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UN DER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
THE GREEK ISLANDS
of Vespasian the island was incorporated with the
Roman empire, and governed as a Roman province 1. RHODES.
by a Prætor. There are few portions of the earth so attractive, in The beauty of the ancient city is loudly celebrated; many points of view, as those scattered fragments, the architect who built it is the same who raised the which have been commonly spoken of, though with walls of the Piræus at Athens. The geographer little regard to geographical precision, as the “Greek Strabo, who was a great traveller, and who had Islands.” The beauty of their climate, the loveliness visited most of the large cities of the Roman world, of their scenery, the high renown which attached to gives the preference to Rhodes above them all; "the them in ancient times, and their fallen condition at beauty of its ports,” he says, “its streets, its walls, the present day, unite in rendering them objects of and the splendour of its monuments, place it so great delight both to the senses and the imagination much above others, that none of them can compare of men. Among them all there is no one possessing with it.” Aristides the sophist, who lived more than those sources of interest in a higher degree than two centuries afterwards, speaks of its magnificence Rhodes. During many years that little island was in glowing terms; he calls it the only city of which the seat of a republic as flourishing as any that it could be said that it was fortified like a castle and antiquity can boast of-one which long enjoyed the decorated like a palace. In the days of its prosperity
empire of the sea, and often withstood the enmity of it is said to have been adorned with 3000 statues, • powerful states—which was governed by laws of and upwards of a hundred colossal figures; of the
such wisdom that they were proverbial for excellence, latter there was one which was regarded as among and were afterwards embodied (at least one branch the Seven Wonders of the World, and which bore of them) in the jurisprudence of the Roman empire; the distinguishing appellation of " the Colossus of which, in short, occupied a station of pre-eminence Rhodes." It was erected upon the departure of alike in arms, in arts, and in sciences. Not less in. Demetrius, when he raised the siege which he had teresting is it in its modern history, especially in the so long carried on against the city, and the cost of eyes of a Christian people. Scarcely more than three it was defrayed out of the funds derived from the centuries have elapsed, since it ceased to be the property which he left behind him on that occasion. residence of those valiant warriors,—the Knights The Roman writer Pliny, after enumerating the Hospitallers of St. John, who after combating so most famous colossi of antiquity, tells us that none generously, but without success, in the Holy Land, of them approached to that which stood at Rhodes, betook themselves to Rhodes, and for two hundred and was consecrated to the sun, the tutelar deity of years stoutly held the island as one of the bulwarks the island. It was, according to his account, the of Christendom against the inroads of the Moham- work of Chares of Lindus (one of the cities of medans.
Rhodes), a pupil of Lysippus; its height was seventy Geographically speaking, Rhodes is an Asiatic cubits, (about 105 feet,) the cost of its erection three island, being situated about twenty miles from the hundred talents, (about 70,0001.), and the time consouth-western coast of Asia Minor, or Natolia. The sumed in it twelve years. Fifty-six years after its ancients included it, with all the other islands lying completion, (224 b.c.,) this statue was thrown down along the western shores of that continent, under by an earthquake, and in Pliny's time it was still the term Sporades, or the “Scattered,” in a sort of lying on the ground, quite a wonder to behold. Few contradistinction to the Cyclades, or the “Circled," persons, he says, could embrace the thumb, and the which were grouped irregularly round Delos as about fingers were longer than the bodies of most statues; a centre; and they regarded it as holding the first through the fractures were seen huge cavities in the rank among the whole number in point of natural interior, in which immense stones had been placed to advantages.
