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of weighing one of these counters against a pebble The cutting the facets on the surface of the rough of equal size, and having done so, he found that stone is a work of labour and skill; the polishing is the weight of the one considerably exceeded that performed in a mill, which is an extremely simple of the other. He then tried to make an impres-machine. sion on one by rubbing it on a stone with water, Diamonds are cut (generally on account of the but it resisted all his efforts, while a flat surface shape of the rough stone) in various ways, and was produced on the pebble by the labour of a assume different names in consequence; as a brilliant, few minutes. He sent a handful of these counters a rose, a table, and a lasque diamond : of these the by a friend, to Lisbon, for the purpose of having brilliant is the most splendid, from the brilliancy and them examined; these were given to the lapidaries number of its reflections and refractions. (who never work diamonds, and, perhaps, had We shall close this article with an account of some never seen one in its native state); they could of the largest known diamonds. only say the stones were too hard for their tools.

The Pitt, or Regent Diamond, is said to have been At length, by mere accident, the Dutch consul saw found in Malacca; it was them, and gave his opinion that they were diamonds. purchased by Thomas Pitt, Some were immediately forwarded to Holland, where Esq.t, when governor of St. they were manufactured into brilliants, and pro- George, in the East Indies, nounced to be diamonds equal in quality to those in the reign of Queen Anne, from Golconda or any other part of India. The re for 20,4001., and weighed, turning fleet carried this favourable news to Rio de when raw, 410 carats I, and Janeiro, whence it was rapidly communicated to the when cut 136] carats. It was interior, and fortunate was the man who could pro- brought to London, cut as cure a large share of these hitherto pretty pebbles, a brilliant, and sold to the Duke of Orleans for but now diamonds. They were quickly bought up, the King of France, in 1717, for 135,0001. ; 50001. and the counters which had for a year or two been were spent in the negotiation, &c., the cutting occucarelessly handed about, became the property of pied two years, and is said to have cost 30001. ; the three or four individuals in as many days.”

fragments were worth several thousands, and the The art of cutting, splitting, sawing, or polishing diamond has since been valued at 400,0001. Buonadiamonds requires great skill, practice, and patience. parte placed it in the hilt of his sword. It is still " It is seldom," says Mr. Mawe, “that the same work preserved among the jewels of France. man is a proficient in all these branches, but he gene The Pigott Diamond weighs rally confines himself to one. In cutting and polishing 49 carats, and is valued at a diamond, the workman has two objects in view; first, 40,0001. About twenty years to remove any flaws or imperfections that may exist ago it was disposed of by lottery, in the stone, and secondly, to divide its surface into and became the property of a a number of regularly-shaped polygons. The re- young man, who sold it at a low moval of flaws seems to be the most material object, price. It is said to have been since the smallest speck in some particular parts of lately sold to the Pacha of Egypt for 30,0001. the stone is infinitely multiplied by reflection from The Austrian Diamond weighs above 1394 carats. It the numerous polished surfaces of the gem.

belongs to the Emperor of Austria, and was formerly "When the shape of the rough stone is particularly in the possession of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. unfavourable, the workman has to resort to the hazardous operation of splitting. The rule by which the proper place is discovered at which to apply the requisite force is made a great mystery of : but, perhaps, like many other mechanical arts, it depends as much on the dexterity acquired by constant practice, as on scientific knowledge ; and in that case the workman himself, although a perfect adept in his business, would find himself unable to impart the knowledge he was in possession of.

“ When the direction in which it is to be split is The Nassuc Diamond weighs 79 carats 2 grains. decided on, it is marked by a line cut with a sharp* : It was among the spoils taken during the Mahratta the stone is afterwards fixed by strong cement in the war, and is valued at 30,0001. It is a diamond of great proper position in a stick, and then by the application purity, but of bad form. of a splilling-knife, the section is effected by the ap

The Grand Russian Diamond plication of a smart blow."

is said to have been the eye of Sometimes, when the section must cross the crys

an Indian idol, and to have tallized structure of the gem, recourse must be had to been stolen from thence by a sawing; this is performed as follows.

