is now presented to our readers.
Charles the Fifth, though long absent from Germany, It is impossible to describe in this slight sketch, the and engaged in affairs that left him little leisure for state of religion in the sixteenth century. Then,” theological controversy, was yet aware of the progress says Mosheim, “ the public worship of the Deity of the new opinions, the consequences of which he was no more than a pompous round of external foresaw. He, therefore, at an interview with the ceremonies, the greatest part of which were more Pope, insisted upon the convocation of a general adapted to dazzle the eyes than to touch the heart." council. To examine with accuracy, and to decide The Bible was a forbidden book; opinions beyond with equity in a matter of such importance, Luther those put forth by the church or councils were judged was ordered to commit to writing the chief articles heretical, a crime generally punished by torture, or in dispute. This task was delegated to Melancthon, its more dreadful penalty, a lingering death. It who, thereupon, drew up the articles of the famous was, however, mercifully ordained, that, in propor “ Confession of Augsburgh.” The style of this tion to the greatness of the corruption, an impatient confession is elegant, grave, and simple, refuting ardour for its repression should exist, and that the
* See Saturday Magasine, Vol. IV., p. 194
opposition by the strength of its authority, and
THE DATE PALM TREE, winning converts by the mild justice of its zeal.
(Phænix dactylifera.) "Can you," asked the Duke of Bavaria, “ overthrow this doctrine by the Holy Scripture?" "No," replied Eckius, "we cannot by the Holy Scriptures, but we may by the Fathers."
In religious as in political disputes, the flame of public opinion is seldom confined to the point from whence at first it rose, or limited by the power by which it has been fanned. Accordingly, the doctrines of Germany were now rapidly spreading in France, and Francis the First had assisted at a procession in 1535, where some persons alleged to be heretics were burnt. "To mitigate his anger, Melancthon addressed to him a conciliatory memoir, and engaged to visit France, with a view to a pacific conference with the doctors of the Sorbonne. But the Elector of Saxony, who feared to offend Charles the Fifth, and the Catholics, who dreaded the possible influence of Melancthon over Francis, successfully frustrated his intention. No event of importance was now transacted without his consideration and consent; during the war arising from the LEAGUE OF SMALCALDE, he wandered over Germany, and finally fixed his residence at Weimar, He contributed to the erection of the University at Jena, assisted in 1541 at the conferences of Ratisbon, and was afterwards engaged in the temporary arrangement of the Emperor Charles, now known as the “ Interim.” After the death of Luther, in 1546, he was placed at the head of the reformers, a station at variance with the mildness of his nature, and his
Fig. 1. Flower of the Male Date-tree. ardent desire of conciliation. He witnessed with
2. The same expanded.
3. Flower of the Female Date-tree. pain the increase of schism in the church, with
4. The same expanded. which his spirit was unable to contend.
He was charged with apostasy by the primitive reformers, and This majestic tree is at times as much as sixty feet with beresy by his Catholic opponents. To reconcile in height. Its stem is straight and cylindrical, and these parties he attended at seven conferences in 1548, covered, particularly near its summit, with numerous and was appointed to attend the general council to be prominences like thick scales, which formed the footheld in 1552 ; but age and toil had already exhausted stalks of the leaves of former years. For the first him. He resided for some period at Nüremberg, but four or five years of its growth, its crest is not on his return to Wittenberg a sudden illness termi- elevated above the ground, and during this period nated his existence on the 19th of April, 1560. He it consists of numerous leaves all springing from was buried by his followers by the side of Luther.
a common centre, resembling a large and thick The character.of Melancthon, whether considered bulb of a roundish or oval form, which is renewed in e literary, a social, or a religious point of view, is every year, enlarged in size, and yielding annually one eminently instructive to mankind. The student
an increasing number of leaves. When this button will observe that genius, however vast, acquires fresh has attained the size of the future stem of the tree, claims upon the gratitude of men, by habits of assi
it gradually rises from the earth, and the comduous study and well-disciplined reflection. The
mencement of the trunk is seen, symmetrically man of the world will mark how effective both study
formed by the remaining stems of the former leaves ; and reflection are to the cultivation of all manly
it is by taking advantage of these sharp prominences yirtues, and the success of principles upon which all that the cultivators are enabled to climb the slender social happiness is based. And the moralist who
trunk, for the purpose of gathering the dates. A seeks to spread the light of the Gospel, will learn
grove of date-trees, when full grown, has the appearhow patience, meekness, and humility are in accord
ance of numerous elegant columns, each crowned ance with its spirit; how powerful they are in
with a verdant capital, with shafts beautifully wrought.
