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THE TOWN OF WÜRZBURG,
many judicious improvements, and enriched it with
the gift of a museum, and other munificent donations. IN GERMANY.
Since that period it has always maintained a very Würzburg, formerly the capital of the bishopric, respectable position among the universities of Europe, and afterwards of the grand duchy, of the same at present it is chiefly remarkable for the excellence name, and now the chief town of the Province, or of its medical school, which affords considerable Circle, of the Lower Maine, in the kingdom of Bavaria, advantages to the student, not only from the abilities is a large town built upon either bank of the River of its professors, but from its connexion with the Maine. The Bishopric of Würzburg was founded, Great Julius Hospital. In the esteem of the Catholics according to some authorities, in the year 741, by of the South of Germany, the university of Würzthe archbishop of Mayence; the Gospel had been burg holds a favoured place; in its earlier years, preached in that country, for the first time in the indeed, it was little else than a school of Catholic year 684, and among the converts to its doctrines theology and polemical divinity. Besides the colwas the reigning Duke of Franconia. Soon after lections of natural history, there is a library attached the institution of the see, the son of that duke, who to the establishment; this consists of 30,000 volumes, had succeeded to his father's inheritance, happened and is spoken of as being admirably selected. It has to die without issue; the fief reverted to the sovereign been formed partly from donations, and partly from of whom it had been held-either Charlemagne or the libraries of suppressed monasteries. The number King Pepin,-and was by him bestowed on the of professors and teachers is between thirty and Bishops of Würzburg. The act of donation expressly forty; the students, at the commencement of the recited that those prelates should be regarded always present year, amounted to 408. A diminution in as Dukes of Franconia, and be entitled to all those the number of the latter seems to have taken place rights and privileges which had belonged to the within the last few years ; in 1831 they were 605, former holders of the duchy; and it was to mark the showing a decrease of very nearly one-third, in the union of temporal and ecclesiastical authority which space of four years. Würzburg, like Munich, is a they thus acquired, that the bishops were afterwards Catholic university. The other Bavarian university, in the habit of having a naked sword carried before Erlangen, is a Protestant establishment. them on all solemn occasions. The bishopric was Würzburg is still the seat of a bishopric; but the dissolved at the commencement of the present cen- bishop of the present day is a very different personage tury, and the territory attached to it passed under from the Prince-Primate of former ages. He is the dominion of the sovereign of Bavaria, in whose strictly an ecclesiastical functionary, possessing no hands it was finally fixed in 1816.
temporal dominion, but simply the spiritual authority Though the city of Würzburg itself can scarcely be of a suffragan to the Archbishopric of Munich ; his called a fine one, its situation is represented to be income, which arises from estates and endowments, extremely delightful; it stands in a hollow, with the amounts to about 10,000 forins—between 9001. and valley of the Maine extending from east to west, on 10001. of our money. either side of it, and another valley stretching to the Besides its university, Würzburg has several minor north of it. The river, which is here a noble, ani- establishments for education, and also several instimated stream, divides the town into two portions ; tutions for the promotion of literature and science. that on the right bank is the larger, and is the It has an academy of physics and medicine,-a gymancient Würzburg,—and that on the left bears the nasium,-a polytechnic institute, or central school of name of the Quarter of the Maine. A noble bridge, industry, which had, several years ago, nearly a represented in the engraving, unites these two thousand pupils, and which has sent forth many divisions; it consists of eight arches, and is 540 feet excellent artisans,-a veterinary school,-an observain length
tory, and a botanic garden. The architecture of the old town is irregular, and The country around Würzburg is famous for the not marked by anything grand or beautiful ; yet wines which it produces ;—its vineyards have been there are in that quarter some interesting buildings. celebrated since the thirteenth century, as the best in The palace, formerly the residence of the bishop, and the whole of that district which, under the old geograsubsequently of the archduke of Würzburg, is an phical division of Germany, was called the circle of edifice of great extent; and the cathedral, which is Franconia. The celebrated Steinwein comes from the largest of the thirty-three churches of the the immediate neighbourhood of the city; the vinetown, is a fine building, remarkable for many curious yards which yield it belong partly to the Julius monuments, and among others, for a Gothic pulpit Hospital, and so precious is the article itself that it is of the most finished workmanship. The quarter of sold in the country at the rate of four shillings a the Maine contains the fortress of Marienburg which bottle. The Leistenwein, which is also very famous, stands upon a steep hill, 400 feet in height; there is perhaps more so than the Steinwein, comes from the nothing, however, very interesting in this edifice, if same place; the “real best,” according to Reichard, we except the view which it affords, and the ruins is the produce of the vineyards growing upon the which it contains of an ancient round building which is southern slope of the hill on which the fortress of supposed to have been a temple consecrated to one of | Marienburg stands. the Scandinavian deities. The Great Julius Hospital, The manufactures of Würzburg are not of any a noble establishment, stands in the old quarter of extent; the whole of Bavaria, indced, is essentially the city; it was founded in the sixteenth century, by an agricultural country. The only branch of methe Prince-Bishop Julius, and called after his name. chanical industry in which its artisans have attained Besides this, the city contains twelve other hospitals, any remarkable skill, is the working of gold and and several charitable institutions of various kinds. silver; and in this they are held in great repute.
