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time rose to a considerable height, and still prevail. Dr. | uninterrupted attention to religious observances. The Barry states, that from the discovery of the value of kelp men gain usually from £20 to £40 on the voyage. If they in the last century, to 1808, half a million of pounds do not return in time for the harvest, it is gathered in by sterling had been raised from this source in Orkney. The their wives and sisters. Orkney does not furnish a single good and evil effects of this adventitious branch of profit, vessel for this trade. are fairly contrasted in the Statistical Survey ;-on the The gale of Sunday se nnight was not to use the one hand, the general diffusion of comfort and improvement; common expression, "an ill wind, that blew nobody any on the other, dearness of provisions, neglect of agriculture, good," for it drove a fine shoal of whales into Scarpa and extravagance.

Bay. Formerly, the proprietor of the coast on which To the extraordinary profit arising from the kelp, in the they were stranded claimed those fish: but the right Orkney islands, it must be no doubt partly attributed that, was disputed, and the fish were finally awarded, by whilst the surrounding seas are frequented by English, the decision of the Court of Session, to the person who Scotch, Dutch, and Shetlanders, the natives have beheld drove them ashore. The immediate profit resulting from the fish carried off, with indolence or indifference, and made the chase impels every boatman in the neighbourhood to no attempt to get their share in the trade. The herrings take his share in it. The scene on this occasion was most visit the Sound annually in July, and pass on unmolested animating: 103 of these fish were stranded; they were to the Coast of Caithness, the scene of the principal fishery small, the largest measuring only twenty-five feet, and One chief obstacle to their fishing in Orkney, is the want the average value of each was estimated at about £5. One of curing-houses, which, however, might be easily remedied of the females yielded, when caught, a quantity of milk with considerable advantage by the outlay of a little from one of its paps. An eye-witness described them to capital. The natives of Orkney take some share in the me, as resembling, as they lay on the beach, a row of disCaithness fishery, as their boats repair to the general muster mounted guns. at Wick. But there is no reason that the curing should

About the same time, a more uncommon visiter of these not be transferred from thence to Stromness, or any part of seas, a walrus, or sea-horse, appeared in the Sound of Orkney which may be convenient for the purpose. The Hoy; it rose from the water several times, and was shot at white-fishery is, with the exception of the fish caught in by a gentleman of the party who saw it, and who commusmall boats, wholly surrendered to Englishmen and nicated the circumstance to me. Sir Arthur Brooke menforeigners.

tions, in his northern travels, that a walrus, 10 feet long, The lobster-fishery, an important and valuable branch of was stated as having found its way to the Hebrides in the trade, as Orkney is celebrated for its lobsters, is carried | 1817, and was killed by the inhabitants, on by English companies. Their vessels are partly supplied The birds frequenting the Orkneys are numerous and with the fish by the Orkney boats. Lobsters are taken in various. Papa-Westera, a small island, the most northwater from two to six fathoms in depth, by smacks which are western of the group, is celebrated for the vast multitude of provided with wells for live fish, like

those used in the cod- its Eider-ducks, which are so tame that they may be apfishery. The mackerel pass in July and August, but are proached without difficulty, and yield an excellent down for little disturbed in their progress by the natives. The chief bedding. In the same island Mr. Bullock found that fisheries in which they engage at their own expense are noble bird, the king of the auks; but, though indefatithat of oysters, which are of a very fine sort, and that of gable in pursuit, could not get a shot at it; its mate had the young of the coal-fish, the sythe or sillock, formerly disappeared. A lady, to whom the island belonged, offered mentioned, which being driven into the harbours and bays a high reward to any one who should bring the bird : in in July and August, are caught without any trouble or the course of the winter it was killed, and placed in the risk, and supplying both food and fuel from the oil which London Museum, from whence it was removed to the they yield, form the staple fishery of both the Hebrides and British, where it may now be seen. Orkneys. These islands, containing no rivers, afford little Pilotage is an important branch of employment in fresh-water fish, with the exception of some trout in the Orkney. Though the harbours are numerous and excellochs: there is a great dearth of Salmon.