The leaves on the summit, which are from ten to regulating human passion, and in winning and retaining hearers, not only by their conviction of twelve feet in length, bend gracefully back, and form the truth, but also by the moral example of its
a kind of canopy. The leaf of the date-tree is comprofessor. “The cause of true Christianity," says attached to one stem.
pound; that is, formed of numerous smaller leaves, Mosheim, “ derived from the learning, genius, and peaerful nature of the MILD MELANCTHON, more
The date-trees are distinguished as male and signal advantages, and more effectual support, than
female, one plant bearing the fruit, and another the it received from any of the other doctors of the age.”
blossoms; a mode of growth, of which we have an S. H.
instance in the common hemp. The fruit of the date
varies considerably, according to the mode in which If there are hypocrites in religion, there are also, strange as
it is cultivated, in form, size, and flavour. There are it may appear, hypocrites in impiety; men who make an as many as twenty or five-and-twenty varieties, and in ostentation of more irreligion than they possess. An osten some kinds, which are very large and finely flavoured, tation of this nature, the most irrational in the records of the stone of the fruit is completely obliterated, in the human folly, seems to lie at the root of profane swearing. It is difficult to account for a practice which gratifies no
manner as the pips are wanting in the St. ,
Michael passion, and promotes no interest, unless we ascribe it to a
oranges. certain vanity of appearing superior to religious fear,
The date, which is a native of Asia and Africa, is which tempts men to make bold with their Maker. found in moist saņdy soils. It has been naturalized ROBERT HALL.
in Spain, and some are found even in the south of is lofty, straight, very bulky, and without branches ; France.
it is also necessary to avoid the sharp-pointed and A forest of date-trees presents a very singular hard prominences with which it is covered. In order sight to an European traveller; in some parts of Bar- to reach the part of the tree where the fruit grows; a bary they are as much as two leagues in extent, and strong rope is provided, which the climber passes their verdant crests touching each other, produce the across his back and under his arm-pits, then apappearance of an immense natural temple, whose si- proaching the tree he brings the two ends of the rope lence is only interrupted by the concert of numerous round the tree, and ties them together firmly in a birds, the only inhabitants of these solitary places. knot; the rope is then placed on one of the notches Though the country is covered with masses of bar- or prominences caused by the foot-stalk of an old ren sand, the ground beneath the shelter of these leaf, and the man slips that portion which is under grandees of the desert is covered with flowers of every his arm-pits inore towards the middle of his back, so hue, while the stems of the trees themselves are as to let the lower part bf the shoulder-blades rest festooned with numerous beautiful climbing plants. upon it, he then with his knees and hands firmly
The Arabs sow the nuts at the commencement of grasps the trunk, and raises himself a few inches the spring, but they more commonly propagate the higher; holding fast then by his knees and feet and plant by means of suckers, which must be frequently one hand, he with the other slips the rope a little watered, and protected from the heat of the sun until higher up the tree, letting it rest on another promithey have struck; the last method of multiplying nence. From great practice the climber is enabled them is by far the readiest, and offers the advantages to perform this with considerable quickness; when of selecting only female plants, as these alone bear arrived among the leaves, he quickly plucks the fruit, the fruit, but it is necessary to place a few male which is caught below in a large cloth. plants here and there. Dates produced by cuttings, The trees represented in the engraving are in a tulwill bear fruit in five or six years, while those from tivated state ; when wild, their appearance more the seed require fifteen or twenty years.
resembles the Wild Palm *, in which many of the Each date-tree while in a healthy state can produce old leaves still remain attached to the trunk annually from ten to a dozen bunches, each weighing
• See Saturday Magasine, Vol. V., p. 146 from twenty to five-and-twenty pounds. The best and most esteemed fruits have a firm texture, and are of a yellowish colour. These fruits, when fresh, have
OYSTER BANKS. a delicious flavour and smell; they are sweet, wholesome, very nourishing, and require no preparation.
An observant and veracious person informed me, The Arabs make a very agreeable kind of syrup that of all the natural phenomena, on an extensive with fresh dates; they first remove the stones, and scale, which, during a visit to America, arrested his place the pulp in vessels full of holes; it is then sub- attention, and excited his admiration of the ways of jected to pressure, and the expressed juice collected Providence, was the formation of Oyster Banks on in vessels ;—they call it date-honey. It is much in the sea-bord of Georgia. The land from the sea, for use in the preparation of rice, and the making of about the space of from twelve to eighteen miles, is bread, the mass remaining after the syrup is extracted completely alluvial, and in general consists of uneulis still used as a commoner kind of food. Those who tivated marsh lands, through which an iron rod can afford it, preserve dates fresh throughout the might be thrust to the distance of eighteen or twenty year, in vessels filled with this syrup; a kind of wine i
feet. is also made from the same substance, by adding
A great number of large creeks and rivers are water, and submitting the liquid afterwards to fer- found meandering through these marshes, and owing mentation; a spirit is also distilled from it, which is to the sinuosities invariably resulting from ranning much used in the preparation of perfumes.
