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Locomotion implies the power of moving from one No. III. NUMBERS DESCRIPTIVE OF Motion.
place to another. It is this which distinguishes
animals from plants. The term is also applied to WAEN bodies are described as being in motion, or in machines, whose propelling force is included within an opposite state, at rest, such terms are, of course, themselves; as locomotive engines on a rail, or comemployed in a relative, or comparative, sense. For mon, road. aught that we know to the contrary, motion may be as Among animated beings, connected with our globe, necessary to the existence of matter, in all its diver birds are endowed in an eminent degree with the sities of form, and amidst the perpetual changes of power of locomotion. In this respect they seem to which it is susceptible, as heat, light, electricity, and surpass all other animals; not only in reference to magnetism. We know nothing, by experience, of a the rapidity of their movements, but also in constate of perfect rest,—of absolute repose, but, on the tinuing them for a long time without taking food or contrary, wherever we turn our eyes we detect decisive rest. It is well ascertained that land birds cross vast proofs of activity. In the heavens above and on the tracts of ocean; flying at a rate equal to 50 or 60 earth beneath, a series of successive movements are miles an hour, and keeping on their course both by unceasingly operating. Matter which enters into the day and night. The Blue Birds of America, in their constitution of animated beings changes its form, its periodical migrations, are frequently seen in situations character, and its locality; similar results ensue in the where a distance equal to 600 miles interposes less complicated, but not the less beautiful, structures between them and the nearest point of land from of the vegetable world; and the solid rock—the frame. which they had taken their flight. Few birds pass work of the globe we inhabit—is equally endowed over so great an extent of surface in the same time, with a principle of motion—its elementary particles as our cheerful summer visiters, the Swallows; who being as obedient to the laws of attraction, expansion, fly in their usual way at the rate of a mile in a decomposition, and subsequent renovation, as are those minute, and are thus engaged, without apparent of the most fragile plant that grows on its surface. fatigue, during 10 or 12 hours every day. There is
These movements bear but little analogy to the one little bird, however, the Swift, which appears to motions which originate in mechanical contrivances; excel all others in the rapidity of its movements. still less do they admit of comparison with those which An eminent naturalist, who has assiduously studied characterize matter when endowed with life; and the habits of this bird, estimates its motions as being they are yet further at variance with the extraordinary equal to 250 miles an hour. It eats, drinks, and movements presented to us by the heavenly bodies, collects materials for its nest on the wing; living in revolving in their respective orbits round the sun. the air more than any other bird, and performing all
The motions of bodies are described as being slow, its functions there, excepting those of sleep and inor rapid, in proportion as the time occupied by them cubation. in passing through a certain space is greater or less; Turn we now from these allusions to terrestrial bodies are also said to move slowly or rapidly, with movements, to those which relate to the heavenly relation to their general habits and ordinary rates of bodies. progression. In the common affairs of life we know The earth, as well as each of the planets with but very little of rapid movements, excepting as we which it is associated, revolves round the sun with a observe them in other bodies, and are thus enabled velocity exactly proportioned to its relative bulk and to assure ourselves of the facts. For instance: we its distance from that resplendent body. These have no notion of a man, by his own efforts, moving motions of the planets are not uniform; on the conat the rate of 50 miles an hour. A celebrated trary, they are constantly varying throughout the race-horse is stated, however, to have cleared on one respective routes assigned to them. But notwithoccasion a mile in a minute, (60 miles per hour;) standing these apparent irregularities, each planet but that is a rate which could not, of course, be long performs its entire circuit with undeviating punctumaintained. The most rapid mode of transit, appli- ality, a circumstance susficient of itself, were it the cable to the ordinary purposes of life, is that of only one with which we were acquainted in relation which we have in modern times availed ourselves, to the planetary system, deeply to affect the mind namely, by steam-engines on a rail-road. These with the PERFECTION of His operations, “who is move at a rate averaging from 20 to 25 miles an wonderful in counsel and excellent in working." hour. On some occasions they are said to have The precision with which the earth performs its moved at the rate of 50 miles an hour, without daily and yearly revolutions, supplies us with the any danger to the carriage, or inconvenience to the only infallibly correct means of measuring time. passengers.