lent, the approach to them is very difficult and intricate. The Orkney and Shetland Islands supply annually a Many pilots are employed in the Sound of Hoy; and large portion of the crews employed in the whale-fisheries formerly the eagerness resulting from their emulation of Greenland, and the Straits. The English and Scotch produced frequent loss: they have prudently united and whalers arrive about March at Stromness. Their tonnage formed a company, engaging in turn in the perilous amounts to from 3 to 400 tons; and their complement of service. The practice of piloting forms an excellent semimen is usually about fifty, of whom about twenty are nary for the whale-fisheries. The present exclusive mariregular sailors. The Orkney-men who acquire from child-time habits of the Orkney-men may be inferred from the hood great skill and intrepidity in the management of boats, circumstance, that whilst in other parts of Scotland there on their stormy and dangerous seas, are usually employed was scarcely a family, containing individuals capable of almost exclusively in the boat-service. But it is remarked bearing arms, which did not furnish one or more soldiers, of them, that being habituated to the constant vicinity of scarcely a single soldier was enlisted in these islands, and coasts and harbours, they are apt to fail both in perseverance yet excellent troops have been formerly levied in them. and courage, when exposed to the perils of distant cruises The Earl of Morton raised, in 1643, a regiment of Orkneyin open boats. So seldom is the human mind prepared for men, whom he considered as inferior to none in his army; circumstances to which it is unaccustomed, exhibiting and the chivalrous Montrose found amongst these islanders, either the rashness of inexperience, or the confusion of to the honour of Orkney be it recorded, his last devoted ungrounded apprehension. The Orkney-men, being un band of followers. It is mentioned in the Statistical Survey, practised in the management of vessels, are very unskilful that about 2000 Orkney-men were on the list of the Royal in that branch of nautical ,duty. The number of natives Navy, in the war about the end of the last century. who went from Stromness, on this service, in the present The Orkneys are justly celebrated for their harbours. year, was 700, a number far inferior to that formerly Though swept by tempestuous seas, and presenting rugged employed, amounting sometimes to 1000. The English boundaries to the mariner, they providentially afford refuge are said to have offered themselves lately more readily, on all sides to vessels navigating the Northern Ocean, or and to have proportionally displaced the natives of the tracking their course along the inhospitable eastern coast northern isles. The vessels return from the fisheries of Scotland. Between these islands and the harbours of usually about harvest-time. They are now daily expected, England, there is no haven to which a vessel, even of and their arrival is. dreaded at Stromness, the inha- small size, can fly for refuge with any certainty, except bitants being prevented walking in the streets by day, Cromarty Bay; and the approach to this harbour is often as well as by night, by the tumultuous revels in which the endangered, during a northern gale, by the liability to which Orkney-men indulge for some time after their return. vessels are exposed of being wrecked on the eastern coast, Their conduct has, however, improved in all respects of late between Kinnaird Head and its entrance. In Orkney, the years, especially in their attendance at church, which was harbour of Long Hope is altogether the best and most formerly entirely neglected by those people. The young adapted to large vessels, as affording the several objects of minister of Stromness assured me that he had lately seen safe and sufficient anchorage, and easy ingress and egress. as many as a hundred of them present at Divine service. Stromness, though less fortunate in the latter respects, is And he confidently attributed the change to the practice, the securest, and most convenient receptacle for large now observed at the Straits, of hoisting a tag on board some vessels, as they find sufficient depth of water in the roads,

he vessels, on Sunday, for the purpose of assembling without the holms, whilst the town provides them with

ews for prayer, and the consequent influence of the needful supplies. Indeed, the ship-owners make an objee

the ocean.