Würzburg is the seat of one of the three univer- The trade of this city is, however, of considerable sities of Bavaria, the other two being fixed at Münich importance, especially in that commodity which forms and Erlangen. The foundation of this establishment the staple produce of the neighbouring country-wine. dates from the year 1403 ; in 1582 it was renovated, Its situation is advantageous for the purposes of comand its reputation greatly increased, under the auspices merce, affording it a ready communication by the Maine of the primate Julius, who introduced into its system and the Rhine, with northern Europe ; and its share
in the profits of the transit-trade of Bavaria is large. CEREMONY OF THROWING THE COCOA-NUT There is, too, at present, every prospect of the advantages which it now enjoys being greatly increased, in The south-west monsoon blows nearly right on the western consequence of the important improvements which coast of India, from June to September, inclusive. This is are about to take place in the internal communica- the season of rains, and of gales of wind, which would be tions of Bavaria. Ever since the time of Charlemagne held very cheap by the hardy mariners of higher latitudes, the project of uniting the Danube and the Rhine, though they are sufficient to interrupt the coasting-trade of and thus opening a connexion between the Black end of the monsoon is always held sacred by the Hindoos
the delicate Asiatics. The day of the full moon about the Sea and the German Ocean has, at intervals, been of that side of India, on account of its being near the period entertained; but it is not till the present day that when the bad weather breaks up, and navigation and comany active steps have been taken for accomplish- merce revive; and at this time the grand annual ceremony ing that great object. The Bavarian government, of throwing the cocoa-nut takes place. The gods of the however, becoming sensible of the benefits which it wind and the sea are then supposed to be in the fittest huwould entail upon the country, have at length entered is no small show of taste, as well as splendour, in the cere
mour to be propitiated ; and, it must be allowed, that there seriously upon the undertaking; and a law having mony itself, however useless it may be. been passed upon the subject last year, a company The whole population of the island were assembled along has been since formed for the purpose of carrying the shore, between Malabar Point and the Fort, in their it into effect. The plan to be pursued is this : the best and whitest dresses fluttering in the sea-breeze. The Maine is to be made navigable to a much higher point Brahmins, who took the lead, were collected on the beach than it now is,-a canal is then to be cut which shall
in great crowds to officiate as priests; and the chief of the join it to the Altmühl, which, being a tributary water along with his family in a circle, repeating a number
caste, having repaired to the edge of the sea, stood in the of the Danube, is to be made navigable down to the of prayers, which were echoed by the other Brahmins. I point where it empties itself into that river, near could not learn what purpose the different parts of the cereKehlheim.
mony were intended to answer, but could observe the chief and a half millions of florins, or upwards of 800,0001. of the flowers as the wind drove back to the beach, were The estimated expense of the work is about eight of the Brahmins fling fruits and flowers into the air, and
occasionally scatter some on the surface of the water. Such of our money.