balance it while standing. The capital of this island, -"the City of the Sun," We have no particular account in any ancient as it was poetically called, was founded during the writer of the ornaments or position of this Colossus ; famous Peloponnesian War, rather more than four " and it is most probably," says the Rev. Mr. hundred years before the Christian æra. Scarcely a Smediey, in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana, “ to the century after its erection it was besieged by Deme. imaginations of Vigenaire and Du Choul, two antitrius, who had been surnamed, on account of his quaries of the sixteenth century, that we may refer military talents and successes, Poliorcetes, or the the stride of fifty feet from rock to rock—the vessels “ Town-destroyer." This celebrated general exerted which passed under it in full sail—the blazing lamp all the efforts of his skill in endeavouring to make in its right hand—the internal spiral staircase leadhimself master of the city; yet in spite of his ing to its summit-and the glass suspended round numerous army-his novel and powerful engines, the neck, in which ships might be discerned as far and among them an immense helepolis, or town- off as the coast of Egypt.” taker, which required 30,000 men to put it into After the overthrow of the Colossus, there was a operation—he was obliged to abandon the attempt great desire on the part of all but the Rhodians them. and depart, leaving behind him as a boon to the in- selves to restore it. · All Greece, and even the king of habitants, property to the value of 300 attic talents, Egypt, offered to contribute large sums towards the (about £70,000.) More than two centuries after- accomplishment of that object; but the Rhodians wards, the Asiatic king, Mithridates, was similarly declined to rebuild it, alleging that they were forbidden baffled, and Rhodes enjoyed the high renown of by an oracle so to do; and the fragments lay scattereri defeating a monarch who had conquered all the other on the ground until the Saracens became masters of islands of Asia Minor, and even the whole of that the island, a period of nearly nine hundred years. continent itself. Less fortunate, however, was its the year 655, one of the officers of the Kaliph Othman resistance to the Roman arms; during the Civil War collected the valuable materials, and sold them to a it was captured by Cassius (or rather traitorously Jewish merchant of Edessa; and the purchaser is yielded to him), and by þim it was despoiled of said to have laden nine hundred camels with the treasure to the amount of nearly 2,000,0001. of our brass which they furnished him. money. Its independence was restored by Antony, The decline of Rhodes is dated by the French but retained for only a short while; in the reign traveller Savary, from the time of its incorporatiou
with the empire as a Roman province: “from that repair its weaknesses as far as possible, and to make moment," he says, “its fortune and its riches vanished, preparations, as well for preventing the approach of and it became simply one of the beautiful isles of the the enemy, as for receiving them when they had come. Archipelago.' In the division of the empire it was When the Turkish commandant saw the effect of assigned to the Eastern or Greek throne; and in the his batteries upon the tower, he resolved to assault it reign of Constans it passed for a while under the by the breach which they had made. Early on the dominion of the Saracens. In the fourteenth century, morning of the day appointed, his troops advanced while under the nominal rule of the Emperor Andro- in their galleys towards the mole on which the fort nicus, it was seized by the Knights of St. John of stood; after the Turkish fashion they began to raise Jerusalem, wło had been recently expelled from the a tremendous uproar, "crying out and invoking their Holy Land; and for upwards of two hundred years Mahomet," as is recorded by an eye-witness, one it continued to be the residence of those renowned Merri Dupui, "and making a great noise, and horriwarriors. In 1480, it repelled the arms of Mahomet ble and frightful sounds, with large drums, gitterns, the Second, the conqueror of Constantinople; but in and rude viols, and other instruments, often shouting 1522, it yielded to the overpowering force of Sultan all together in such a manner, that it seemed as if the Solyman, after its valiant defenders had been destroyed heavens were falling amidst the firing of cannons rather than vanquished. Since that time it has re- and bombards.” Thus they approached the tower mained under the Turkish crown.
and mole in such a manner that “it was a thing Both the island and city of our days exhibit a horrible, marvellous, and frightful, to hear their melancholy contrast with those of ancient times. approach.” But the knights were nothing daunted The circuit of the modern city is scarcely a fourth of by this display; and they received the enemy that of its predecessor. “It requires," says Mr. well and so valiantly, and with such good courage, Turner, “ about one hour to walk round the walls of and served them so very well, and so very closely, and the city, which remain nearly entire, with a trench so effectively, with bombards, and serpentines, and about seventy feet wide, now dry. I was astonished stones, and blows, that they made them in truth to see the walls generally not more than two bricks hastily recoil and return, forcing them and driving thick: a hole for musketry in the shape of the them backwards well and valiantly." This vigorous kuights' cross, is very frequent in them. The city is reception was decisive, so that in the words of our surrounded by a hurying-ground, about an hour and chronicler, “ these accursed Turks and Infidels took a half in circuit; and on the border of this are the themselves off and went back again for this time, all suburbs, which are truly beautiful, being built on the affrighted and disheartened." rise of mountains that surround the city, and con The Turkish leader then attacked the body of the sisting of good stone houses, of which every one city, but meeting with no better success, he returned has its garden in a flourishing state of vegetation, to the prosecution of his original plan, and renewed abounding in orange, lemon, apricot, mulberry, olive, his attempts upon the Tower of St. Nicholas. One and fig trees, vines, &c." At the time of this gentle- obstacle to his success was the narrow channel which man's visit, one-half of the houses were in ruins, or intervened between the mole and the Turkish position; uninhabited; the rapacity of the government com and the consequent inconvenience of conveying the pelled the people to fly to the neighbouring continent, troops across it in boats. To obviate this, a sort of in the hope of finding a milder one.