French, some say an Irish, solThe diamond is cemented to a small block of dier, who sold it to the captain wood which is fixed firmly to a table, and a line is of a ship for 20001., and the made with a sharp where the division is intended captain again disposed of it in to take place, which is afterwards filled with diamond- Europe for 20,0001. At length powder and olive-oil : the sawing is then commenced, it fell into the hands of a merand if the stone is large, the labour of eight or ten chant, who sold it to Prince months is sometimes required to complete the Orloff, for the late Empress of Russia, Catherine, operation. The saw is made of fine brass or iron- for 90,0001. in cash, an annuity of 40001., and a wire, attached to the two ends of a piece of cane or patent of nobility. Its weight is 193 carats. whalebone, the tecth being formed by the particles [We are indebted for great part of the information contained in of diamond-powder, which become imbedded in the this account, to Mr. Mawe's curious Treatise on Diamonds and

Precious Stones.] wire as soon as it is applied to the line. • When a small diamond is broken into four parts, the edge of

+ Grandfather of the first and immortal Earl of Chatham. each quarter is called a sharp.

I A carat is equal to four grains.





FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF NATURAL | ration depends upon the temperature, so that if, on PHENOMENA.

the coldest day of winter, the air contains as much

moisture as possible, or is, as it is called, saturated No. XV. WATER IN THE STATE OF VAPOUR.

with vapour, it can then receive no more vapour, We are so accustomed to see water in a sensible unless its temperature is increased.

But as the form, either fluid or solid, as in rain, ice, hail, snow, temperature of the air increases, more and more fog, and the like, that every one is surprised when vapour may be mixed with it; yet still, as the heat he is made conscious, for the first time, that water of the air never exceeds a certain degree, the quantity may really be found in the condition of a perfectly of vapour also is limited. invisible vapour.

Yet, whoever has seen a bottle Such a limitation is quite necessary for the wellbrought out of a cellar in a warm day, or observed being of all plants and animals : either a perfectly the effect produced, when the windows of a carriage dry air, or an atmosphere which was overcharged with are first drawn up, and particularly persons wearing vapour, would be inconsistent with their existence in spectacles, the glasses of which are suddenly dimmed a state of health. As the atmosphere is now constiby steam upon entering a heated room, must have tuted, there is found in every part a certain quantity noticed enough to convince him that such is the case. of vapour, ready to make its presence sensible whenIn such instances, the colder surface of the glass ever any change of circumstances causes it to be condenses the vapour of water, previously invisible in condensed. the atmosphere, and thereby renders it sensible. Ali One of the most common effects thus produced is the great changes of sunshine, cloud, and storm,—the that of clouds. The well-known experiment, menvarious hues of the rising and setting sun,—the halos tioned above, of the condensation of vapour on a cold which occasionally surround the sun and moon,—are surface, such as glass, shows that if the temperature all influenced or occasioned by the vapour of water of the air be by any means lowered, the quantity of diffused throughout the atmosphere.

