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Saturday n Magazine.
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF CHINA. -A FEMALE OFFENDER BEFORE A MANDARIN.
CHINA; ITS PEOPLE AND PRODUCTIONS. | So strangely, indeed, has the pebbe mind been stultified
in regard to China, that ea if marks calculated to We have already furnished some occasional information on
throa real light on ha bistory and her literature China and the Chinese people, but our relations with that distant empire are rendered so much more important by the
are prepared for the press, they are suffered to recent alterations in the trade of the Fast India Campers, remain unpubhebed, and the writer unnoticed. by that a thorough knowledge of the country, and of its inba! many, eren of those who profess to take an interest in bitants, bas become more than ever interesting. We are, Asiatic literature. * We must not," says Sir George therefore, about to proceed with a series of Papers, which
Staunton, in his excellent preface to the Chinese Penal has been long in contemplation, on the manner and customs
Code, “ expect to meet with characters in China) as of the people, and on the history and productions of that
illustrious as those of a Newton, a Locke, or a Bacon; remarkable country. The writer has been for some years resident in China; and the various subjects of his communi nor even, perhaps, generally find any tolerable procations will either be founded on personal observation, or ficiency in [the higher branches of] science, which obtained from sources of acknowledged authenticity.
in Europe the writings of those great men have
contributed so much to advance and establish ; but I. ON THE CRIMINAL Laws of China.
nevertheless, there is such a sufficiency, in all ranks The Chinese people are generally spoken of as des- and conditions, of the information essential or most titute of principle, and addicted to crime—the opposite useful to each—such a competency and suitableness of whatever is either great or good; naturally dis- of the means to the end—as might, upon a general posed to petty theft, lying, and avaricious; the view of the whole population, fairly entitle the Chinese government as cruel and tyrannical ; and the laws to be put in competition with some at least of the as sanguinary. Such representations are, in the nations of Europe, in respect to all the essential cha. opinion of the writer, who was long resident among racters of civilization. the Chinese, overcharged, prejudiced, and erroneous ; The founders of the Chinese empire, and their and far from conveying a correct notion of their immediate descendants, are always spoken of as real character. That the history of a nation, which delighting in mild punishments; but, as plunder, has existed from the days of Füh-he, to the present and rapine, and commotion, prevailed, severer punishtime, a period of nearly five thousand years, should ments were had recourse to-such as banishment and be disgraced by acts of tyranny, cruelty, and other the loss of life. Revolt, or attempting the life of the crimes, need not excite surprise, for similar features emperor, “ Heaven's Son," (he who is appointed by disgrace the early history of European nations. Nor God to govern,) crimes of the greatest kind, were can we but regret, that, in so extensive an empire as punished by strangulation, and slowly mutilating the China, where even their language and manners render body; exterminating the whole kindred, not excepting the inhabitants of one part almost a distinct people infants; or sawing asunder the offender; the wearing from the other, and where there is an abundance of the congque, or pillory, during life; and solitary of wealth, as well as the greatest destitution, there confinement. During the Han dynasty, at which time should be a mean and servile class, who sell themselves the criminal code was revised, the ancient punishto work wickedness, and prey upon all foreigners who ments,-especially that of exterminating a whole family, enter her ports.
consisting sometimes of several hundred persons, for China is, however, a nation that has existed for the crime of one ambitious man-being considered five thousand years. During centuries she was as unnecessarily severe, were for ever abrogated, by governed by a single sceptre, but afterwards became an act of government. The ancient punishments for divided into two hundred petty states; these united the ten capital crimes, have of late years been a into three states of equal power and influence, and, source of profit to the painter; for pictures drawn on after forty years of carnage, again acknowledged one what is termed rice-paper have been imported into monarch. Though she has yielded to foreign force Europe, as confirmatory of the barbarism and cruelty she is now werulthy and powerful, and, above all, she of the present race of Chinese judges and mandarins; is, from the magnitude and variety of her resources, but the fact is, these cruel punishments have long literally independent of all the nations in the since ceased to exist. world. During these periods, China has had her Anciently for treason, murder, and adultery, the faithful, valiant, and able statesmen and warriors, prisoner and witnesses were subject to torture, in order as well as her traitorous ministers and despots; to compel them to confess all they knew, and their she has had her poets, her moralists, her histo- depositions were laid before the emperor and the rians, her lexicographers, her philosophers; men who judicial board at the capital, before punishment was have, in their works, left behind them imperish- inflicted. The Chinese lighter writings often detail able treasures--who, for the general good, sacrificed instances in which the friends of the accused have their lives—and whose names would throw an halo succeeded in defeating the undue influence of the round the page of European history. Look at the magistracy, by appealing in person before this board; extent of her empire, her populous cities, her thousand and such magistrates have consequently been degraded canals, intersecting the country and watering it as a and imprisoned. The practice of torture to obtain garden, whose surface teems with human life, and is confession, can now hardly be said to exist. laden with immense treasures-look at her standing, The Gan-cha-tsze, or provincial judge, who ranks though effeminate, army-the splendour of her court next to the viceroy, has not the power of punishing
the majesty of HER MONARCH, whose words, a person capitally, except for piracy and a few other "RESPECT THIS," act as a spell throughout the empire; heinous crimes, but must report all cases to the and all this is achieved by her own means, unaided emperor, and wait the decision of the Peking by foreign influence or policy. Can such a nation board; he can transport, imprison, levy fines, and “ the father of nations," as they not inaptly call it, be punish by bastinadoing, congque, &c. The magistrate looked upon as uncivilized and despicable ?