In by-gone days time was measured in a very rough Velocity is a term usually employed to denote rapid way, as by the hour-glass and the clepsydra*; the motion. It is derived from a Latin word which former, a coarse and imperfect contrivance for signifies swiftness. Thus we speak of the velocity of counting out equal portions of time; the latter, an wind—the velocity of a planet—or the velocity of instrument susceptible of considerable exactness, light. But velocity indicates only in general terms measuring time by the flowing of water from one the rapid motions of bodies, without determining vessel to another, but, like the hour-glass, exceedeither the rate or conditions of their progress. A ingly inconvenient, from the constant attention it body moving at the rate of 50 or 100 miles an hour, required. Clocks and watches are almost the only is said to move with velocity: the same term is instruments now employed for ascertaining the lapse equally applicable to another body whose rate of of time. The perfection to which they have attained progression might be 1000 or 10,000 miles in a entitles them to our confidence not only for ordinary minute. Velocity is absolute or it is relative; absolute purposes, but also in those branches of astronomical when it relates to a body that moves over a certain science in which greater accuracy is indispensably space in a certain time, relative when there is a
That beautiful machine termed by way reference to another moving body. Velocity is also of distinction a chronometer t, if it be at all deserving uniform or it is unequal; uniform when a body moves the name, will not vary in its rate of going a single over equal, distances in equal times, unequal when its
• See Saturday Magazine, Vol. VI., p. 188. motion is either retarded or accelerated,
+ From two Greek words, signifying to meosure time.
second during many successive days. But the chro- | age by those who have preceded them, astronomers nometer is accurate only by comparison with those have at length attained to a general theory of that instruments whose motions are less perfect and uni- section of the Divine empire to which our planet form. The errors of chronometers require to be belongs, that enables them to compute the sizes, and corrected by a frequent reference to natural events, distances, and rates of motion of the numerous which, by long experience, we know to happen at bodies known to them as belonging to the Solar certain intervals.
System, with a most surprising degree of accuracy; Every planet with which we are acquainted turns the process employed yielding results equally certain on an imaginary line, called its axis, which passing and satisfactory as those methods of measurement through its centre and terminating at opposite points and calculation which are most esteemed it conductof its surface is there denominated the poles. Some ing similar operations, among the every-day transof the planetary bodies revolve with much greater actions of life. velocity than others. As examples, we will mention The motion of Light next claims our consideration. the earth and Jupiter. The circumference of the Of the elementary constitution of light we must be earth is estimated in round numbers at 25,000 content to confess our ignorance ; of its physical (twenty-five thousand) miles. Now as the earth effects we have the most decisive evidence throughout makes an entire revolution on its axis in rather less every part of the visible creation. We are now enthan 24 hours (23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds,) tering upon ground where we shall find that our every object at the earth's surface in the immediate comprehending faculties are more severely taxed than vicinity of the equator* must necessarily move in our believing faculties,-a distinction that is not, we that time through the space denoted above, which is fear, sufficiently understood. Some there are who with a velocity somewhat exceeding seventeen miles in affect to doubt, or disbelieve, whatever they cannot a minute. The circumference of Jupiter is nearly comprehend. A familiar example will indicate the eleven times that of the earth : in round numbers we folly, as well as the inconsistency, of such pretences. may describe it at 273,000 (two hundred and seventy- We believe, because experience and observation unani. three thousand) miles. Jupiter, however, although mously attest the fact, that food is necessary to the so much larger than the earth, performs its daily sustenance of life; but can we comprehend, in all revolution in less time, namely, in 9 hours, 55 their details, the processes by which food is conminutes, and 33 seconds. The objects at the surface I verted into the dissimilar materials of which cur of this magnificent planet near its equator move, bodies are constructed? The wisest and the best of therefore, with a velocity equal to about 458 miles in men are ever the most willing to avow the scantiness a minute.