A Munich paper of recent date, has eagerly caught up by the multitudes in attendance. After the following paragraph on the subject : “It is this, portions of the different articles held in highest estiaffirmed, in some of our journals, that the improve- mation amongst them were cast into the waves. These ment of the Maine for the purpose of rendering that consisted of rice, salt
, and various spices, particularly cinriver navigable in its whole course will precede the namon, from the island of Ceylon; nutmegs, betel-nut, and intended canal, and in concert with the neighbouring cloves, from Penang and the Moluccas. Last of all came
the cocoa-nut, which was not thrown into the sea till the states will be commenced by Bavaria, in the course of this year. The towns of Würzburg, Kitzingen, into the most perfect good-humour by the previous com
deities were supposed to have been soothed and flattered Schweinfurth, and Bamberg, may hope to derive plimentary proceedings. great advantages from this improvement, especially Along the margin of the bay were collected many thouas the goods from Belgium and Holland, and from sands of the natives, all anxiously waiting for the final ceroSouthern Germany, must come th way.'
A letter mony: and it was curious to observe the eagerness with from Munich, of the date of June 21st last, states Hlung into the water by the Brahmins. At the end of
which they sought to possess a portion of the sacred nuts that the whole sum necessary for making the canal, the beach commences the esplanade of the furt; a fino is already procured, and thus, there being nothing to level plain carpeted with a rich but short-bladed grass, prevent the execution of this great plan, the prelimi. enclosed by railings, and forming an area of half a mile nary operations will be immediately commenced. square. Upon these grand occasions the esplanade pre“ This is an event,” it is added, “ of the highest sented a singular mixture of most of the different inha
bitants of the earth, each wearing his own peculiar dress, importance, because the system of iron rail-roads is taken up in the other states of central Germany with speaking his own native language, following his own
customs, and distinguished by many of those attendant cirextraordinary energy, and in conjunction with the cumstances by which he would have been accompanied at canal, will give an impulse to commerce which, only his proper home. ten years ago, would have been considered as a delu All sorts of European coaches, barouches, chariots, and sive dream.'
gigs, were driving about, with every other kind of wheeled conveyance, from an artillery-wagon to an engineer's wheel
barrow. Elephants bearing castles on their backs paced With eager haste thy waters glide,
about the ground, in company with camels, and hundreds of
small Arabian horses, just landed from ships arrived from Thy sparkling waters, glassy burn,
the Red Sea and the gulf of Persia. Palanquins innumerTo mingle with the ocean tide,
able might be seen traversing the field, across the path of Ah! never, never to return.
native hackaries, and fifty vehicles of which I still know not The minutes thus of manhood's prime,
the names. By far the greater part of this immense crowd, Those sprightly minutes, speed away,
however, were on foot; and I felt almost bewildered as I To feed the craving void of Time,
passed and repassed amongst them, watched their dresses That never render'd back a day.
and gestures, and listened to their various tongues. When Nor fleeting life, nor running stream,
I bethought me, moreover, of the singular political circum One smooth and prosperous course shall know;
stances which had combined to bring together such a Still dimpling in the sunny beam,
diversified multitude, from every quarter of the globe, to Still idly tinkling as they flow.
worship strange gods, to live happy and free, and to enjoy Their state is false, though seeming gay,
their wealth in peace and security under the guns of an And dark with many a coming ill;
English fortress, twelve thousand miles from home, I Clouds intercept the cheerful ray,
scarcely knew how to contain the expression of wonder And tempests blot the limpid rill.
which this novel and brilliant scene was so well calculated But there's a rill of virtue rare,
to inspire.-Capt. Basil Hall.
The great Samuel Clarke was fond of robust exercise; Whose spring is constant; as ’tis pure,
and this profound logician has been discovered leaping over So bright to day, the same to-morrow;
tables and chairs. Once, perceiving a pedantic fellow E'en Time shall cease, but that endure,
approaching, he said, “Now we must desist, for a fool is Unvex'd by wrath, undimm'd by sorrow.-H. coming in !"— Curiosities of Literature.
ON A SWIFT BROOK.
