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Gospel, which makes a happy impression on the minds of

DECISION OF CHARACTER many of the inhabitants. Some indeed, particularly their

IN MRS. HANNAH MORE. brahmins or priests, gainsay and scoff; others come to a sense of the abominations of idolatry, and leave off wor The energy of her mind in carrying into execution shipping their idols ; others are brought to better principles, any purpose which had been adopted after sufficient and show, in their discourse and writing, that they have consideration was very remarkable. În conformity got a greater light than their forefathers; others, again, give full assent to all the truths of Christianity, but, out of with this part of her character, her plan was, in any worldy considerations, wave baptism and the name of

new resolution which involved the exercise of selfChristians. But some break through all difficulties, and, denial, to contend with the most difficult part of the subiluing their reason to the obedience of faith, resolutely undertaking first, after which she used to say, she profess Christianity; these are for some time instructed by found the remaining sacrifices comparatively casy to iis and our catechists, and afterwards, when they give true be submitted to. signs of repentance and conversion, are received into the bosom of the Christian church by baptism.

On this principle, having resolved to desist from Those who are become members of our congregation we

going to the theatre about the time her play of are instructing with all diligence, that Jesus Christ may be

“ PERCY” was revived, she determined to make that formed within them. Our private exercises with them are

the immediate occasion for carrying her new resoludaily catechisings, by sending our catechists to their habita- tion into practice. Mrs. Siddons was then at the tions, to inquire into their way of life, to examine them height of her fame, and was to act the part of the upon the catechism, to pray with them, and to make a report to us, the Missionaries, of what passes among them.

heroine of the tragedy, a character which she was To exercise them in praying, we have set lours thrice a

said to exhibit with remarkable success; and Mrs. week, in which prayers are read to them in private. We Hannah More was in the midst of a brilliant society give free occasion to every one of them, to communicate to of friends and admirers, who all attended the represenus their concerns. Our public exercises consist in preach- tation; but here she was determined to make her ing to them, every Sunday, in the morning, a sermon in first stand against this particular temptation, and to the Malabarian language, and another in the Portuguese, break the spell of the enchantment while standing in and in the afternoon we catechise in both languages. the centre of the magic circle. Besides, we preach a sermon in High Dutch for the Europeans. Every Wednesday we catechise, at church, in

Another anecdote will show the same principle Portuguese, and every Friday in Malabarian. As to the brought into exercise on a very different occasion. children of either sex, that belong to our congregation, we As her limited income began to be sensibly diminished instruct them all in our schools, in the principles of Chris- at one time by her travelling-expenses, she determined tianity, reading, writing, and other useful knowledge to perform her journeys in stage-coaches, and in They are maintained in everything at our charge. We have erected a seminary for such as we design for the

order to overcome at once every obstacle that pride service of the Gospel, to be furnished there with proper might interpose, she resolved to pay a visit to a catechists, preceptors, and clerks. Such boys as want nobleman, on which she was about to set out, in one necessary capacity, we put to learn handicrafts. We have of these vehicles; which, as there was a public road also established schools, one in this town, and another in a through the park, set her down at the door of the populous village not far off, where they are instructed by mansion. She has more than once described her Christian teachers, and have full allowance, except victuals and clothes, which their parents find them. The Lord conflicting sensations when his lordship, proceeding having so blessed our labours that the new congregation through a line of servants in rich liveries, came to increases every year, the first church which we built became hand her out of her conveyance, a conveyance at too narrow, upon which we found it necessary to build one that time much less used than at present by persons inore spacious; and it pleased God to furnish us with of high respectability. Thus it was the policy of means to finish it in ten years' time, and we are now con this able tactician to commence her operations by a stantly preaching in it, in three languages. We have decisive blow whereby the main strength of the likewise, at the desire of the English who live on this coast, erected two schools, one at Fort St. George, and another at opposing force was at once broken and dispersed, and Fort St. David. The present governor of Fort St. George her victory made easy and secure. --ROBERTS' is a special friend to the mission, and has lately remitted to Memoir of Mrs. Hannah More. it a considerable present. The rest of our friends here have cheerfully supplied our wants this year. The Lord, whose work it is, guide us for the future by his Divine Providence, and stir up in Europe many promoters among Our great business, morally and religiously speaking, here persons of all ranks, that, in these last times, the salvation on earth is not the attainment of perfection, but the doing of the heathen may be sought with earnestness, and their away of imperfection, and of the faults that create it: it conversion promoted by the whole Christian Church. That cannot be said that these are the same thing, for a siate our most merciful God may crown your Majesty with all of progress is not a state of attainment.—Danby. prosperity is the prayer of your Majesty's, &c.