tion to Stromness, that it affords such good entertainment granıleur of their former temporal and spiritual princes. to the captains and skippers of the vessels, that they are Among inferior specimens of Orcadian minstrelsy, is a loath to go to sea. The Long Hope affords no accommo poem on the Orkneys, worthy of the land which gave it dation whatever, but a small public-house. The want of a birth, though somewhat uniform in its style, composed dry dock, in the harbour of Stromness, is much felt by by a gentleman named Malcolm, formerly an officer in the vessels entering for the purpose of refitting. Some of 42nd regiment. those which the gale brought in during or before my stay, A bag-piper perambulates the streets both of Thurso and were in a leaky and injured state, having been exposed to Stromness, morning and evening. He passed, as usual, much rough weather, and needed much more repair than on the 20th, between the hours of six and seven. The they could well receive in this harbour. The expense of this wind had veered round to the eastward, and the harbour work might be defrayed by small dues. The harbour of exhibited a scene of busy preparation for sailing, a Kirkwall is good, though exposed to north winds. On spectacle which had not been witnessed for some weeks. the same coast, to eastward, are two other havens. To the We got under weigh about nine o'clock; and, assisted northward of Pomona, and opening towards the northern by a faint breeze, reached the Sound of Hoy. On turnsea, is the noble harbour of Calf-Sound : eastward of this ing the point, we perceived twenty-three vessels, one a lies the long island of Sanda, notorious for wrecks, and large three-masted merchantman, the rest brigs, ahead in the same line, and the most north-eastern of the Ork- of us, floating, for the wind failed entirely, in regular neys, is North Ronaldsha, whose coasts are also dangerous. procession down the central channel of the Sound. The A light-house is erected on it. This, and the light-house ebb was moving at the rate of six miles in the hour, and on the Pentland Skerries, or Sunken Roads, at the eastern produced a heavy sea, by its encounter with the swell of entrance of the Firth, are the only structures of this kind

The vessels had spread every rag of canvass, on these islands.

studding-sails included, rolling and pitching onward in The manufacture of straw bonnets has been introduced close succession, head, side, or stern foremost, at the mercy with success into Orkney: the long and thin stalk of the of the rapid tide. Our little cutter was whirled completely rye being found well adapted to the purpose.

round again and again. The illicit distillation of spirits has been nearly sup Bound for Thurso, on reaching the open sea, we quitted pressed in these islands by the introduction of legal dis- the line of vessels, thirty-four in number, which now extilleries, aided by the vigilance of the excise. There are two teniled twelve miles, from the harbour of Stromness in the of these establishments in Stromness; and three in Kirk- direction of Cape Wrath; passing under the majestic preciwall.

pices of the Wart-Hill and Old-Man, on which the waves A great improvement has taken place in the religious burst heavily and hoarsely. Another fleet, which had habits of the people, which were formerly much neglected. remained wind-bound in the Long Hope, now appeared

Amongst the customs of the Orcadians is that which pre- issuing from the Pentland Firth. No part of the coast of vails in other parts of Scotland, of celebrating the national | Great Britain is, perhaps, grander than that of Hoy; gaine on Christmas and New-year's day. The fishermen ob- though, from its uniformity, little picturesque. We lay serve the curious practice of turning their boat in the direc- becalmed under it for several hours, and beheld its red tion of the sun, when they launch it;-avoiding whistling, cliffs glow in the brilliant lustre of the setting sun; and the mention of the minister's name, as unlucky omens, darkened only in a single spot by the deep shadow caused and instantly desisting from their intention of fishing, if by the tall column of the Old-Man. About dusk, a fine questioned as to the direction in which they are going; breeze sprung up, and bore us directly to the coast, a little customs originating as much from indolence as from igno to the westward of Holbourn-Head, a remarkable headland rance. The incitement of a spirit of enterprise and exertion of Thurso-Bay, and we returned to our former anchorage. ainong them, by the application of well-directed capital, the incentive to emulation, and the reward adequate CAITHNESS-SHIRE ; CASTLE-HILL;

CASTLE ; profits, would probably burst these meshes of fear and


The belief of witchcraft still prevails here, as in other parts of the kingdom. The character of Norna,

in the The western part of Caithness is extensively and profitalily Pirate, was drawn from a living original in Orkney. cultivated. A good system of farming has been introduced The old sibyl is indebted, for the fame which she has

and encouraged by prizes offered by the gentry for acquired, to a visit from the great Novelist, when he improvement. Passing the residence of Sir John Sinclair

, arrived at Stromness, where she then dwelt. She has

(whose long life has been devoted to useful and patriotic since removed her residence to one of the smaller Isles.