THE SACRED BEETLE OF THE EGYPTIANS, Their constant employ, in which they are inde(Scarabeus sacer.)
fatigable, is to provide little nests in which to deposit their eggs; this they do by forming mund pellets of dung in which they place the egg. These pellets, in September, they bury in the earth, three feet deep, where, in the spring, the eggs are hatched. From this it will be seen, that the great length of their hinder legs is of considerable service to their possessor, enabling it to guide its curious cradle with greater certainty and less labour. I have, says a celebrated naturalist, attentively admired their industry, and the mutual assistance they gave each other in rolling these balls from the place where they formed them, to that of their interment, which is usually at the distance of some yards; this they perform by shuffling backwards, and forcing the ball along with their hinder feet.
Two or three are sometimes engaged in trundling one ball, which often meeting with impediments from
the unevenness of the ground, is deserted by them ; Tae singular habits of this beetle induced the ancient yet this ball is sometimes moved onward by another Egyptians to place it among those creatures on which party, unless it should have rolled into a deep hole, they bestowed divine honours: it is found represented from which they find it impossible to move it. No in many of their hieroglyphic paintings and sculptures, one appears to know its own, but an equal care for and appears to have been a symbol of the creative all seems to affect the whole community. They form power; it was also particularly sacred to one of their these pellets while the dung remains moist, and deities, called Phthah, the lord of truth, and signified leave them to harden in the sun before they attempt the world, or all creation. It was likewise the em- to roll them away: in doing this, themselves and blem of the Sun, "from having thirty fingers, equal their pellets are continually tumbling and rolling one to the number of days in a month."
over the other down the little eminences, that fall in The carved figures and the pictorial representations their way; but not discouraged by this, they repeat of this insect are very numerous among the antiqui- their attempts, and usually succeed in conquering ties of ancient Egypt. There is at present in the their difficulties. British Museum, a colossal figure of the Scarabeus sacer, which was, perhaps, once the object of veneration to numerous human beings, on whom the
CRUELTY TO ANIMALS. light of revelation had not yet shone ; it also occurs The abuse of power is equally prevalent among without end as an ornament on signet-rings, and children and men. And when we every day find, by forming the upper portion of official and other seals. melancholy experience, that the strong The annexed engraving is a representation of one of and the maturest judgments, are unable to resist the these scarabæi seals.
intoxication of uncontrolled command, and, rioting in the plenitude of power, break through the laws of reason and of right, can we expect that the sense of childhood should be less frequently fascinated, and less easily overcome; and that when armed with the ability of distributing life and death to the subject tribes of animals and insects, it should exercise its dominion with equity, and administer its charge without injustice? Not but, with regard to myself, as well as
others, the rage of despotism has been checked, and Many of the papyri which are found on the breast of the triumphs of tyranny interrupted, by the admonithe mummies, declaring the virtues, or other great tions of friendly advice, and the interposition of qualities of the deceased, contain also a representa-friendly authority. But alas ! how could I regard tion of this beetle.
those admonitions, or revere that authority, when, The cause which induced this ancient nation to after being severely chidden for wantonly dismemberplace the Scarabæus among their sacred animals, ing a wasp, or knocking down a butterfly, I was appears to have been the provident habits and the often called upon to crush a spider, or trample an great care for its young which it constantly displays. earwig to atoms, because, forsooth, a lady in company In Egypt this beetle is extremely common, and may had conceived a rooted horror for the one, or was be seen constantly engaged in the laborious task endowed with a natural antipathy to the other. which seems to be the principal object of its life. Let the parent who would keep his child pure from
The Scarabæi are the most voracious of the beetle the stain of cruelty to animals, beware how he makes tribes; the food on which they subsist is of an animal him the executioner of his vengeance, on even the nature, and so violent are their carnivorous propen- most noxious,—the crusher of spiders, and the sities, that, if confined in a 'box by themselves, the trampler of earwigs. The distinctions of harmless larger will prey upon the smaller. In walking, this and hurtful are not to be explained to childhood. kind of coleopterous (hard-winged) insects appear to Self-preservation needs not the admonition. The move with considerable difficulty, from the apparently child who executes these commands, must either, if disproportionate size of their hinder legs. But when he does not reflect at all, be steeled by their repetition we inquire into their habits, we shall find that this against the pleadings of pity, or if he does reflect, in apparent disproportion is of considerable service to what light can he consider them but as dictated by the animal when engaged in preparing for the welfare the lust of destroying, cloaked indeed under the of its future offspring,
affectation of antipathy!GEORGE CANNING.