of their attainments. Surely a posture of deep humiRapid as is the diurnal motion of the earth, it lity is that which best becomes creatures whose bears only the same analogy to the speed with which breath is in their nostrils, and whose term of earthly it pursues its journey through the vast expanse of existence is but as a band-breadth. the heavens, that the ordinary walking pace of a “As quick as lightning" is a figurative expression man, say at four miles an hour, does to the rate at descriptive of any very rapid movements. Until which the swift firs, which, as we have already seen, within the last 160 years, the passage of light was is estimated at 250 miles an hour. There is some supposed to be instantaneous. It has, however, been thing very impressive in the thought, that whilst our satisfactorily ascertained, that, although light is propaglobe is whirling round with a rapidity far surpassing gated with prodigious rapidity, its motion is gradual. whatever comes within the limits of our observation Light travels from the sun to the earth in about eight in the movements of men, of animals, and of ma- minutes, the mean distance being 95,000,000 (ninetychines ; yet we are not, apparently, affected, nor in five millions) of miles. The velocity of light is, any way inconvenienced by this incessant activity; therefore, in round numbers, equal to 192,000 (one but when we further reflect, that we are participating hundred and ninety-two thousand) miles in each in a movement still more rapid, the mean rate at second of time ! which the earth proceeds in its orbit being eighteen The motion of Electricity is somewhat analogous to miles and three quarters in a second, the mind is lost in that of light; no perceptible interval of time being wonder, and we feel at once our inability calmly to occupied by it in passing through the longest circuit survey, and completely to comprehend, these stu- hitherto contrived, which was more than 4 miles in pendous monuments of Jehovah's originating and extent. Some recent experiments on this interesting sustaining power.
subject, which are as beautiful in arrangement as they We readily admit, that of those who have now an are ingenious in conception, seem to indicate that opportunity of making themselves acquainted with electricity is propagated through good conductors (as the general phenomena of the universe, not one in a a copper wire) with greater velocity than that with hundred, and probably not one in a thousand, pos. which light proceeds through the planetary space, the sesses the means and the knowledge requisite for motion of electricity being estimated as equal to demonstrating the relative magnitudes, motions, and 288,000 (two hundred and eighty-eight thousand) distances of the heavenly bodies. But the sublime miles in a second, truths which astronomy announces, are not the less Enough has been said to show that man, in his susceptible of proof, because a few only, as compared present state of infirmity, is capable of understanding with the mass of mankind, are permitted to pene- and of appreciating only a few fraginentary portions trate into regions far beyond the ordinary limits of of the wonderful works of his beneficent Creator. human vision. Vast and important as is the amount He is admonished and encouraged, however, to look of secular knowledge, when viewed in the aggregate, forward to another state of being. There the imwe are justified in asserting, that no department of it mortal spirit, separated from its frail tenement of is so perfect as that of astronomy. Here it is that clay, shall put forth all its energies, advancing in man has been most successful in his efforts to reduce knowledge through eternal ages, whilst contemplating his knowledge to a system. Profiting from age to the endless diversities of omniscient skill. To that
world of holiness and of happiness, may the writer From a Latin term which means to make equal. It refers to an imaginary line passing round the earth in a direction cast and west
and the reader daily aspire!
R. R and erually distant at ever part from either pole.
THE USEFUL ARTS. No. VIII.'
There are a few plants cultivated for their fruits, which
being originally brought from warmer climates, require HERBACEOUS PLANTS.--MODE OF PROPAGATION. constant shelter in this country; but as no vegetable will FRUIT TREES, Hor BEDS, Hot HOUSES AND CON
thrive, or ripen its fruit without abundance of light, the buildings erected for the purpose of protecting these exotics,
must consist chiefly of glass. HERBACEOUS plants are generally raised from seed, or by
Melons and cucumbers, are raised on hot-beds, with dividing the roots of perennials, but shrubs and trees are
glass-light frames, such as that shown in page 16; but pine. more commonly propagated by shoots, suckers, cuttings, apples and grapes require greater and more constant beat layers, &c.