exertions in behalf of his country,) I proceeded to CastleIt has been her custom to sell to the whalers charms of Hill, at the head of Dunnet Bay, the seat of Mr. Trail. various kinds, as preservatives from the winds, during This gentleman was busily engaged in erecting a pier. A their arduous voyages. And like those of other prophets farm under his own excellent management; a village built in their own country, her pretensions have been always by himself, a model of neatness; and plantations conregarded according to the prevailing degree of superstition tending, under his fostering care, with the blasts which or scepticism, with more or less of awe or ridicule. She sweep this corner of the island, mark the constant and has given, it is said, at various times, indubitable proofs beneficial residence of an aged, but active landlord: and of supernatural power: on one occasion, having discovered the increase of his rents derived from the legitimate source that she had just been robbed of some geese by the crew of of augmented produce, has indemnified him for the cost of a brig, she anticipated its exit from the Sound by speedily the improvement of his estate. Near this remote spot, crossing the hill, and taking up her position on the brow of appeared the royal, reaching its farthest northemi a beetling cliff, denounced, by all her gods, the ill-fated destination: a spectacle strange to the eye, after roving for bark to destruction. The sea instantly opened and swal- weeks over untravelled regions. lowed up its victim. On another occasion, she had received

On the northern coast of Caithness is the seat of Lord some offence from a young fisherman, and predicted that Caithness, Barogill Castle. He has enlarged it and planted ere a year had passed away his body should lie life

about it, and resides much here. The neighbouring coast less on the beach: the prognostication was fully verified.

of the Pentland Firth is celebrated for the lobster-fishery, The publication of the Pirate satisfied the natives of

and not less for the multiplicity of the currents formed by Orkney as to the real authorship of the Waverley Novels.

its own sinuosities and the Isle of Stroma. Off Cannis It was remarked by those who accompanied Sir Walter Bay, are the formidable breakers called the Merry Men Scott, in his excursions in these islands, that the vivid

of Mey, so designated, from the perpetual exultation of descriptions which the work contains, were confined to

the dancing waves, which might excite sympathetic glee those scenes which he visited. In Norway, these Novels

in the breast of a disciple of Wordsworth, have been regularly published in the language of that

A poet could not but be gay, country, under the name of the real author.

In such a jocund company.- Wordsworth. Some traces of the Norse poetry still remain, and are carefully preserved in the Orkneys. Nor has the Muse, The appellation Men, however, is derived from the cor

Near this point, the which inspired the northern minstrel, entirely forsaken ruption of the word main or sea. her ancient abode on these islands; but lingers still around mail, which is brought on foot from Wick, is conveyed their shores, once signalized by warlike achievements, or to Orkney in a boat. It passes three times in the week. piratical adventure; and haunts the ruins of ecclesiastical when the weather permits;---a boat of thirty-feet keel pomp, or baronial splendour, which still attest the feudal | is used in rough weather.



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We soon reached the celebrated Johnny Groat's house, destitute of windows, could be entered only by a single the only visible remains of which are the still-respected door: whilst the angles of the tower were protected by foundations of a cottage, erroneously supposed to have been projecting turrets, whence missiles could be discharged on the most northerly dwelling on the main-land of Scotland. the assailants. These edifices were obviously built with a “ John Groat," still appears inscribed on the fishing-boats: sole view to security: yet the inmates are said to have fled a corruption of John de Groot, the name of a Dutchman, from them, at the approach of a besieging party, to avoid who, it is said, settled here about the reign of James the being smoked out of their strong-hold by fires of wet straw Fourth, and immortalized himself by settling a dispute piled at the entrance. Ackergill-Castle has been the property among his nine sons, respecting the point of precedence, by of the Earls of Sind ir, and previously of the Keiths*, Earls opening as many doors in his house, and assigning one to Marischal, whose possessions, at one time, extended along a each, by which means they passed in and out without mu- great part of the eastern to the northern extremities of Scottual molestation. His name has been bequeathed to the land. cowries, called Johnny Groat's buckies, which cover the The southern boundary of the bay is, though not high, beach.

bold and rocky, and exhibits scenery heightened in effect Entering an adjoining cottage, in quest of some oat-cake very much by the juxta-position of the two castles of Sinclair and milk, we found a lady of middle age, sitting at table in and Girnego, on a narrow promontory, separated from the company with some labourers, who introduced herself to us coast by a channel of little breadth of the former, which as daughter of the late Johnny Groat; and did the honours was unfortunately blown down by a severe gale of wind in of her house with an ease worthy of the antiquity and cele- the last winter, nothing remains but a solitary chimney brity of her family.