THE MACKEREL, (Scomber scombrus,) weight is about two pounds each; but they are said
to attain the length of twenty inches. The largest
As an article of food they are in great request, and those taken in the months of May and June are generally considered superior in flavour to those taken either earlier in the spring, or in autumn. To be eaten in perfection, this fish should be very fresh, as it soon becomes unfit for food. Mackerel were first
allowed to be cried through the streets of London on Tuis well-known fish is one of the most beautiful of a Sunday, in 1698, and the practice prevails to the the inhabitants of the British seas; it belongs to the present time. same tribe as the Tunny, which we have already At our various fishing-towns on the coast, the described *. The observations which have been mackerel season is one of great bustle and activity; applied to the supposed migrations of the herring the high price obtained by early cargoes being the tribe are equally applicable to the mackerel, and it is inducement to great exertions. now the opinion of the most accurate observers, that In May 1807, the first Brighton boat-load of Macafter the spawning-season is over, these fish retire kerel sold at Billinsgate for forty guineas per hundred, into the deep waters of the neighbouring seas. “The
-seven shillings each, reckoning six score to the law of nature which obliges them and many others to hundred, ---the highest price ever known at that visit the shallower water of the shores, at a particular market. The next boat-load produced but thirteen season, appears to be one of those wise and bountiful guineas the hundred. Mackerel were so plentiful at provisions of the Creator, by which not only is the Dover in 1808, that they were sold sixty for a shilling. species perpetuated with the greatest certainty, but a At Brighton, in June of the same year, the shoal of large portion of the parent animals are thus brought Mackerel was so great, that one of the boats had the within the reach of man; who, but for the action of meshes of her nets so completely occupied by them, this law, would be deprived of many of those species that it was impossible to drag them in. 'The fish and most valuable to him as food. For were the mackerel' nets, therefore, at length sunk together. The boats dispersed over the immense surface of the deep, no engaged in fishing, are usually attended by other fasteffective fishery could be carried on; but, approaching sailing vessels, which are sent away with the fish the shore as they do from all directions, and roving taken. From Hastings, and other fishing-towns on along the coast collected in immense shoals, millions the Sussex coast, the fish are brought to London by are caught, which yet form but a very small portion vans, which travel up during the night. compared with the myriads that escape.”
The most common mode of fishing for Mackerel, For the following account of the habits and mode and in which the greatest numbers are taken, is by of taking this useful fish, we are indebted to the drift-nets. The drift-net is twenty feet deep, by one elegant and valuable History of British Fishes, by Mr. hundred and twenty feet long, well corked at the top, Yarrell.
but without lead at the bottom. They are made of On the coast of Ireland, the Mackerel is taken small fine twine, which is tanned of a reddish-brown from the county of Kerry in the west, along the colour, to preserve it from the action of the sea southern shore, eastward to Cork and Waterford; water. The size of the mesh is about two and a half from thence northward to Antrim, and north-west to inches, or rather larger. Twelve, fifteen, and someLondonderry and Donegal. Dr. Macculloch says it times eighteen of these nets are attached lengthways, visits some of the lochs of the western islands, but by tying along a thick rope called the drift-rope, and is not considered very abundant. On the Cornish at the end of each net to each other. When arranged coast, this fish occurs sometimes as early as March, for depositing in the sea, a large buoy attached to the and appears to be pursuing a course from west to end of the drift-rope, is thrown overboard; the east. They are plentiful on the Devonshire coast, and vessel is put before the wind, and as she sails along, swarm in West Bay about June. On the Hampshire the rope with the nets thus attached, is passed over and Sussex coast, particularly the latter, they arrive the stem into the water, till the whole of the nets are as early as March, and sometimes, as will be shown, run out. The net thus deposited, hangs suspended even in February; and the earlier in the year the in the water perpendicularly, twenty feet deep from fishermen go to look for them, the further from the the drift-rope, and extending from three quarters of shore do they seek for them and find them. Duha a mile to a mile, or even a mile and a half, depending mel says the mackerel are caught earlier at Dunkirk on the number of nets belonging to the party or than at Dieppe or Havre: up our eastern coast, how- , company engaged in fishing together. When the ever, the fishing is later. The fishermen of Lowestoffe whole of the nets are thus handed out, the drift-rope and Yarmouth, gain their great harvest from the is shifted from the stern to the prow of the vessel, mackerel in May and Junc.