water, the bends of these rivers would, in a short Another preparation of this valuable fruit is of time, cut away the adjoining land to such an extent much greater importance. The fruit is exposed to as would make the whole sea-bord a quagmire. But the strongest heat of the sun, until it is sufficiently it is a remarkable fact, that wherever the tide bends dry to be reduced to powder : if this flour is kept its force, its effects are counteracted by walls of away from moisture, it will remain good for almost living oysters, which grow upon each other from the any length of time; it is stowed away in sacks, and beds of the rivers to the very verge of the banks. the mere wetting of it with water renders it fit for These fish are often found in bunches among the
This preparation is the chief support of the long grass, growing upon the surface of the snil. Arabs in their long journeys across the deserts.
They are in such abundance, that a vessel of a The advantages of the cultivation of the date-tree hundred tons might load herself in three times her are not confined to the fruit; almost every other own length. These banks are the favourite resort of part of this precious tree answers some useful pur- fish and birds, as well as of the racoon, and some pose. A liquor is drawn from the trunk, called other animals, who feed upon the oysters both by palm wine; the trunks of the old trees furnish a
day and night. Bunches of them, sufficient to fill a hard and durable wood, which is employed in bushel, are found matted, as it were, together; and the building of houses ; the leaves, after being the neighbouring inhabitants and labourers will light steeped in water, are sufficiently pliant to be formed a fire upon the marsh grass, roll a bunch of ovsters into baskets, hats, &c. and the fibres of the stem of upon it, and then eat them. Thiš barrier of oysters, the leaves are made into cords and twine. Nor are like rocks of coral, must offer the strongest resistthe nuts or stones of the fruit without their use; in
ance to the force of the tide. - Jesse. Egypt the inhabitants feed their cattle with them; in China they are burnt and employed in the manu When Baxter had lost a thousand pounds, which he had facture of Indian-ink; and in Spain they make a
laid up for the erection of a school, he used frequently to charcoal of them, used as a tooth-powder, and some
mention the misfortune as an inoitement to be charitable times sold as ivory-black.
while God gives the power of bestowing, and considered The gathering of this valuable fruit is a task of action in the hands of chance, aud suffered his benevolence
himself culpable in some degree, -for having left a good considerable difficulty, for the trunk of the date-tree to be defeated for want of diligence.
THE USEFUL ARTS. No. IX.
Vines treated in this way begin to bear at the fifth year, The VINE.
and, with proper care and cultivation, will continue proThis well-known plant has been an object of culture from Clos de Vougeot, the vines have been in bearing for 300
ductive for three or four centuries. In the vineyard of the earliest ages, for the sake of the fermented liquor years, the plants being only layered to replace those that obtained from its fruit. Its history, like that of the CERE are become too large, or have been injured: the layers are ALIAS is inseparably connected with the early mythology
not separated from the old stock. The soil of this celeof all those countries where it Hourishes, and on the altars brated spot is a calcareous gravel, about three feet deep, on
The vine tourishes best between the parallels of latitude limestone rock, and it is said that manure is never of twenty and forty degrees; a little to the north
of fifty it required. The annual produce is from 160 to 200 hoyswill only ripen its fruit in sheltered situations, with the benefit heads
, of 260 bottles each, from a surface of 160 French of full exposure to a southern sun; beyond fifty-five degrees it rarely produces fruit at all in the open air. It is equally mode of growth, and are trained between poplar or other
In Italy the vines are allowed to follow their natural impatient of a sultry heat, but şa much depends on climate, standard trees ; but it is to be presumed that, since the and this is so eutirely modified by situation, that while many French wines are most esteemed, and that nation has spots beyond the mean of these limits are celebrated for
their had mast experience, their mode of cultivation is the productive vineyards, others, which from their latitude might bęst
, or probably difference of climate may render different be expected to furnish the finest wine, do not admit of its methods of cultivation necessary. cultivation for that purpose.