towering above a heap of ruins. Girnego is an extensive The coast, which is for some miles very low, here rises pile, divided into many apartments, now much dilapidated. rapidly, terminating in the lofty north-eastern promontory of The rock on which it stands is so precipitous as to be Scotland, called Duncansby Head. It is covered with fine scarcely distinguishable from its walls. A fine view of these turf, but much destroyed by rabbit-burrows. This head picturesque ruins is obtained by descending to the beach land is perforated by the sea in different parts, and encir- through a broken gateway, down an almost impracticable cled by stacks, which, no doubt, originally formed part of it. flight of steps. Castles Sinclair and Girnego formerly beThe mist was so dense that we could barely discover them, and longed to the Earls of Caithness. The coast towards Dunlust a fine view of the Firth, its islands, and the Orkneys. cansby Head, the Pentland Skerries, and the Orkney are

Stircoch, near Wick, is also the abode of a resident seen from the point, in fine perspective. landlord, and skilful agriculturist, Mr. Horne. In this

P. S. Q. R. gentleman's garden, myrtles and geraniums grow in the outer air, exposed to a northern aspect. The custom of This celebrated family traces its descent from the Catti, a tribe designating persons by the names of their abodes, universal who fled from Germany to the north of Scotland, giving the name in the Highlands and Western Isles, is unknown in Ork- to Caithness-shire, which they possessed together with Sutherlandney and in Caithness, inhabited by a different race. It shire. They formed an alliance with the king of Scotland, for the would be very convenient in the latter country, where the purpose of expelling the Danes. For his prowess in this war

Robert Keith was rewarded, in the eleventh century, with the Sinclairs abound.

hereditary office of Knight Marischal, still borne by his family. Sinclair Bay, on the west coast, is a broad and deep True to their pledge of hereditary devotion to the crown given by estuary, affording capital anchorage, and is resorted to their ancestors, the Keiths have been distinguished in almost every when the tide does not serve for the adjacent harbour of battle which Scotland fought in support of her independence; and Wick. In western gales, it is the scene of frequent wrecks. danger of extinction. The Earldom was forfeited at the Rebellion

by their desperate valour, frequently exposed their race to the On its north shore are the ruins of Keiss-Castle, which of 1745 by James Keith, who fled the kingdom, served with disbelonged formerly to the Earls of Caithness, and on the tinction in the Russian and Prussian armies, and was raised by west, that of "Ackergill, a specimen of the simple Frederick the Great, who much esteemed him, to the rank of Fielddwellings of the ancient lords of the soil ; a square tower

, Marshal, and the post of Governor of Berlin. He fell, after the consisting of several stories of single apartments each, of their ancient vast possessions, the Keiths retain little besides one of which the lowest was occupied by the servants, and being their chief seats, Dunottar Castle, in Kincardineshire.

LONDON: Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers.

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MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE TURKS. imposing a spectacle as was exhibited by the immense No. I. A TURKISH FESTIVAL.

assemblage of people then collected. Upwards of

sixty thousand persons of both sexes, in all the varieThe indolence of the Turks is proverbial; with them ties of Eastern costume, were seated on the sloping the fondness for a sedentary life is stronger, perhaps, sides of a natural amphitheatre; while above, sat the than with any other people of whom we read. It is Sultan, magnificently apparelled, surrounded by his difficult to describe the gravity and phlegmatic apathy black and white slaves in glittering attire. Hunwhich constitute the distinguishing features of their dreds of horsemen galloped to and fro on the plain character: everything in their manners tends to below, hurling the djerid (a short stick) at random ; foster in them, especially in the higher classes, an now assailing the nearest to them, now in pursuit of almost invincible love of ease, and luxurious leisure, the disarmed. The dexterity of the combatants in The general rule which they seem to lay down for avoiding these weapons, is very great; and had it not their guidance, is that of never taking the trouble been so on the occasion spoken of by Dr. Madden, themselves to do anything, which they can possibly he says that many șives must have been lost, and as get others to do for them; and the precision with it was, he saw one horseman led off with his eye which they observe it in some of the minutest trifles severely injured, and another crushed under a horse. of domestic life is amusing. A Turkish gentleman These accidents, however, never interfered for a mowho has once composed his body upon the corner of ment with the sparts, which followed in the regular a sofa, appears to attach a certain notion of grandeur succession. After the djerid, came the wrestlers, to the keeping of it there, until he rises for good; it naked to the waist, and smeared with oil. They would be only something of the gravest importance prostrated themselves several times before the Sultan, that could induce him to disturb his position. If he performed a number of very clumsy feats, and then wishes to procure anything that is within a few steps proceeded to exhibit their skill