moisture which it will retain in the state of invisible The vapour of water, however, in its simplest form, vapour will be diminished. In cold weather, this is is perfectly invisible. It exists, as we have seen in a made very evident by the condensation of the breath previous number*, mixed with the other gaseous of animals. The air, which comes from the lungs, matters which compose the atmosphere, and diffused contains with it a quantity of watery vapour, which over all parts of the earth's surface. Every substance would be quite invisible if it were breathed out into which contains water is capable also of permitting an atmosphere of the same or nearly the same it to evaporate. Not only large masses of water, as temperature as that of the animal's body. But when seas, lakes, and rivers, as well as ice, but every the air is much colder, some of the vapour is portion of vegetation, all soils, even those which instantly condensed, and forms very small drops. appear the driest, are continually permitting some The same effect is seen on a large scale when the portion of watery vapour to escape from them. The steam is discharged from a steam-engine. Where, quantity of vapour in the atmosphere at any given then, any change takes place in the temperature of time is influenced by a variety of causes ; but the the atmosphere, from any cause, there is a probability presence of such a vapour is most important for many that the vapour in the atmosphere will be condensed, purposes. Dew, which is formed by the condensation and become visible. of the vapour of water upon the leaves and other Thus, suppose the air perfectly serene and clear, parts of plants t, affords nourishment to vegetation and that it contains in every part just as much vapour when no rain falls ; and a certain quantity of vapour as it is then capable of containing. If a stream of of water is essential to the health of man. In some colder air be now made to pass through a part of hospitals, when they were first warmed by heated air, this atmosphere, the temperature of the two portions it was found that the inmates suffered from their of air when united will be lower than that of the skin cracking and peeling off, as in very hot climates; first portion was before, and the vapour in it will be but the inconvenience was immediately removed, partially condensed, forming a cloud of greater or when vessels of water were placed in several parts of less density according to circumstances. the building, which, by evaporation, supplied the If the condensation goes on, the very small parrequisite quantity of moisture to the air.

ticles of water,—which float in the atmosphere, or, The quantity of evaporation going on constantly is after descending a little way, meet with a warmer far greater than is usually conceived. In a hard temperature and are again turned into invisible frost, a lump of ice or snow will be observed sensibly vapour,—will unite in drops of a sensible magnitude to diminish, especially if a brisk wind is blowing over and fall in rain. Should they meet with a still it. This is quite independent of the wasting of the greater degree of cold, the drops freeze in their frozen substance by thawing. In fact, snow or ice descent, and appear as hail: or, if the congelation may totally disappear, without any perceptible thaw, takes place while the particles of water are still very sinply by evaporation. It has been computed, from small, snow or sleet will be formed. actual experiment, that an acre of snow evaporates By the same means all the different appearances of four thousand gallons of water in twenty-four hours. fog and mist are occasioned. During the heat of All plants exhale vapour ; and some much more than a summer's day, evaporation goes on with great others. Thorn hedges exhale seven times as much rapidity, as has been already noticed, from water, as those of holly; and a cabbage perspires six or from all vegetable bodies, and even from the earth. seven times as much as a man from the same quantity But, at sunset, heat begins to be lost by radiation, of surface,

and some of the vapour is immediately perceptible, There is, however, a limit to the power of evapora- especially where evaporation has been most copious, tion ; and this limit is fixed by the temperature of as along a river, or over meadows. The course of a the climate. We are very imperfectly acquainted river may sometimes be distinctly traced for a long with all the causes which occasion the difference of distance, even when the water itself is not visible, by temperature in different places : but we know that the fine cloud formed by such congelation. there are certain extremes both of cold and heat On the other hand, when the atmosphere is charged which are not surpassed. Now the quantity of evapo- with visible moisture, an increase of heat converts See Saturday Magazine, Vol. V., pp. 103, 149, 236.

the water into invisible vapour.

A very beautiful Ibid. Vol. IV., p. 117.


instance of this effect is often seen in Autumn. At THE USEFUL ARTS. No. V I. sunrise, the whole atmosphere appears full of floating

SPICES AND OTHER CONDIMENTS. particles of water, forming a dense mist, the minute The term spices is applied to certain vegetable products drops of which are distinctly visible. As the sun

which are highly aromatic, or pungent, or both. In all rises above the horizon, the air is gradually warmed : ages, they have been much prized, and the earliest comthe fog begins to disperse, at first rising a little into mercial intercourse, of which we have any record, was the forms of clouds, but soon totally disappearing. chiefly carried on for the sake of these commodities. It

The causes which occasion many of the changes of was not solely as condiments to food that they were sought water from the state of vapour to a visible form, and after; spices were extensively used in religious rites and

in funeral ceremonies. the converse, are not well understood. Electrical

CINNAMON is the bark of a species of Laurel (Laurus Cinagency appears to be very active; and there are namomum) which grows in the south of the Indian Peninsula, probably many other causes. But what is here but abundantly only in the Island of Ceylon, where it is stated may be enough to show how many beneficial extensively cultivated. Upwards of 400,000 pounds of this consequences flow from the wise provision which is valuable produce are annually exported to Europe, and made for the extensive diffusion of water in the state Ceylon, either in the culture, or in the harvest. The tree

more than 25,000 persons, it is said, are engaged in of vapour.