moveable bridge was constructed; and in order to The building represented in our engraving is the bring the one end of it up to the mole, a Turkish Tower of St. Nicholas, which stands at the end of engineer, under cover of the night, conveyed an a mole on one side of the great harbour. It was anchor across and fixed it to a rock beneath the built in 1461, in anticipation of the attacks of the surface of the water. He carried with him also a Turkish Sultan, Mahomet the Second; and Philip stout cable, which had one of its ends fixed to the Duke of Burgundy contributed 12,000 golden crowns bridge; and passing the other end through the ring towards the cost of its erection. Like the rest of the of the anchor, he brought it back to be fastened to a fortifications of the city, it was in a state of ruin capstan which the Turks had provided on their side when it fell into the hands of the Turks ; but the of the channel, and by the aid of which they expected conquerors soon rebuilt it, giving to it the name of to haul their machine up to the point where the St. John, by which they still call it. The events of anchor was fixed. the two sieges which the knights were called upon to It happened, however, that an English sailor, whose sustain against the Turks, showed the wisdom of name was Gervase Roger, for “ history” says the those who had added this tower to the fortifications Abbé de Vertot,“ has not disdained to preserve to of the city.
us his name," was by chance upon the spot at the In the siege of 1480, the Turkish commandant at time, and unseen himself, was enabled to observe the first directed his principal efforts against it, being operations of the ingenious Turk. Having allowed assured by a renegade German, who was the chief | him to depart, the seaman plunged at once into the counsellor of his operations, that if he could once water, detached the cable and laid it quietly upon the carry that point, he might fairly hope to secure bank, then took up the anchor, and carried it to the possession of the harbour, and of the city. Three Grand Master, who of course suitably rewarded tremendous cannons-not ordinary pieces of artillery, hin). The unconscious Turks, having got their but engines eighteen feet in length, and carrying bridge quite ready, began hauling with their capstan, stone bullets of from two to three feet in diameter, but to their great surprise hauled nothing but their were turned against its walls; and though more than own rope back to themselves; they perceived, of 300 terrible discharges were insufficient to make an course, that their scheme had been discovered and impression on the ramparts facing the sea, they suc- frustrated. ceeded in reducing to ruins those which looked The Turks then ceased their efforts against the towards the land. The Grand Master, whose name Tower of St. Nicholas, and were soon afterwards was Pierre D'Aubusson, knowing full well that the compelled to desist from all attempts upon the body safety of the city depended upon the preservation of of the city. this tower, caused a chosen band of the knights to In the subsequent siege undertaken by Sultan pass into it, and set themselves vigorously to work to Solyman, in the year 1522, the Tower of St. Nicholas
THE CHIGGA, (Pulex penetrans.) was still deemed the most important point of the fortifications as the key, indeed, of Rhodes; and its Tais annoying little insect belongs to the same tribe defence was intrusted to a brave knight of Provence, as the common flea, but its habits render it much Guyot de Castellane by name, who had under him mure injurious. It is a great pest in our sugar twenty brethren of the order, and three hundred colonies, particularly to the Negroes, who go bareinfantry soldiers. The Turks, however, directed their attack chiefly upon the body of the city; only one serious attempt was made upon this fort. The Vizier Achmet turned twelve of his largest cannon against it; but he found the fire of the besieged more effective than his own, and had the mortification of seeing his guns dismounted by the artillery from the tower. He adopted the expedient of battering only in the night-time, and burying his guns in the earth during the day; five hundred of these nocturnal discharges were sufficient to destroy the western rampart, and to inspire the Sultan with the hope of capturing the place on the first assault. But the footed. They insinuate themselves into the legs, the appearance
of a second fortified wall behind the ruins soles of the feet, or toes, and pierce the skin with of the first soon damped his expectations, and toge- such subtlety, that there is no being aware of them ther with the recollection of Mahomet's failure in the till they have made their way into the flesh. If they former siege, deterred him from making any further are perceived at the beginning they are extracted with attempt upon the tower. His attacks were thence- little pain, but if the head only has pierced through forward directed upon the body of the place, until the skin, an incision must be made before it can be he obtained possession of it.
taken out. If they are not soon perceived, they make their way through the skin, and take up their
lodging between that and the membrane that covers FIELD FLOWERS.