BARTHOLOMEW ZIEGEN BALG. PIETY is the only proper and adequate relief of decaying Tranquebar, Nov. 24, 1718. John Ernest GRUNDLER. man. He that grows old without religious hopes, as he

It is pleasing to observe, that all the missionary declines into imbecility, and feels pains and sorrow's incesoperations mentioned in this letter are now conducteủ santly crowding upon him, falls into a gulf of bottomless

misery, in which every reflection must plunge bim deeper ou a much larger scale, and have for many years and deeper, and where he finds only new gradations of past received considerable aid from Christians in anguish and precipices of horror.----Dr. Johnson. England. We have also to reflect with thankfulness, not only upon the labour of individual Missionaries, As the powers and goodness of heaven arc infinite in their but also upon the establishment of the English extent, and infinite in their minuteness, to the mind culti

vated as Nature meant it to be, there is not only delight in Church in the British dominions in Iudia; and we look forward, with anxious hope, for much good lasting mountains, or the beauty of wide-extended land

contemplating the sublimity of the endless sea, or everfruit, under the blessing of God, from the means scapes, but there is a pleasure in looking at every little which have been adopted for the spread of Chris- flower, and every little shell that God has made. Nature tianity in these benighted regions. Much morc, has scattered around us on every side, and for every sense, however, yet remains to be done, and we may cven

an inexhaustible profusion of beauty and sweetness, if we now concur with Ziegenbalg and Grundler, in praying from musical sounds, froin forms, are surely not given us

will but perccive it. The pleasures we derive from flowers, that the salvation of the heathen may be sought in vain, and if we are constantly alive to ihese, we can with earnestness, and their conversion promoted by never be in want of subjects of agreeable contemplation, the whole Christian church."

J. E. R, and must be havitually cheerfu., --Captain Basil HALL

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LONDON : Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers.

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NO 202.

PRICE ONE PENNY.

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF CHINA.--A FEMALE OrFENDER BEFORE A MANDARIN.

CHINA; ITS PEOPLE AND PRODUCTIONS. So strangely, indeed, has the public mind been stultified

in regard to China, that even if works calculated to We have already furnished some occasional information on

throw real light on her history and her literature China and the Chinese people, but our relations with that distant empire are rendered so much more important by the are prepared for the press, they are suffered to recent alterations in the trade of the East India Company, remain unpublished, and the writer unnoticed, by that a thorough knowledge of the country, and of its inha- many, even of those who profess to take an interest in bitants, has become more than ever interesting. We are, Asiatic literature. “We must not,” says Sir George therefore, about to proceed with a series of Papers, which Staunton, in his excellent preface to the Chinese Penal has been long in contemplation, on the manners and customs of the peoplo, and on the history and productions of that.Code, expect to meet with characters [in China) as remarkable country. The writer has been for some years

illustrious as those of a Newton, a Locke, or a Bacon; resident in China ; and the various subjects of his communi nor even, perhaps, generally find any tolerable procations will either be founded on personal observation, or ficiency in [the higher branches of] science, which obtained from sources of acknowledged authenticity. in Europe the writings of those great men have

contributed so much to advance and establish; but I. ON THE CRIMINAL LAWS OF CHINA.

nevertheless, there is such a sufficiency, in all ranks The Chinese people are generally spoken of as des- and conditions, of the information essential or most titute of principle, and addicted to crime—the opposite useful to each-such a competency and suitableness of whatever is either great or good; naturally dis- of the means to the end-as might, upon a general posed to petty theft, lying, and avaricious; the view of the whole population, fairly entitle the Chinese government as cruel and tyrannical ; and the laws to be put in competition with some at least of the as sanguinary. Such representations are, in the nations of Europe, in respect to all the essential chaopinion of the writer, who was long resident among racters of civilization. the Chinese, overcharged, prejudiced, and erroneous; The founders of the Chinese empire, and their and far from conveying a correct notion of their immediate descendants, are always spoken of as real character. That the history of a nation, which delighting in mild punishments; but, as plunder, has existed from the days of Fuh-, to the present and rapine, and commotion, prevailed, severer punishtime, a period of nearly five thousand years, should ments were had recourse to-such as banishment and be disgraced by acts of tyranny, cruelty, and other the loss of life. Revolt, or attempting the life of the crimes, need not excite surprise, for similar features emperor, “ Heaven's Son," (he who is appointed by disgrace the early history of European nations. Nor God to govern,) crimes of the greatest kind, were can we but regret, that, in so extensive an empire as punished by strangulation, and slowly mutilating the China, where even their language and manners render body; exterminating the whole kindred, not excepting the inhabitants of one part almost a distinct people infants; or sawing asunder the offender; the wearing from the other, and where there is an abundance of the congque, or pillory, during life; and solitary of wealth, as well as the greatest destitution, there confinement. During the Han dynasty, at which time should be a mean and servile class, who sell themselves the criminal code was revised, the ancient punishto work wickedness, and prey upon all foreigners who ments,-especially that of exterminating a whole family, enter her ports.