attains a height of from twenty to thirty feet, with narrow leaves of a dark green on the upper, but lighter on the

under side. It blossoms in January*The flowers are There is nothing in history which is so improving to the fragrant, white, resembling, in size and form, those of the reader, as those accounts which we meet with of the deaths Lilac; they are borne in clusters on long stalks springing of eminent persons, and of their behaviour in that dreadful from the axilla of the leaves. The fruit is a small berry,

I may also add, that there are no parts in history which becomes, when it is ripe, a thin shell containing a which affect and please the reader in so sensible a manner. single seed. The plant sends up numerous suckers the The reason I take to be this, because there is no other single third or fourth year after it has been planted. These shoots circumstance in the story of any person which can possibly are cut when they become from half to three-quarters of an be the case of every one who reads it

. A battle or a triumph inch in diameter: the bark is stripped off and is freed from are conjunctures in which not one man in a million is likely the outermost skin or epidermis; the wood is used only for to be engaged; but when we see a person at the point of fuel. death, we cannot forbear being attentive to every thing he Mace and NUTMEG. The Nutmeg is the seed of the says or does, because we are sure that, some time or other, Myristica moschata, and Mace is a soft fleshy coat we shall ourselves be in the same melancholy circumstances. enveloping the seed; this coat is of a bright crimson colour, The general, the statesman, or the philosopher, are perhaps and as the fruit opens when it is ripe, the appearance of it characters which we may never act in; but the dying man on the tree is extremely pleasing. The plant is a native is one whom, sooner or later, we shall certainly resemble. — of the East Indian Archipelago; it is diæcious, and reAddison.

sembles the Laurel in its appearance. The seed has an

outer skin of a black colour, which is easily detached, when Let us at all times cherish in our minds an unrelaxing the seed is quite dry; artificial heat is employed to accelecertainty, that we shall always find the Almighty perfect rate this object, and to kill the vegetative power. The in his justice to us all, and in everything, and individually nutmeg yields, by pressure, an oil used in medicine. to each of us, as soon as we obtain sufficient knowledge of Cloves are the dried flower buds of the Caryophyllus his operations with respect to us. Let us wait with patience aromaticus, a large handsome tree of the myrtle tribe, and until what we do not perceive or cannot comprehend shall

a native also of the East Indian Archipelago. They are be satisfactorily elucidated to us. We expect this equity beaten from the tree when the calix, or cup, expands, but and consideration in our intercourse with each other. Let before the petals open; the former organ is easily recogus also so conduct ourselves, in all our thoughts and feelings nised in the spice, and the central round knob consists of with reference to Him, whatever may be his present or

the unexpanded petals, and not of the fruit, as is erronefuture dispensations personally to ourselves.-TURNER. ously supposed. Upwards of 50,000 lbs. are annually con

sumed in Britain. Cloves yield abundance of essential

oil, of a strong pungent aromatic flavour, to which that of INSENSIBILITY, in return for acts of seeming, even of real, the spice is due. This oil is extracted either from the unkindness, is not required of us. But whilst we feel for fresh-gathered buds by pressure or by distillation : it is such acts, let our feelings be tempered with forbearance used in medicine. and kindness. Let not the sense of our own sufferings ALLSPICE derives its name from its scent and flavour render us peevish and morose. Let not our sense of neglect being supposed to embody those of several others, and for on the part of others induce us to judge of them with which it might be substituted. Allspice is the dried unripe harshness and severity. Let us be indulgent and compas- berry of a tree, a species of myrtle, which is a native of both sionate towards them. Let us seek for apologies for their the East and West Indies. The plant is known by the conduct. Let us be forward in endeavouring, to excuse name of Pimento, or Jamaica Pepper. them. And if, in the end, we must condemn them, let us PEPPER is a generic name of several different produclook for the cause of their delinquency, less in a defect of tions. Black and White Pepper are the dried seeds, kind intention, than in the weakness and errors of human ground to powder, of the Piper nigrum, a creeping plant nature. He who knoweth of what we are made, and hath of the equinoctial regions of Asia and America. The two learned, by what he himself suffered, the weakness and spices only differ in the latter being blanched by soaking frailty of our nature, hath thus taught us to make compas- | in water, and having the black skin rubbed off; but a great sionate allowances for our brethren, in consideration of its deal of White Pepper consists only of the inferior shrivelled manifold infirmities. Bishop MANT.