the muscles; and, sucking the blood, form a nidus, or FLOWERS of the field, how meet ye seem,
nest, covered with a white and fine skin, resembling Man's frailty to portray;
a flat pearl, and the insect is, as it were, enchased Blooming so fair in morning's beam,
on one of its faces, with its head and feet outwards,
For youth's unthinking brow;
What most he fears to know;
Ye breathe these truths severe,
Have ye no word of cheer ?
for the convenience of feeding, while the hinder part And death and life betoken well.
of the body is within the nidus, where it deposits its Go, then, where wrapt in fear and gloom, Fond hearts and true are sighing,
eggs; and as the number of these increases, the pidus And deck with emblematic bloom
enlarges, and continues to do so for four or five days. The pillow of the dying ;
There is now an absolute necessity for extracting it, And softly speak, nor speak in vain,
for otherwise it would burst of itself, and by that of your long sleep and broken chain.
means scatter an infinite number of germs or eggs, And say that He, who from the dust
which would soon be hatched, and undermine, as it Recalls the slumbering flower
were, the whole foot. The extraction of these vermin Will surely visit those who trust His mercy and His power ;
causes extreme pain, as they at times penetrate even Will mark where sleeps their peaceful clay,
the bone ; and the pain, even after the foot is cleared And roll, ere long, the stone away.
of them, lasts for a considerable time. Blackwood's Magazine.
The manner of extracting this troublesome insect is both tedious and painful. The flesh near to
the membrane in wbich the eggs of the ipsect are SABBATH SONNET.
lodged, is separated with the point of a needle, and these eggs so tenaciously adhere to the flesh and this
membrane, that to complete the operation without How many blessed groups this hour are bending Through England's primrose-meadow paths their way,
bursting the membrane, or putting the patient to Toward spire and tower, ʼmidst shadowy elms ascending,
acute pain, is very difficult; if, unfortunately, the Whence the sweet chimes proclaim the hallowed day.
little bag should burst, the greatest care must be The stalis from old heroic ages gray,
taken to remove any of the eggs that remain in the Pour their fair children forth: and hamlets low,
wound, or before it is healed there will be a new With whose thick orchard-blooms the soft winds play, Send out their inmates in a happy flow,
brood further within the flesh, which will be much Like a freed vernal stream. I may not tread
more painful and difficult of cure than the first. With them those pathways,—to the feverislı bed
This insect is a great pest to many animals, parOf sickness bound; yet, O my God! I bless
ticularly the hog, on which it preys with such voraThy mercy, that with Sabbath peace liath filled
city, that when their feet are scalded after they are My chastened heart, and all its throbbings stilled
killed, they are found full of cavities made by this To one deep calm of lowligst thankfulness,
COMPOSED BY MRS. IEMANS A FEW DAYS BEFORE HER DEATH, AND
DEDICATED TO HER BROTHER,
countries; and from the numerous ceremonies of the Natural Order, Siliquosr or Cruciformes. Crucifera, Juss. A Gengs of the
Romans performed to prevent the effects of enchantTetradynamia Siliculisa Class.
ment, we learn how much it occupied their attention. Then sprinkles she the juice of rue,
The prince of the Latin poets says in the Æneid-
For Circe had long loved the youth in vain
Till love, refused, converted to disdain :
Then mixing pow'rful herbs, with magic art,
She changed his form, who could not change his heart; beauty of its lilac corallas, and the singularity of its Constrain'd him in a bird, and made him fly, seed vessels, was held in high repute among the
With party-colourd plumes, a chatı’ring pie. credulous of former ages, being considered a charming, The art of magic was for many ages publicly proenchanting, and bewitching herb. It still continues to fessed in the universities of Salamanca in Spain, give a charming effect to the gardens, but its mys- Cracow in Poland, and several other places. We terious powers are no longer known, for it has shared read of some sovereigns who have entered into this the fate of numerous other magical plants, which cheat. Erricus, King of Sweden, had his enchanted enabled the people of old to transform themselves cap, and pretended by the additional assistance of into aërial beings, and even to travel through the air some magical jargon, to be able to command spirits, in their natural shapes. We read of numerous plants to trouble the air, and to turn the winds themselves, whereby it was said that love or hatred could be so that when a great storm arose, his ignorant subengendered, lost property recovered, men's secrets jects believed that the king had got his conjuring-cap sucked out, and by whose aid battles were won and on; and from this fact originated the custom of our lost, and even the dead brought to life.