The wines of France are generally admitted to be the finest ; the principal ones are Champagnes, Burgundies,
GYMNASTICS. and Clarets. Of each of these there are several varieties, celebrated for their peculiar flavours; as the light, spark. Those whom choice pr. necessity may lead to follow ling, brisk, white wines of Epernay, Ai, and Sillery; some of the very useful occupations which are genebelong to the first class. The principal wines of Burgundy rally carried on in populous places, and which often are Chambertin, Clos Vougeot, and Romane Conti; these, bring maṇy individuals together into large manufacthough less generally known in England, rank among con- torięs, would find a very great adyantage in having noisseurs as the first of all wines. Clarets, or the wines recourse to some of those bodily exercises which are proluced in the neighbourhood of Bourdeaux, are divided engaged in for the purpose of recreation and amuseand subdivided into classes and sections without number; ment. If judiciously managed, as to their kind, and Chateau Margaux, Lafitte, Haut Brion, are the best of the the time and energy to be devoted to them, they first class, or Medoc wines.
The restrictive commercial system of laws in this country might be made the most powerful means of counterin a great measure precludes the introduction of the acting the injurious effects arising from the disuse of wholesome wines of France, and has caused the prin- particular muscles, and from the distorting and cipal supply of this luxury to be drawn from the hot and cramping positions to which the operatives in some fiery vintages of Portugal and Spain; Port and Sherry kinds of business are unavoidably subjected. These being the standard wines at the tables of persons of exercises, besides greatly benefiting the body, might moderate fortunes. Not above 1714 tuns of French wines have been imported into Britain annually within the last have a very important influence with respect to the
They would serve as a few years, while 14,300 tụns of Potuguese wine find their mind and moral feelings. way during the same period.
diversion from many corrupting and baneful modes of the wines of other countries those of Madeira, | of passing away the time not devoted to business, and of the Cape of Good Hope, and the Rhenish, Hun- which too often lead the operative classes into prac. garian, Sicilian, and Greek, are the principal. In the tices which bring ruin on their families, and are more year 1830 the following quantities, in Imperial gallons, of these different wines were consumed in Britain :-Portu- injurious to their health, and destructive of life, than guese, 2,933, 176; Spanish, 2,153,031 ; Cape, 537,188; the most unhealthful manufacturing occupations. French, 337,100; Sicilian, Greek, &c. 259,709; Madeira, Games of varioụs kinds, requiring the active exertion 228,221; Canary, 105,875; Rhenish and German, 71,423. of the body, combined with skill and agility, haye, in
The vine prefers a light and dry soil; if the substratum almost all ages and countries, been resorted to, for be chalk, the fruit will be better flavoured, but for abun- the gratification both of those engaged in them, and dance of grapes a deep and rich, as well as dry, soil is of those who assemble for the purpose of witnessing requisite. Most of the French vineyards are on a light loam, with limestone beneath, and the best both in that the feats of strength and skill exhibited by those who country and in Italy are those on volcanic districts.
have attained to excellence in these sports. The spot for planting a vineyard being selected and In the best days of the polished states of Greece, prepared, holes are made with a dibble, about a foot or public games were kept up with great spirit, at stated eighteen inches deep, and a yard apart at the least, the intervals : and prizes were awarded to the conquerors, rows being also at that distance asunder. The cuttings in bodily as well as in mental competition ; and the are from shoots of the preceding summer, or from those in which the alburnum is fully formed; each shoot should distinction which the acquisition of one of these be twelve or eighteen inches long, and should be taken prizes conferred on the victor, was an object pursued so as to have a portion of the branch from which it grew with the greatest ardour and perseverance. still attached to it. These cuttings are planted in the The preparation necessary for these games, required holes any time from November to March, and are set the habitual employment of these various exercises deep enough to leave only two eyes, or knots, out of the ' in the intervals. Suitable places, in or near the ground. During the first year nothing is done but keep Grecian towns, were set apart for the young men to ing the ground free from weeds by frequent hand-hoeing. In the ensuing March the shoois are cut down again exercise themselves in ; and persons were engaged as to two eyes; the land is dug deeply, or else ploughed, directors of the different sports; and so much attenand manured. The year's shoots are tied to short stakes, tion was paid to the subject, as almost to give it the and after the vintage they are cut down to two buds from character of a science, under the name of Gymnastics. the original stem or stock. In France, therefore, a vine- In our own times, this subject has been taken up with yard resembles a plantation of currant-bushes. When the old stems get unwieldy, layers are made, that is, shoots are much spirit in Germany and France, and some attenbent down, and laid in a furrow made in the earth, and are
tion has been paid to it in this country. It has, covered over the shoot is kept down by forked pegs of however, been chiefly attended to amongst the middle wood, or else by laying stones on them; roots grow out and wealthier classes of society; and many young from the knots of the shoot thus buried, and when these men have found their bodily strength and ágility are firmly established, the old shoot may be cut through, wonderfully increased, besides having their mental and a new plant is thus obtained.
and moral qualities greatly improved, under the reguSee former papers on the UserOL ARTS,
lation and exercises imposed by the superintendents