. Their address lay in of hin, he summons his slaves by clapping his hands, seizing one another by the bips; and he who had the (the Eastern mode of “ringing the bell,"') and bids most strength, lifted his adversary off his legs, and them bring it to him; his feelings of dignity would then flinging him to the earth, fell with all his force be hurt by getting up to reach it himself. Of course, upon him. Music relieved the tedium between the this habit of inaction prevails equally with the female rounds, several of which occurred before any serious sex: a Turkish lady would not think of picking up a mischief was sustained. At last, one poor fellow was fallen handkerchief, so long as she had an attendant dreadfully maimed—for life indeed,—and was carried to do so for her.

off the field with great applause. Bear-fighting was The Turk who is fortunate enough-perhaps we next attempted; but the animal produced was not in should say unfortunate enough-to possess the means a fighting mood, and the dogs growled at him in. of living without labour, passes his existence in one vain. During all these pastimes, the slaves were continued round of listless idleness; his chief occu- running backwards and forwards from the multitude pation is smoking a long pipe, or chibouque, as it is to the Sultan, carrying him innumerable petitions called, and this he pursues unceasingly for hours from the former, which he cannot refuse to receive, together, wrapped in happy unconsciousness. At and seldom can find leisure to read. “The departure times he stirs out of doors-most probably to pay a of the pacific bear,” says our authority, “ terminated visit to some coffee-house, where he may resume his these brutal sports, and every one, except the friends pipe, and drink a cup of coffee ;-he walks with be- of the dead man, and the two wounded, appeared to coining dignity,-his look is grave, his pace slow, go away delighted beyond measure. All the amuseand his carriage haughty,—he looks neither to the ments of this people are of the same cruel character." right nor to the left, and scarcely deigns to bestow Their social recreations are few. “ It is difficult," a glance upon any object which crosses his path. says a writer of the last century, “ to give a just “ Perhaps," says a modern traveller, a Merry-An- account of the manner in which Turks, men or drew, playing off his buffooneries, catches his eye,, women, spend their time when at home. Some of he looks, but his spirit smiles nat, neither do his lips, the former are undoubtedly studious, though most of -his gravity is immovable, and he waddles onward them seem ever busied about money affairs, and their like a porpoise cast on shore: it is evident that personal interest. When they are disposed to enjoy nature intended him not for a pedestrian animal, and some relaxation or amusement among themselves, that he looks with contempt on his locomotive or the diversions are story-telling, quaint jokes, chess, gans." It is strange, however, that with these habits or draughts, and not unfrequently dancers and musiof life, the Turks are not at all deficient in bodily cians, who play in the different parts of the town for vigour, and in the capability of enduring fatigue; employment." The Turk himself seldom takes an when called upon to undertake a long journey,--as active share in anything but a game of draughts or for instance, on the occasion of being appointed to chess; and then he never plays but for mere amusethe government of some distant province, they will ment. The practice of gaming is one which this ride on horseback for hundreds of leagues without people highly detest; in their eyes there is no being complaining of weariness.

more odious than the gamester who plays for money, The amusements of this people are adapted to their -he is worse than a common thief, and his crime is character, and are of a very limited nature. They held as one which will be visited with the severest have no public games or spectacles,--none of those punishment hereafter. means of diversion which are to be found amongst The diversions of " story-telling, or quaint jokes," other nations; dramatic representations are quite are not of a very intellectual description; the chief unknown to them. Occasionally, indeed, the Sultan source of delight is a species of low ribaldry, and if regales his subjects with the exhibition of the Djerid, none of the company is sufficiently facetious to enteror Turkish tournament, and some other entertain- tain the rest with the required share, the task is left ments in the open air; and large crowds of the to some dependent Greek, Armenian, or Jew. The people usually assemble to avail themselves of his performer takes his place in the middle of the room, bounty. Dr. Madden witnessed one of these displays, upon his knees, and there tells his story, or repeats which was made in honour of the birth of an imperial his joke; while the grave Turk smokes his pipe in infant; and he says that he never before beheld so the corner of the sofa, and comes out now and then

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