seeds, which, falling from the tree, have been blanched by exposure to the air and sun. Long Pepper is only a variety

of the common Pepper-tree, the racemes of the fruit being No obligation to justice does force a man to be cruel, or to closer, and are imported whole. use the sharpest sentence. A just man does justice to

CAYENNE PEPPER is made by_grinding the dried fruit every man and to every thing; and then, if he be also of the Capsicum baccatum, or "Bird-Pepper, a native of wise, he knows there is a debt of mercy and compassion both Indies. The fruit is a small fleshy capsule, of a brildue to the infirmities of man's nature; and that is to be liant scarlet, and of intense pungency, as every one knows paid : and he that is cruel and ungentle to a sinning per- from the pepper in question. There is a kind producing son, and does the worst to him, dies in his debt and is


small species, known by the name of chilies, which is unjust

. Pity, and forbearance, and long-sufferance, and the strongest in its perfect state, and which forms an imfair interpretation, and excusing our brother, and taking in portant ingredient in West India pickle. Though it is the the best sense, and passing the gentlest sentence, are as fruit which is used for making Cayenne pepper, yet the certainly our duty, and owing to every person that does seeds are equally, if not more, pungent. The plant is offend and can repent, as calling to account can be owing to the law, and are first to be paid; and he that does not so * That is, a little after Midsummer, the country being in the is an unjust person.--JEREMY TAYLOR.

Southern hemisphere.

common 'in our green and hot-houses, and even in this into proper vessels, which are half filled with water, on the climate the fruit is perfected, and is little inferior to that top of which the oil floats and is easily skimmed off. imported.

Where the process is carefully performed, the stone of It should be mentioned, that though so powerful a the berry is not broken when the fruit is first put into the stimulant, Cayenne pepper is considered more wholesome mill, the mill-stones being set wide enough apart to avoid than the common black pepper.

doing so, and the oil first drawn off is of superior quality. Ginger is the woody root of the Zingiber officinalis, a After all this is expressed, the mass, stones and all, is native of south-eastern Asia and the adjoining islands, and either returned to the mill and the stones are broken, or long since cultivated in the West Indies. The plant is the same effect is produced by mixing up the mass with nearly allied to the arrow-root tribe, and somewhat resembles boiling water and increasing the power of the press; by rethe Indian-shot. . The roots are sorted, washed, scraped, peating this operation, not only a second, but even a third and dried in the sun. The young roots make an excellent quality of oil is obtained. preserve, and a great deal is imported in that state. Ginger The best oil is made in the neighbourhood of Ais, in is a valuable medicine, and is as wholesome as so powerful France; that consumed in England is produced principally a stimulant can be.

in Tuscany or the kingdom of Naples, though a great deal MUSTARD is an infusion of the seeds ground to powaer is also brought from Spain, and some from the lonian of the Sinapis nigra, an indigenous plant, but also culti- islands. In our country, as an article of food, it is only a vated for the purpose. On the Continent it is usual to mix luxury used by the middling and upper classes, and ihe tarragon and several other herbs with mustard to flavour quantity consumed, therefore, is not great; about 5000 tons it; here it is generally only prepared with a little salt and annually being the average, of whichi a considerable quanwater, and perhaps some vinegar. It is an extremely tity is required in the woollen manufactures, and other wholesome condiment, and is also a most valuable medicine; arts; but in the countries which produce the olive, the oil the whole seeds have lately been used as such, and an infu- constitutes a large proportion, in some way or other, of the sion of the powdered mustard in hot water is a speedy and food of the people, and is an absolute necessary: Olive safe emetic. It is also used when applied externally in the oil is also employed to burn in lamps, an application of it form of a plaster, to excite inflammation.