being always in court, a culprit is no sooner taken, But, owing to the peculiar construction of her and his accusers in attendance, than he is put on his language, and the few industrious persons who have trial. If it be a light offence, and he is unable to applied themselves to her literature, we may with pay a fine, he is laid on the floor, and the punishshame be said to know little of China, beyond the ment of blows inflicted with a long flat bamboo. translation of a few novels and some detached papers. If the punishment is not excessive, the culprit rises
allvl 20 blows of which) 10 blows inflicted.
and walks home, and the following day he is able atrocious offenders as are expressly directed to be to follow his employment. For a corresponding executed without delay, are retained in prison for offence in this country, a person might be imprisoned execution at a particular period in the autumn: the a month, to the injury of his connexions and family, sentence passed upon each individual being first duly but in China the whole affair-accusation, trial and reported to, and ratified by, the emperor. punishment is gone through in a few hours. I re- In all towns and cities, the mandarins have their member seeing one morning, while residing next public courts, with a number of clerks and retainers. door to the Heen magistrate's office, at Macao, a The annexed engraving represents the examination respectable-looking Chinese, who had on thin shoes, of a female offender before a mandarin, in one of the rush down three flight of steps, and along the street as country districts; the officer has hold of her by the fast as he could run; he was followed by the petty hair, as the only way in which he could force her into officers of the court, who wore thick shoes, like those the presence of the magistrate. The ordinary punishrepresented in the accompanying cut, and had they ment for women, is slapping them on the cheek, with a not made a great noise, inducing other persons to stop | solid piece of leather; but generally speaking, as they the prisoner, he would have effected his escape. | live a secluded life, few women are punished in China, Having got hold of him, four of them shouldered | The magistrate is habited in what is termed a court, or him, while the fifth held him tight by the tail, at full dress, with court beads; the badge which appears which he tugged most unmercifully. In an hour's on his breast is repeated on his back. The military wear time I saw the culprit limping homewards at liberty; badges also,—the one a dragon, and the other the felihe had been weli bastinadoed, and the five petty citous bird Fung. The knob on the top of the cap officers who accompanied him, were laughing heartily indicates rank, which is known by its being a gilt at the joke, and calling him a fool for attempting to knob, a white glass knob, or a cornelian stone; the escape.
peacock's feather attached to his cap, has been given The following scale of punishments is taken from him by his sovereign, in consequence of merit. The the Penal Code alluded to above; it shows the man- | secretary who is taking down the accusation, wears ner in which punishment is increased according to in his girdle, a handkerchief, a case containing his guilt. Ten blows with the bamboo was anciently the chopsticks, (two long slips of ivory or wood, with lowest punishment; it is now repealed to four blows, which he lifts his food,) and his purse for containing and so of the others, the last column being the re- a few coins, or a little tobacco; having on boots made pealed code, viz.,
of silk. The officer in charge of the woman appears The first (10 blows)
to be one of those persons who precede the magisThe second nominally|20 blows... 5 blows
trate as he passes through the streets, making a
are to be nich, The third Sa punish- 30 blows
noise, that all may know who approaches; at the foot The fourth | ment of 40 blows
of the table is an umbrella, used to keep off the sun The fifth J (50 blows) (20 blows) as well as the rain.
P. P. T. The second degree or division of punishment, is inflicted with the larger bamboo, and is subdivided in the following manner.
| Dr. BUSBY, whose figure was much under the common
| size, was one day accosted in a coffee-room by an Irish The first
Baronet of colossal height, “May I pass to my seat, O The second nominallyl 70 blows of 125 blows
are to be
Giant ?" When the Doctor, politely making way, replied, The third a punish- 80 blows which 30 blows:
Sinflicted. “Yes, O Pigmy !" "Oh, Sir," said the Baronet,“ my exThe fourth ment of 90 blows only 35 blows
pression referred to the size of your intellect.” “And my The fifth (100 blows) 140 blows)
expression, Sir, to the size of yours," said the Doctor. The third division in the scale of punishment is that of a temporary banishment to any distance not
The benevolent John Howard, having settled his accounts
at the close of a particular year, and found a balance in his exceeding five hundred lee*, with the view of afford
favour, proposed to his wife to make use of it in a journey ing an opportunity of repentance and amendment.