consisting sometimes of several hundred persons, for China is, however, a nation that has existed for the crime of one ambitious man-being considered five thousand years. During centuries she was as unnecessarily severe, were for ever abrogated, by governed by a single sceptre, but afterwards became an act of government. The ancient punishments for divided into two hundred petty states; these united the ten capital crimes, have of late years been a into three states of equal power and influence, and, source of profit to the painter ; for pictures drawn on after forty years of carnage, again acknowledged one what is termed rice-paper have been imported into monarch. Though she has yielded to foreign force Europe, as confirmatory of the barbarism and cruelty she is now wealthy and powerful, and, above all, she of the present race of Chinese judges and mandarins; is, from the magnitude and variety of her resources, but the fact is, these cruel punishments have long literally independent of all the nations in the since ceased to exist. world. During these periods, China has had her Anciently for treason, murder, and adultery, the faithful, valiant, and able statesmen and warriors, prisoner and witnesses were subject to torture, in order as well as her traitorous ministers and despots; to compel them to confess all they knew, and their she has had her poets, her moralists, her histo- depositions were laid before the emperor and the rians, her lexicographers, her philosophers; men who judicial board at the capital, before punishment was have, in their works, left behind them imperish- inflicted. The Chinese lighter writings often detail able treasures—who, for the general good, sacrificed instances in which the friends of the accused have their lives—and whose names would throw an halo succeeded in defeating the undue influence of the round the page of European history. Look at the magistracy, by appealing in person before this board ; extent of her empire, her populous cities, her thousand and such magistrates have consequently been degraded canals, intersecting the country and watering it as a and imprisoned. The practice of torture to obtain garden, whose surface teems with human life, and is confession, can now hardly be said to exist. laden with immense treasures-look at her standing, The Gan-cha-tsze, or provincial judge, who ranks though effeminate, army—the splendour of her court next to the viceroy, has not the power of punishing --the majesty of HER MONARCH, whose words, a person capitally, except for piracy and a few other

RESPECT THIS," act as a spell throughout the empire; heinous crimes, but must report all cases to the and all this is achieved by her own means, unaided emperor, and wait the decision of the Peking by foreign influence or policy. Can such a nation board; he can transport, imprison, levy fines, and " the father of nations,” as they not inaptly call it, be punish by bastinadoing, congque, &c. The magistrate looked upon as uncivilized and despicable ?

being always in court, a culprit is no sooner taken, But, owing to the peculiar construction of her and his accusers in attendance, than he is put on his language, and the few industrious persons who have trial. If it be a light offence, and he is unable to applied themselves to her literature, we may with pay a fine, he is laid on the floor, and the punishshame be said to know little of China, beyond the ment of blows inflicted with a long flat bamboo. translation of a few novels and some detached papers. If the punishment is not excessive, the culprit rises

and walks home, and the following day he is able atrocious offenders as are expressly directed to be to follow his employment. For a corresponding executed without delay, are retained in prison for offence in this country, a person might be imprisoned execution at a particular period in the autumn; the a month, to the injury of his connexions and family, sentence passed upon each individual being first duly but in China the whole affair-accusation, trial and reported to, and ratified by, the emperor. punishment-is gone through in a few hours. I re In all towns and cities, the mandarins have their member seeing one morning, while residing next public courts, with a number of clerks and retainers. door to the Heen magistrate's office, at Macao, a The annexed engraving represents the examination respectable-looking Chinese, who had on thin shoes, of a female offender before a mandarin, in one of the rush down three flight of steps, and along the street as country districts; the officer has hold of her by the fast as he could run; he was followed by the petty hair, as the only way in which he could force her into officers of the court, who wore thick shoes, like those the prosence of the magistrate. The ordinary punishrepresented in the accompanying cut, and had they ment for women, is slapping them on the cheek, with a not made a great noise, inducing other persons to stop solid piece of leather; but generally speaking, as they the prisoner, he would have effected his escape. live a secluded life, few women are punished in China. Having got hold of him, four of them shouldered The magistrate is habited in what is termed a court, or him, while the fifth held him tight by the tail, at full dress, with court beads; the badge which appears which he tugged most unmercifully. In an hour's on his breast is repeated on his back. The military wear time I saw the culprit limping homewards at liberty; badges also the one a dragon, and the other the felihe had been well bastinadoed, and the five petty citous bird Fung. The knob on the top of the cap officers who accompanied him, were laughing heartily indicates rank, which is known by its being a gilt at the joke, and calling him a fool for attempting to knob, a white glass knob, or a cornelian stone; the escape.