and she rides by it as if at anchor. The benefit The Mackerel spawns in June, and according to gained by the boat's hanging at the end of the driftBloch, five hundred and forty thousand eggs have been rope is, that the net is kept strained in a straight line, counted in one fish. The young Mackerel, which which, without this pull upon it, would not be the are called shiners, are from four to six inches long, by case. the end of August. They are half grown says Mr. The nets are shot in the evening, and sometimes Couch, by November, when they retire to deep water, hauled once during the night, at others allowed to and are seen no more that winter ; but the adult remain in the water all night. The fish roving in the fishes never wholly quit the Cornish coast, and it is dark through the water, hang in the meshes of the common to see some taken with lines in every month net, which are large enough to admit them beyond of the year. The Mackerel as feeders are voracious, the gill-covers and pectoral fins, but not large enough and their growth is rapid. The ordinary length to allow the thickest part of the body to pass through. varies from fourteen to sixteen inches, and their in the morning carly, preparations are made for See Saturday Magazine, Vol. V., p. 10.
hauling the nets. A capstan upon the deck is manned,
MISSIONARIES IN INDIA. about which two turns of the drift-rope are taken. One man stands forward to untie the upper edge of The following letter from King George the First to each net from the drift rope, which is called casting Ziegenbalg and Grundler, two Danish Missionaries at off the lashings; others hand in the net with the fish Tranquebar, on the coast of Coromandel, and the caught, to which one side of the vessel is devoted; reply of the same, written at the commencement of the other side is occupied by the drift-rope, which is the last century, are documents in many respects wound in by the men at the capstan. The whole of highly interesting. the net in, and the fish secured, the vessel runs back
George, by the grace of God, King of Great Britain &c., into harbour with her fish, or deposits them on board to the reverend and learned Bartholomew Ziegenbalg, some other boat in company.
and John Ernest Grundler, Missionaries at Tranquebar. Near to land, another mode of fishing is adopted,
Reverend and beloved,—Your letters, dated the 20th which is thus described by Mr. Couch. “A long of January, of the present year, were most welcome to us; deep net is employed, of which, unlike the former, the heathen to the Christian faith, doth, by the grace of God,
not only because the work undertaken by you, of converting the meshes are too small to admit any of the fish. prosper; but also because that, in this our kingdom, such Two boats are necessary, one of which is rowed round a laudable zeal for the promoting of the Gospel prevails. the schull, while the net is thrown overboard by two We pray you may be endued with health and strength of men to enclose it; the other boat is employed in body, that you may long continue to fulfil your ministry keeping steady the end of the net, and warping it, the with good success; of which as we shall be rejoiced to hear, sooner and more surely to prevent the escape of the so you will always find us ready to succour you, in whatever fish. When this is effected, the net stands like a circle, may tend to promote your work and excite your zeal. We
assure you of the continuance of our royal favour. enclosing the captives, and the men proceed to draw
GEORGE R. it together at the end and bottom; at the same time Given at our palace of Hampton-Court, the 23rd of throwing pebbles at that place where the circle closes, August, A.D. 1717, in the fourth year of our reign. to prevent the approach of the fish to the only place
The Missionaries wrote in reply, where escape is possible: when at last the enclosure is perfect, and the net raised from the ground, the greatest joy imaginable, and were highly comforted and
Your Majesty's most gracious letter we received with the fish thus brought to the surface are taken on board quickened in our zeal for the glory of Almighty God, when in flaskets.” Such is the mode of proceeding with we read these your Majesty's most gracious expressions: the seine-net in deep water, or at a distance from “ As we shall be always well pleased to hear of the happy shore, but in some places it is hauled on the beach in success and progress of this work, so we shall, at a proper the manner of a ground-net, with less trouble and season, be found ready to assist you in what shall tend to
the promotion of this affair, and your encouragement." expense.