which is forbidden by law in this country. To fit it for this Oils are a most important class of vegetable, as well as latter use, the oil of the inferior quality is mingled with animal, fluids. Vegetable oils are of two kinds,-fixed and about a fiftieth part in weight of strong sulphuric acid, and volatile, easily distinguished by the following obvious cha- water being added, the whole is well stirred together: in a racters: if a piece of paper be moistened with a fixed oil, few days a sediment of a charcoal settles to the bottom, and it becomes more transparent, or what we call greasy, and the oil is decanted off clear. never again loses that quality; whereas if a volatile oil The refuse of olives, after all the oil is obtained from it, be used in the same way, it dries up entirely after a time, is given to hogs to fatten them, is burnt as fuel, or used as leaving no trace behind it. The volatile oils are extremely a manure. The unripe fruit is also pickled in salt-water numerous; it is to them that most parts of plants owe their flavoured with some spíce, and is eaten after dinner by aroma, fragrance, pungency, and other properties affecting many persons in Britain, but much more abundantly on the taste and smell.

the Continent, to improve the flavour of certain wines. Fixed oils are obtained principally from the seeds by In other countries, many other oils besides that of the pressure. The only one that we have to notice here is olive are used for food; as for example, nut-oil, the oil of

Olive Oil. The Olive (Olea Europea) is extensively the filbert and of the beech; poppy-oil, rape-seed oil, oil of cultivated in the south of Europe, solely for the sake of the sesamum, and many others. Several of these are used in oil which is obtained from its fruit. This is a small green the arts in England, and will be subsequently noticed. oval berry, containing a hard stone in which are two seeds. The frui must be gathered a little before it is quite ripe; the olives are spread on the floor of a room, and left for Mustard SEED.—“ A grain of mustard seed" is said in

the parable to be “the smallest of all seeds; but when it is grown up, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof." The mustard of our own country is very far from answering this description : but there is in the East a species of sinapi, to which it, no doubt, alludes: it is called by Linnæus Sinapi crucoides. Ils branches are real wood, as appears from a specimen once in the collection of Sir Joseph Banks. Lightfoot, Buxtorf, and others, quote the Jewish Rabbies to the same effect, whose lestimony cannot be suspected of partiality to the New Testament. In the Talmud of Jerusalem it is said, "There was in Sichi a mustard-tree, which had three branches, one of which, being cut down), served to cover the hovel of a potter; and yielded three cabs of seed." The Rabbi Simeon says," he had in his garden a shoot of the mustardtree, on wbich he climbed as if on a fig-tree." These statements are, at least, suflicient to show that we should not form a judgment of castern herbs by those which are familiar among ourselves.


Wisdom and knowledge do not always go together There may be wisdom without knowledge, and knowleilge without wisdom. A man without knowledge, if he walk humbly with bis God, and live in charity with his neighbours, may be wise unto salvation. A man without wisdoin may not find his knowledge arail lim quite so well. But it is he who possesses both that is the true philosopher. The more he knows, the more he is desirous of kliowing; and yet the farther he advances in knowledge, the better le understands how little he can attain, and the more deeply he feels that God alone can satisfy the infinite desires of an immortal soul. To understand this is the beight and perfection of philosophy. The Doctor.


several days to dry and to ferment slightly: they are then crushed in a mill and the mass put into bags made of rushes or of coarse canvass, which being subjected to pressure in a screw press, the oil flows out and is received


Sold by all Cooksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingilcm.




[blocks in formation]

25TH, 1835.

PRICE One Penny.





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