to London, or in any other amusement she chose. “ What Of this species of punishment there are also five
a pretty cottage for a poor family it would build !" was her gradations, namely,
answer. This charitable hint met with his cordial appro
bation, and the money was laid out accordingly.
| with the bamboo, Banishment for 2 years, and 80 blows
Sir Isaac Newton possessed a remarkably mild and even
reduced as above. 2) years, and 90 blows
temper. That great man was one day called out of his (3 years, and 100 blows
study to an adjoining apartment. A little dog, named
Diamond, who was a great favourite of his master's, Perpetual banishment, the fourth degree of punish happened to be left among the papers, and threw down a ment in order of severity, is subdivided as follows, lighted candle, which consumed the almost finished labours and is reserved for cases wherein even for consider of some years. Sir Isaac soon returned, and beheld with able offences, the life of the criminal is spared by the
mortification his irreparable loss; but, with his usual gen
tleness, he only exclaimed, “ O Diamond, Diamond, thou mercifulness of the laws : a hundred blows with the
little knowest the mischief thou hast done!" bamboo, and perpetual banishment to the distance of 2000, 2500, or 3000 lee. On reaching their destination, the banished offenders may follow their callingy, MOZART had a great regard for Haydn. A professor of
Vienna, who was not without merit, though far inferior to but they are required once a week, or once a month,
Haydn, took a malicious pleasure in searching the composito appear before the magistrate of the place, and
tions of the latter, for all the little inaccuracies which might report themselves.
have crept into them. He often came to show Mozart The fifth and ultimate punishment which the laws
symphonies, or quartetts, of Haydn's, which he had put ordain, is death, either by strangulation or by be into score, and in which he had, by this means, discovered heading.
some inadvertencies of style. Mozart always endeavoured All criminals capitally convicted, except such
to change the subject of conversation ; at last, unable any
longer to restrain himself, “Sir," said he to him, sharply'; . Ten les are usually estimatea to be equal to three geographical
" if you and I were both melted down together, we should miles, but the proportion varies a little in the different provinces of not furnish materials for one Haydn. Life of Mozart. the empire.
| is represented as the oldest episcopal see in Wales ; BANGOR is a city of Carnarvonshire, in North Wales, its cathedral, which is dedicated to St. Daniel, was situated in a narrow valley between two ridges of founded about the year 500 : it has frequently been slate rock, opening southward towards Snowdon, and demolished, but has been restored by the liberality terminating northward, about half a mile from the of its bishops, deans, and the neighbouring laity. cathedral, in the beautiful bay of Beaumaris. Bangor The building is a cruciform embattled structure,
principally in the later style of English architecture, palace on the other. The interior of the church is with some portions of the decorated style. The well lighted, by ranges of six windows on each side ; tower is at the west end, and is low, square, and and at the extremities of the transepts are windows massive, and crowned with pinnacles. The church of large dimensions, and of good proportion, of the stands in a large open space, bounded by the street later or Tudor Gothic : there are also good windows on one side, and by the domain of the bishop's at the eastern and western extremities, which of late
years have been considerably enlarged. The roof is | bishop of Salisbury; and in 1501, archbishop of supported by six obtusely-pointed arches resting on / Canterbury octagonal fluted columns.
The chapter-room is spacious and handsome, and The body of the church has been separated into contains the portraits of the former bishops of two places of worship. The character, however, of Bangor, and also, a good library of books of divinity. a cathedral church has been kept up, as far as was In this library there is one book of considerable value consistent with the arrangements necessary for the and in good preservation; it belonged to Bishop accommodation of the respective congregations. A Anian, who sat in this see about the year 1268, and portion of the nave is divided from the choir by the is said to be the prelate who christened Edward the organ and its gallery: in the former, parochial Second in Carnarvon Castle, April 25th, 1284. This service is performed in the Welsh language ; in the book contains the offices according to the use of latter, choral service is performed in the English | Bangor; and is a missal with its rubric, and several language. Each department will contain about seven offices set to music; the notes are of the ancient hundred persons, and it is a source of no small grati- square character. fication to the dean and chapter, that the plans It is well known that before the Reformation, the adopted by them, for the accommodation of the parish churches of this kingdom were permitted to adopt in particular, and the public in general, (however in any of the then prescribed forms of service called part regulated by peculiar circumstances,) have met Uses. These Uses are recited in the preface at the with very general approbation.