to bring them to maturity, than a simple hot-bed and frame Shoots and suckers are the thin branches rising from the
can supply: The pit in which pine-apples are forced, top of the root of shrubby plants ; these are taken off from resembles the plain frame and lights in general form, only the parent stem, so that a piece of the root of that parent it is altogether larger, and the upright sides are built of may come away with each sucker. They are then cut down brick, with a flue, or long horizontal chimney, running till only two or three eyes, or buds, are left, and the pieces round it inside, leading from a furnace, the mouth of which so prepared are planted sufficiently deep in the ground; is on the outside of the back wall. The fire being lighted being covered up from the sun and air, by a hand-glass and in this furnace, the hot air passes through the flue, and mats, they soon strike root and grow, and are then carefully
warms the interior of the pit, and finally passes up an transplanted into the places where they are to remain. Cuttings are pieces of a young branch, or side sloot, the flue, is filled with old tanners'-bark, and in this the
upright chimney. The rectangular central pit left within taken off with a sharp knife, and cut down till only five or
pots containing the plants are sunk. six buds are left; these being planted about one-half of
The hot-houses in which grapes are reared, are contheir length in the earth, roots will grow out of the buds structed on the same principles, only on a larger scale, so underground, and from between the bark and wood at the that persons can walk round them. The vines are planted bottom. They do not strike root so soon as suckers, and
out of doors, against the front wall of the house, and the therefore require to be kept longer covered, and frequently stems being brought through holes, the branches are watered: but the tree ultimately produced from a cutting, trained to iron wires, fixed to the beams of the glass roof, is better than one produced from a sucker; cuttings, there
so that the grapes may be as near the light as possible. fore, are always preferred for propagating fruit trees.
The greater part of the space in the house being thus Layers.—The mode of propagating by layers, is applied left unoccupied, is generally devoted to rearing exotic to those trees of which cuttings do not strike readily; it tender plants, either for the beauty of their flowers, or for consists in bending down a branch gently, and laying a por- the sake of their singularity. tion of it in a trench dug in the ground to receive it. The
Within the last few years, these kinds of buildings have branch is kept down in the earth by forked pegs of wood, been warmed by means of steam raised in boilers, and or by stones laid upon it. Roots spring out of the knots of passing through iron pipes within the hot-houses or pits. the portion so buried; and while these are forming, the Green-houses and Conservatories are erections of a branch continues to derive nourishment from the parent similar kind, but constructed with more taste, so as to be stem. When a sufficiency of new roots are grown, the agreeable to the eye, as well as useful; they are provided branch may be cut off close to the ground, to separate it with Mues or pipes for warming them in winter. from the original plant, and can be transplanted to the situation where it is wanted.
The most important mode of propagating particular WINGFIELD CASTLE, SUFFOLK. varieties of fruit-trees, is by budding or grafting. The former is done by cutting a bud out of the tree to be propa- About six miles north-east of Eye, in Suffolk, is gated, and inserting it in a slit made in the bark of a stock, the village of WINGFIELD. This was the seat of an or the stem of another tree of the same species of plant. ancient family, who, as it is supposed, took their The operation is a delicate one, for it is essential that the
name from the place. There are pedigrees of the liber, or inner barks of the bud and of the stock, should be Wingfields which would give them possession of the in accurate contact. Grafting is applying a short cutting castle of Wingfield before the Norman conquest, but of the subject to the stock, so that a perfect contact may exist between the libers of the two parts. The bud, or the there is nothing to establish the fact. Early in the graft, must be bound round, and covered over with clay at reign of Edward the Third it was the seat of Richard the point of junction, to exclude the air, and, allow of a de Brews, who had a grant for a fair to be held here, perfect union of the two parts: when this has taken place, and it probably first became the residence of the head on the
original stock, which will produce fruit of the Wingfield family in the time of Sir John Wingfield, same kind as that of the tree which was to be propagated.
a soldier of high character in the martial reign of Fruit-trees are cultivated, either as standards, that is, as
Edward the Third, and chief counsellor of the single isolated trees, or as espaliers, or trained against a Black Prince. wall. Standard trees are going into disuse in all good About 1362 the widow and brother, the executors gardens, as not allowing of the necessary care and cultiva- of this valorous knight, agreeably to his bequest, tion, nor of the fruit being so conveniently gathered.
built a college here for a provost and several priests, Espaliers are trees trained against wooden frames, which allows of the sun and air getting to both sides of the plant; dedicating it to St. Mary, St. John the Baptist, and but training against a wall is preferred for the tenderer St. Andrew; and, by the marriage of Catherine, fruits, as peaches, nectarines, &c., because the wall affords daughter and heiress of the said Sir John, to Michael shelter from the north wind, the plant being always put on de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, the manor and extenthe southern side. The body of the wall retains the heat sive estate attached to it, passed into the hands of of the sun, and thus acts as a stove in forwarding the that family, which makes such a striking figure in growth, and ripening the fruit. Another advantage attending training fruit-trees against
the page of English history. In the collegiate church a wall is, that they may then be covered over with old can
was buried, in 1450, vass or bunting, to protect them from frosts, or with nets to
“ The Duke of Suffolk, William de la Pole,” keep birds from getting at the fruit when it is ripening. to whom, in conjunction with Beaufort, Cardinal of The art of training a tree properly, requires considerable Winchester, was attributed the murder of the good skill and knowledge; it is done by pruning the shoots as they form yearly, so as to leave buds which will afterwards Duke Humphry of Gloucester.