| Your Majesty hereby most graciously allows us to make a A third mode of fishing is with the line, and is further report of the state of our affairs, and we thence called railing, (trailing). The Mackerel will bite at conceive joyful hopes that your Majesty will add to the any bait that is used to take the smaller kind of fish; glorious title of Defender of the Faith, the noble character but preference is given to that which resembles a of its zealous Promoter, not only by supporting the reign living and active prey, which is imitated by what is of Jesus Christ in your own dominions, but also by procalled a lask,-a long slice cut from the side of one moting and extending it among heathens and infidels in the of its own kind near the tail ;—it is found, also, that heartily thanked God Almighty for inclining your Majesty's
most remote parts of the world. Therefore, after having a slip of red leather, or a piece of scarlet cloth, will heart toward so holy a design, and, with the profoundest commonly succeed. The boat is placed under sail, submission, acknowledged your Majesty's high favour and a smart breeze is considered favourable, hence towards us your unworthy servants, may it please your termed a Mackerel-breeze. The line is short, but Majesty to accept the following account of the state of the weighed down by a heavy plummet, and in this manner
work in which we are employed. when these fish abound, two men will take from five according to the measure of the grace which God Almighty
We, the Missionaries, on our part, are endeavouring, hundred to a thousand a day. It is singular that the has imparted to us, plentifully to spread abroad the seed of greatest number of Mackerel are caught when the the word of God among the heathens in their own language, boat moves most rapidly, and that even then the hook there being no other means of touching their hearts, in is commonly gorged. It seems that the Mackerel order to their conversion. We also maintain Indians to takes its food by striking across the course of what assist us as catechists, for which function we first prepare is supposed to be its flying prey.
them, by instructing them in the saving faith of Jesus Christ, and then send them to propagate it among the heathens. To places which the instruction of the Gospel by word of mouth cannot reach, we send our printed Malabarian books, which are read in these parts by many of all sorts and degrees. As we are perfectly sensible, that to promote and perpetuate such an undertaking, a solid foundation must be laid, by translating the Holy Scriptures, and publishing other instructive books in the language of the country, we did, a good while ago, finish and publish a translation of the New Testament, and are now labouring, with great application, in translating the Old Testament into the Malabarian and Portuguese languages. Besides,
we compose every year some books for instructing the The Ivy.—This saves many animals from want and death heathens, containing the fundamentals of the Christian in Autumn and Spring. In October it blooms in profu- religion ; for better publication of which, the printing-press sion; and its flowers become an universal banquet to the we have received from our benefactors in England is of insect race. The great black fly, Musca grossa, and its great use to us. That our printing-press may always be numerous tribe, with multitudes of small winged creatures, provided with a sufficient quantity of letters, we entertain resort to them: also those beautiful animals, the latest in the mission persons for cutting moulds, and casting birth of the year, the admiral and peacock-butterflies. letters, as also for binding books, being furnished every In its honey, it yields a constant supply of food till the year with the necessary tools and materials from England frosts of November. In Spring, in the bitter months of | by the laudable Society for the Propagation of the Gospel March and April, when the wild products of the field are To supply the want of paper, we have been at great expense nearly consumed, the Ivy ripens its berries; and almost in erecting a paper-mill here. And so, under the invoentirely constitutes the food of the missel-thrush, the cation of the name of God, we plentifully dispense, both by wood-pigeon, and other birds. — Journal of a Naturalist. word of mouth and writing, in this heathen country, the
ARRANGEMENT OF THE HOOK AND LINE FOR TAKING MACKEREL.