beginning of the Common Prayer Book, and are thus The greater part of the present church, together | declared to be abolished :with the tower, was built in the year 1532, as appears And as heretofore there has been great diversity in saying by the following inscription at the west end :--- and singing in churches within this realm, some following Thomas Skevingion, Episcopus Bangoviæ, hoc camparile
Salisbury Use, some Hereford Use, and some the Use of Banet Ecclesiam fieri fecit Ann. partus virginei 1532.
gor, and some of York, some of Lincoln; now, from hence
forth, all the whole realm shall have but one Use. There are but few monuments in this church; none, indeed, which are remarkable either from their
It is the earnest hope, and shall be the last antiquity or their architecture. Before the great re
prayer of him who has compiled these remarks, pairs of the Cathedral in 1824, and the three fol
(and who has in part conducted the sacred services in lowing years *, some of these monuments were in a
this church,) that the same sacred services may be state of dilapidation; some nearly buried and for
reiterated within these venerable walls until the choirs
of earth and heaven shall meet before the throne of gotten; and the inscriptions of others obliterated : these, however, have been repaired at the expense of
God, and when both these shall be as “ One, and the present Dean, the inscriptions restored, and the
make one sound to be heard in praising and thanking monuments themselves disposed with great propriety
the Lord.” on the walls of the choir. One monument, however,
The total length of the Cathedral is . . 220 feet.
Length of the nave . . . . . . deserves to be named, an ancient tomb which pro.
Width of ditto .. .. trudes into the churchyard from the south transept
Height of ditto ..... of the church. This tomb within the church Length of transepts ..... appears as a sarcophagus, ornamented with a cross Width of ditto . . . . . . fleury; it was opened in the year 1825, and in it were found a few human bones, and something A CONTINUAL sense of the Divine presence is the best and bearing the appearance of a decayed coffin. The only restraint from vice; the strongest and most encou situation of the tomb is marked by a crucifix placed raging motive to virtue.--Wogan. above, and a memorial erected by the present Dean,
He that comes to seek after knowledge with a mind to with the following inscription :
scorn and censure, shall be sure to find matter enough for The body which lies interred within this wall, in a stone coffin, his humour, but none for his instruction.-Lord Bacon.
is supposed to be the remains of Owen Gwynedh, Sovereign Prince of Wales. He reigned 32
The best ground untilled, soonest runs out into rank weeds. years, and died A.D. 1169,
A man of knowledge that is either negligent or uncorBoth this prince, and his brother Cadwallader, each
rected, cannot but grow wild and godless. -Bishop HALL. of whom are represented in history as highly dis
A cheerful spirit constitutes a very material part of the duty tinguished for courage, humanity, and courteous
of a Christian. It recommends religion to the world in manners, were buried in this Cathedral church. Their
general, and it gives a brightness and a charm to domestic father, Gryffydth ap Cynan, the last sovereign known life. Piety with her skull and cross-bones-her hair-cloth, by the title of King of Wales, overthrew Trahaern ap scourges, and tearful countenance, was a very repulsive Caradoc, and ascended the throne of his ancestors
personage; but Piety with her gentle silver tones of kindA.D. 1079. He was afterwards taken by treachery, and
ness, her hand of helpfulness, her glad smile, and eyes full
of grateful hope, fixed on heaven, is attractive and beautiful. imprisoned in the castle at Chester twelve years; he
Cheerfulness ought to be one of the attributes of Christian escaped, recovered the entire possession of his king
piety.- Private Life. dom, reigned fifty-seven years, and died in his 83rd | year: he was buried near the great altar, which, with Or him to whom much is given much shall be required. the larger part of the fabric, was destroyed during Those whom God has favoured with superior faculties, and the insurrection of Owen Glendwr, about 1404. The
made eminent for quickness of intention and accuracy of
distinction, will certainly be regarded as culpable in his present church was erected about 1496, by Henry
eye for defects and deviations, which in souls less enDean, who was at that time bishop of the diocese,
lightened may be guiltless. But surely none can think lord-justice, and lord-chancellor of Ireland; in 1500, without horror on that man's condition, who has been more • The cost of these, including the rebuilding and restoration of the
wicked in proportion as he had more means of excelling in decayed parts of the fabric, the internal arrangements for Divine
virtue, and used the light imparted from heaven only to service, the ornaments, furniture, &c., amounted to about 60001., embellish folly, and shed lustre upon crimes and infidelity. which sum was obtained from the following sources. 200Cl. from the ---DR. JOHNSON funds of the church itself; about 10001. from the voluntary contributions of the bishop, dean, and other members of the Cathedral;
THOSE who are sensible of the true enjoyments of life, and 2501. from the Church Building Society; and the remainder from perfons connected with the diocese and city of Bangor; and from other
have the sources of them in their own breast, will know liberal individuals amongst the laity and clergy.
| the value of being cheaply pleased.--DANBY,