mountebanks and legerdemain-men playing their For by his mighty science he could take
tricks in a conjuring-cap. As many forms and shapes in seeming wise, As ever Proteus to himseli could make :
In the year 1318, we find the Chancellor and UniSometimes a fowl, sometimes a fish in lake!
versity of Paris had both wisdom and spirit enough, Now like a fox, now like a dragon fell;
not only to condemn these cheats, but as far as their That of himself he oft for fear would quake, And oft would fly away. () who can tell
influence extended to put a stop to the practice; and The hidden power of herbs, and might of magic spell! the University of Oxford disavowed all faith in these We learn from Chaucer that the Lunaria was one of pretended divinations about the same time. the plants used in incantations, but it is not mentioned
That there should exist in this enlightened age, under the name of Honesty, but “ Lunarie.”
persons who profess to believe in the power of magic, Spenser, quoted above, tells us that even the witches is a convincing proof how much the marvellous is themselves could not escape penance :
preferred by the ignorant to true philosophy. The When witches wont do penance for their crime,
persons who now pretend to the art of magic, are I chanc'd to see her in her proper hue,
knaves, who cheat the credulous for the sake of Bathing herself in origane and thyme:
gain, and impose upon others what they do not As we prefer relating the wonders of magic in verse, believe themselves. Private astrologers, who do not we shall further quote the same author :
make a trade of their art, are, if not fools, persons The dev'lish hag, by changes of my chear,
whose weak minds are so susceptible as to mistake Perceiv'd my thoughts; and drownd in sleepy night, With wicked herbs and ointments did besmear
the phantoms of their imaginations for realities. We My body, all through charms and magic might,
lately knew an instance of this in a person not only That all my senses were bereaved quiie.
considered sane on other subjects, but who actually The same poet shows us that, in superstitious times, held a respectable rank in his profession. He the magician was called in as well as the physician : became bent upon raising a spirit, and with this Beseeching him with prayer, and with praise,
view he procured the herbs and drugs recommended If either salves, or oils, or herbs, or charms,
for magical purposes, and shut himself up in a room A foredone wight from door of death mote raise, He would at her request prolong her nephew's days.
in the dead of the night. Here he began to burn That such idcas actually occupied the minds of men
his herbs, and to make the mysterious figures directed in unenlightened days, we have numerous authentic by his book, until his imagination was worked up to accounts related in history; and that what is strongly such a pitch that one object was easily transformed impressed upon the minds of the ignorant, should, in into the appearance of another, to which the fumes of some degree affect the learned, is not so wonderful,
aromatic smoke no doubt greatly contributed. His as it is difficult to shake off the prejudices of the age servant, knowing that his master studied magic, and we live in: of this we have a striking example in the finding great preparations for some secret performcapacious mind of the great Bacon*, who in his ance, had, with a very natural curiosity, contrived to Natural History acknowledges his belief in witches.
secrete himself in the room, instead of retiring to Yet we do not consider him capable of consulting bed; but when the lights were extinguished, and the magicians or wizards; but it would have been scarcely coloured flame of burning drugs threw a ghastly possible to have escaped the prevailing opinion, in an
hue over the apartment and the countenance of his age when numcrous persons openly professed the art
master, he became so possessed by fear, and influof magic, and almost every deformed and ugly old
enced by the fumes of the drugs, that at the moment woman was persecuted as a witch. Even in later when his master expected to see a spectre, he being times than those of the celebrated Chancellor, a firm
no longer able to contain himself, rose up slowly, belief in witchcraft seems to have possessed the minds and forgetting he was under a table, threw it over. of the nation; for Butler relates that a fellow in the In this confusion, his eyes caught the reflection of reign of Charles the First, obtained a celebrity by de
his own face in a glass, to which the burning salts tecting witches, and actually caused the death of nearly had given such a cadaverous appearance, that missixty poor old creatures on charges of witchcraft f. taking his own reflection for a supernatural agent,
The fear of evil spirits, and the power of magic, he leaped upon a grand piano-forte, and broke it seem to have prevailed over all nations before man
in with a tremendous crash. This heightened the kind was blessed by the light of revelation. The
fears of both master and man. The master, believing Scriptures inform us of its existence in eastern he had raised a spirit which he could not lay, rushed
out of the room, which gave the man an opportunity • See Saturday Magazine, Vol. Vl., p. 247. + See Saturday Magazine, Vol. VI., p. 131.
to escape to his bed, where he became fevered and