peacock's feather attached to his cap, has been given The following scale of punishments is taken from him by his sovereign, in consequence of merit. The the Penal Code alluded to above; it shows the man- secretary who is taking down the accusation, wears ner in which punishment is increased according to in his girdle, a handkerchief, a case containing his guilt. Ten blows with the bumboo was anciently the chopsticks, (two long slips of ivory or wood, with lowest punishment; it is now repealed to four blows, which he lifts his food,) and his purse for containing and so of the others, the last column being the re a few coins, or a little tobacco; having on boots made pealed code, viz.,

of silk. The officer in charge of the woman appears

to be one of those persons who prccede the magisThe first

10 blows)

4 blows) The second nominally | 20 blows

5 blows

trate as he passes through the streets, making a

of which The third a punish- 30 blows

10 blows

are to be noise, that all may know who approaches; at the foot

only The fourth

(inflicted. ment of 40 blows

15 blows

of the table is an umbrella, used to keep off the sun The fifth

50 blows)
20 blows)
as well as the rain.

P. P. T. The second degree or division of punishment, is inflicted with the larger bamboo, and is subdivided in the following manner.

Dr. Busby, whose figure was much under the common

size, was one day accosted in a coffee-room by an Irish The first

60 blows
20 blows)

Baronet of colossal height, “May I pass to my seat, o The second nominally 70 blows of 25 blows

are to be Giant?" When the Doctor, politely making way, replied, The third a punish- 80 blows, which 30 blows inflicted. “Yes, O Pigmy !" "Oh, Sir,” said the Baronet,“ my exThe fourth ment of 90 blows only 35 blows

pression referred to the size of your intellect.” The fifth (100 blows) (40 blows)

expression, Sir, the size of yours," said the Doctor. The third division in the scale of punishment is that of a temporary banishment to any distance not The benevolent John Howard, having settled his accounts exceeding five hundred lee *, with the view of afford at the close of a particular year, and found a balance in his ing an opportunity of repentance and amendment. favour, proposed to his wife to make use of it in a journey

to London, or in any other amusement she chose. « What Of this species of punishment there are also five

a pretty cottage for a poor family it would build !" was her gradations, namely,

answer. This charitable hint met with his cordial appro

bation, and the money was laid out accordingly. 1 year, and 60 blows

14 year, and 70 blowe (with the bamboo, Banishment for 2 years, and 80 blows

Sir Isaac Newton possessed a remarkably mild and even reduced as above. 21 years, and 90 blows

temper. That great man was one day called out of his years, and 100 blows

study to an adjoining apartment. A little dog, named

Diamond, who was a great favourite of his master's, Perpetual banishment, the fourth degree of punish- happened to be left among the papers, and threw down a ment in order of severity, is subdivided as follows, lighted candle, which consumed the almost finished labours and is reserved for cases wherein even for consider- of some years. Sir Isaac soon returned, and beheld with able offences, the life of the criminal is spared by the mortification his irreparable loss; but, with his usual genmercifulness of the laws: a hundred blows with the tleness, he only exclaimed, “ O Diamond, Diamond, thou ban:boo, and perpetual banishment to the distance of little knowest the mischief thou hast done !" 2000, 2500, or 3000 lee. On reaching their destination, the banished offenders may follow their callings, Mozart had a great regard for Haydn. A professor of but they are required once a week, or once a month, Vienna, who was not without merit, though far inferior to to appear before the magistrate of the place, and tions of the latter, for all the little inaccuracies which might

Haydn, took a malicious pleasure in searching the composireport themselves.

have crept into them. He often came to show Mozart The fifth and ultimate punishment which the laws symphonies, or quartetts, of Haydn's, which he had put ordain, is death, either by strangulation or by be into score, and in which he had, by this means, discovered heading.

some inadvertencies of style. Mozart always endeavoured All criminals capitally convicted, except such to change the subject of conversation; at last, unable any

longer to restrain himself, “Sir," said he to him, sharply ; Ten les are usually estimatea to be equal to three geographical "if you and I were both melted down together, we should miles, but the proportion varies a little in the different provinces of not furnish materials for one Haydn.”—Life of Mozart. the empire.

· And my

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