Shakspeare, in his grow in the right direction, and produce a regular form in Second Part of Henry the Sixth, not only describes the tree: but this form must be often modified, either to Suffolk and Beaufort retard the growth of a branch which is too active, or to for As guilty of Duke Humphry's timeless death, word one which is backward; and this is effected by follow- but paints in vivid colours the shocking end of both ing the laws which regulate the distribution of the sap in these noblemen, and particularly the terrors of a the plant. The branches are trained and fixed against the wall, by means of shreds of woollen cloth, which are put guilty conscience in the case of Beaufort, who around the stem and then nailed,
Dies and makes no sign,
Close upon this horrid deed followed Suffolk's legacy of 2001. His descendant of the same name tragical and untimely fate. Having been accused of was created a baronet by King Charles the First in high-treason, and (that charge failing) of divers mis- 1627*. The estate of Wingfield was, for many years, demeanours, the public hatred pressing heavily upon in the Catlyn family; it afterwards devolved to the him, he was sentenced by King Henry the Sixth to heirs of Thomas Leman, Esq., and is now vested in five years' banishment. Having, in consequence, Sir Edward Kerrison, Bart., M.P. for Eye. quitted his castle at Wingfield and embarked at
* The present representative of this family is John Wingfield, Ipswich, intending to sail for France, he was inter- Esq., of Tickencote, in the county of Rutland. Further parti cepted in his passage by a hired captain of a vessel, culars of the Wingfields, famous," as Camden says, “ for their seized in Dover roads, and beheaded “on the long- of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland.
knighthood and ancient nobility,” may be found in Burke's History boat's side.” His head and body, being thrown into the sea, were cast upon the sands, where they were found, and brought to Wingfield for interment. His
THE EVENING HOURS. duchess was Alice, daughter and heiress of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer. His son and successor, John de
SWEET evening hour! Sweet evening hour!
That calms the air and shuts the flower ; la Pole, the restored Duke of Suffolk, who married
That brings the wild bee to its nest, Elizabeth, sister of King Edward the Fourth, was
The infant to its mother's breast. buried at Wingfield in 1491.
Sweet hour ! that bids the labourer cease ; The castle, represented in the engraving, was thus
That gives the weary team release, distinguished for noble, but, doubtless, often turbu
And leads them home, and crowns them there lent inmates. It stands low, without any earth With rest and shelter, food and care. works for its defence. The south front, which is the
O season of soft sounds and hues, principal entrance, is still entire, and the west side
Of twilight walks among the dews, is a farm-house. The arms of De la Pole, with those
Of feelings calm and converse sweet, of Wingfield, cut in stone, remain on each side of And thoughts too shadowy to repeat ! the gateway.
Yes, lovely hour! thon art the time It appears that the Wingfields branched off, and
When feelings flow and wishes climb; removed to Letheringham and Easton, in the same When timid souls begin to dare, county. Sir Anthony Wingfield, who flourished in And God receives and answers prayer. the reigns of Henry the Eighth and Edward the
Then, trembling, through the dewy skies, Sixth, was Captain of the Guard, Vice-Chamberlain, Look out the stars, like thoughtful eyes Knight of the Garter, and a Member of the Privy Of angels, calm reclining there, Council. Under Henry, it is said, there were eight And gazing on the world of care. or nine knights at the same time, all brothers, and Sweet hour! for heavenly musing made, two Knights of the Garter, of this family! and the When Isaac walked and Daniel prayed ; same king employed Sir Anthony to assist in the ex
Whem Abram's offering God did own, ecution of his will, for which he bequeathed him a
And Jesus loved to be alone. -Rev. H. F. LYTE.
WINGFIELD CASTLE, IN SUFFOLK.
(LONDON: Published by JOAN W. PARKER, WEST STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers.