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EXERCISE OF THE LUNGS.
spirations, speaking, reciting, singing, and playing on Judicious exercise of the lungs is one of the most wind instruments, is very influential for good or for efficacious means which we can employ for promoting evil, according as it is indulged in with or without due their development, and warding off their diseases. In reference to the constitution of the individual. If it is this respect the organs of respiration closely resemble properly managed, and persevered in, particularly bethe muscles and all other organised parts. They are fore the frame has become consolidated, nothing tends made to be used ; and if they are left in habitual in more to expand the chest, and give tone and health activity, their strength and health are unavoidably to the important organs contained in it; but, if either impaired; while, if their exercise be ill-timed or exces- ill-timed, or carried to excess, nothing can be more sive, disease will as certainly follow.
detrimental. As a preventive measure, Dr. Clarke The lungs may be exercised indirectly, hy such is in the habit of recommending the full expansion of kinds of bodily or muscular exercise as requires the chest in the following manner :-“We desire the quicker and deeper breathing; and directly, by the young person, while standing, to throw his arms and employment of the voice in speaking, reading aloud, shoulders back, and, while in this position, to inhale crying, or singing. In general, both ought to be slowly as much air as he can, and repeat this exercise conjoined: but when the chief object is to improve at short intervals, several times in succession: when the lungs, those kinds which have a tendency to this can be done in the open air, it is most desirable, expand the chest, and call the organs of respiration a double advantage being thus obtained by the pracinto play, ought to be especially preferred. Rowing tice. Some exercise of this kind should be adopted a boat, fencing, sł.uttlecock, and the proper use of daily by all young persons, more especially by those the skipping-rope, dumb-bells, and gymnastics, are of whose chests are narrow or deformed, and should be this description. All of them employ actively the slowly and gradually increased.” muscles of the chest and trunk, and excite the lungs For the same reason, the crying and sobbing of themselves to freer and fuller expansion. Climbing children contribute much to their future health, unup hill is, for the same reason, an exercise of high less they are caused by disease, and carried to a very utility, in giving tone and freedom to the pulmonary unusual excess. The loud laugh, and noisy exclamafunctions.
tions attending the sports of the young, have an When, either from hereditary predisposition, or evident relation to the same bcneficial end, and accidental causes, the chest is unusually weak, every ought, therefore, to be encouraged, instead of being effort should be made, from infancy upwards, to repressed, as they are often sought to be, by those favour the growth and strength of the lungs, by the who, having forgotten that they themselves were once habitual use of such of the above-mentioned exercises young, seek in childhood the gravity and decorum of as can be most readily practised. The earlier they more advanced age. are resorted to, and the more steadily they are pur Beneficial as the direct exercise of the lungs is sued, the more certainly will their beneficial results thus shown to be, in strengthening the chest, its inbe experienced
Auence extends still further. The stimulus thence Habitual exercise in a hilly country, and the fre. arising is, in truth, essential to the healthy performquent ascent of acclivities, especially in pursuit of an ance of the digestive functions, and is one of the object, are well known to have a powerful effect in means arranged by the Creator for the purpose. improving the wind, and strengthening the lungs, which consequently, if the lungs be rarely called into is just another way of saying that they increase the active exercise, not only do they suffer, but an im. capacity of the chest, promote free circulation through portant condition of digestion being withdrawn, the the pulmonary vessels, and lead to the more complete stomach and bowels also become weakened, and indioxygenation of the blood. Hence the vigorous appe- gestion and its consequences make their appearance. tite, the increased muscular power, and cheerfulness Reading aloud, public speaking, and lecturing, are of mind, so commonly felt by the invalid, on his excellent exercises for developing the lungs and the removal to the mountains, are not to be wondered at. chest. But, as they require some exertion, they
Before such practices, however, can be resorted to ought to be indulged in with prudence, and with with advantage, or even with safety, there must be constant reference to the constitution and health of nothing in the shape of active disease existing. If the individual. When early resorted to, and steadily there be, the adoption of such exercise will, in all persevered in, they are very useful in warding of probability, occasion the most serious injury. The disease, and communicating strength to an important advantage of these exercises, in giving tone and capa- function. But when begun suddenly, and carried to city to the lungs, where debility, rather than disease, excess by persons of weak lungs, they are more is complained of, is shown in their being regularly directly injurious than almost any other cause. resorted to in preparing for the race-course and for When disease of any kind exists in the chest, the the field.
The true sportsman puts himself in train- exercise of the lungs in speaking, reading, and singing, as well as his dog or his horse, and fits himself ing, and also in ordinary muscular exertion, ought for the moors by regular excursions previous to the either to be entirely refrained from, or strictly regu12th of August. By so doing, he improves his wind, lated by professional advice. When a joint is sore and increases his muscular strength to a remarkable or inflamed, we know that motion impedes its extent, in a very short time.
recovery. When the eye is affected, we, for a When no active pulmonary disease exists, these similar reason, shut out the light; and when the exercises may, with the best effects, be frequently stomach is disordered, we have respect to its concarried so far as to induce free perspiration ; only dition, and become more careful about diet. The great care ought to be taken immediately after to rub lungs demand a treatment, founded on the same the surface of the body thoroughly dry, and to change general principle. If they are inflamed, they must the dress. It is quite ascertained, that, with these not be exercised, otherwise mischief will ensue. precautions, perspiration from exercise is the reverse Hence, in a common cold of any severity, silence, of debilitating. It equalizes and gently stimulates which is the absence of direct pulmonary exercise, the circulation, relieves the internal organs, improves ought to be preserved, and will, in truth, be its own digestion, and invigorates the skin.
reward. In severe cases, and in acute inflammation Direct exercise of the lungs, in praetising deep in. of the chest, this rule is of the greatest importance.
It is common to meet with patients who cannot speak
THE USEFUL ARTS. No. XIV. three words without exciting a fit of coughing, and THE ANIMALS, AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS who, notwithstanding, cannot be persuaded that
EMPLOYED AS FOOD BY MAN. speaking retards their recovery. In like manner, in GENERAL ENUMERATION OF ANIMALS.-Cooking.--The spitting of blood, and in the early stage of tubercular
OX KIND.-THE SHEEP-SALT. consumption, when the breathing cannot be excited The number of species of animals which man consumes without direct mischief, it is often difficult to convince for food are hardly less numerous than those of the vegethe patient of the necessity of silence. He perhaps tables, of the nineteen classes into which the former
natural kingdom is divided, eight or nine contribute to the does not feel pain on attempting to speak, and says
regular sustenance of the most refined and civilized nations; that "it merely raises a short tickling cough, which
and some species of all classes are either habitually eaten is nothing." But if he persists, dearly-bought ex by savage tribes of different countries, or, at least, are occaperience will teach him his error.
sionally had recourse to under peculiar circumstances; as, All violent exercise ought, for similar reasons, to for instance, during a scarcity. The digestive powers of be refrained from, during, at least, the active stages
the human stomach are nearly unlimited, and it is comof cold. Everything which hurries the breathing, monly deficiency in quantity rather than the quality of the whether walking fast, ascending an acclivity,or reading shall here, however, only enumerate the animals which are
animal substance, that causes disease or mortality. We aloud, has the same effect on the diseased lungs that ordinarily consumed by the cultivated nations of Europe motion of the bone has on an inflamed joint. Many and America, and shall arrange them according to the persons hurt themselves much more by the active classification of the naturalist. exercise they take during a severe cold, than by the
Of the class MAMMALIA, the most important order to
man, in this point of view, is, and from the earliest ages has mere exposure to the weather. A person, when
been, that of the Ruminating Animals, comprising the Ox, suffering from cold, may go out for a short time, even
the Sheep, the Goat, and Deer of all kinds. in an open carriage, more safely than on foot.
The Hog and its congeners, belonging to the order After all active disease has been subdued, or when Pachydermata (thick skinned), rank next. nothing but delicacy remains, the adequate exercise The Bear is the only genus of carnivorous animals which of the lungs is one of the best means of promoting furnishes a species eaten by Europeans. That species, effectual recovery.
Those parents, therefore, act the Brown Bear of Russia and Northern Europe, is an most erroneously, who, in their apprehensive anxiety | ticular parts which are on some occasions eaten. In China,
herbivorous quadruped,--and of this animal, it is only parfor the protection of their delicate children, scrupu
indeed, the poor do habitually eat Dogs; and even Cats and lously prohibit them from every kind of exercise Wolves are said to be eaten in some parts of Europe ; but which requires the least effort, and shut them up these are cases of scarcity of food in proportion to popufrom the open air during Winter, with the false hope lation, which we have already excepted from our view of of thereby warding off colds, and protecting their the subject. lungs.
Hares and Rabbits belong to the order Rodentia (GnawThe greatest delicacy of constitution has
ers), as do also the Marmot, Cavi, Guinea-pig, Kangaroo, been thus engendered, especially when an undue
Jerboa, &c. &c., which are occasionally consumed by our quantity of warm clothing was employed.
colonists in different quarters of the globe. (Combe's Physiology applied to Health.)
The number of genera of Birds, of which species are eaten, is very great. The order Gallinæ, corresponds to the Ruminantia in importance, since it embraces the Domestic
Fowl, the Turkey, Guinea-Hen, Pheasant, Partridge, BlackWHAT IS THAT, MOTHER?
Cock, Peacock, Grouse, &c. Next ranks that of Palmipedes
(Web-footed), containing the Swan, Goose, Duck, Widgeon, What is that, mother? The lark, my child.
Teal, &c. &c. Snipes, Woodcocks, &c., belong to the order
Gralle. These are all that need be mentioned.
of Reptiles, the Turtle is interesting to two very oppoAnd is up and away, with the dew on his breast,
site sorts of persons: namely, seamen, to whom it a luxury
in the absence of other fresh meat, and epicures, to whom And a hymn in his heart, to yon pure, bright sphere, To warble it out in his Maker's ear.
it is always a luxury. With these exceptions, this class fur
nishes no food to civilized nations. Ever, my child, be thy morn's first lays Tuned, like the lark's, to thy Maker's praise.
It is far otherwise with Fish: the number of species
which contribute to our diet is greater than that of any What is that, mother?
other class, and vary as much in magnitude, as in form and The dove, my son.
habits. From the Sturgeon to the White-bait-from the And that low, sweet voice, like a widow's moan,
Plaice and Halibut to the Eel, the ocean, rivers, lakes, and Is flowing out from her gentle breast,
rivulets, are ransacked for this invaluable and inexhaustible Constant and pure by that lonely nest,
kind of food. As the wave is poured from some crystal urn,
The Oyster, Cockle, Muscle, Whelk, and a few others, are For her distant dear one's quick retune
all the Molluscous animals that fall under our notice; Ever, my son, be thou like the dove,
Crabs, Lobsters, Crawfish, Crayfish, Shrimps, Prawns, &c., In friendship as faithful, as constant in love.
are furnished by the class TESTACEA, and conclude our What is that, mother ?
catalogue. The eagle, boy,
The tlesh of animals is greatly influenced by their mode Proudly careering his course of joy,
of life, the quantity of exercise which they take, and even by Firm in his own mountain vigour relying,
the mode in which they are killed to serve us for food. The Breasting the dark storm, the red bolt defying;
tlesh of wild animals is in a healthier state, more abundant His wing on the wind, and his eye on the sun,
in the various nutritive principles, and these are more He swerves not a hair, but bears onward, right on.
equally distributed, than that of domesticated animals; but, Boy, may the eagle's flight ever be thine,
at the same time, the former is tougher, or more fibrous and Onward and upward, true to the line.
sinewy. These qualities are somewhat modified by violent
exercise just before death; and hence it is a fact, that What is that, mother?
game is hunted, the quality of the meat is imThe swan, my love.
proved. Hence, too, the reason why wild birds are more IIe is floating down from his native grove,
flavoured, and in every respect better, than fowls kept in No loved one now, no nestling nigh;
yards or coops. IIe is floating down by himself to die;
Fish, as has been stated, is an excellent food, provided Death darkens his eye, and unplumes his wings,
there is enough of it; but shell-fish, of all kinds, are not to Yet the sweetest song is the last he sings.
be included in this commendation. Generally they are ipdi. Live so, my love, that when Death shall come,
gestible and not nutritious. Swan-like and sweet, it may waft the home ----DOANE. One of the effects of all food, especially animal food, is to
stimulate the circulating system; the pulse is quickened the constitution when taken into the stomach. Hence immediately after eating; This is the reason why persons persons, like seamen, who feed much on salted provisions, with a tendency to fever should refrain from meat; and why, are liable to scorbutic complaints, generally designated as in complaints accompanied with inflammation of any kind, the scurvy—the best remedy against which consists in fresh abstinence from food of all kinds is beneficial. In hot vegetable food, and especially in the use of fresh lemoncountries the vital energies are always great; there is a juice, or citric acid. constant state of excitement, and life is shortened by the Salt is derived from two sources: extensive strata of accelerated action of the whole organization. Animal food this mineral, in some cases forming whole mountains, exist should, therefore, be very sparingly indulged in by persons in many parts of the globe. These masses are excavated residing in tropical countries: the natives are taught by by means of mines, in the usual mode, and the produce is nature, or by experience, what is healthful for them, and termed rock-salt in general, they rarely touch animal food, or, if they do, it There are salt-mines in France, Hungary, Poland, Spain, is usually fish. In cold climates, the retarded circulation, and at Northwich in Cheshire*. That at Wieliezka has and the tendency to torpor, requires to be counteracted by the been described by many travellers, as remarkable for its stimulus of abundance of animal food. The Greenlander depth and extent, and for the curious chambers, stables, and Esquimaux never misses the vegetable productions, of chapel, &c., into which the excavations have been converted, wbich he is deprived by the severity of the climate of his the furniture and fitting up being formed of salt. But country; and whale-blubber, or seals' flesh, consisting of that at Salzbourg is still more interesting, from the mode nearly pure oil, affords a condensed and nourishing food, employed in working it. Fresh water is brought by artiwhich maintains them in health and in strength.
ficial channels into small chambers, excavated in the saliIt has been computed, that 107 lbs. of butchers' meat rock; the water dissolves the salt of the sides, floor, and only, that is, of beef, mutton, real, and lamb, is consumed roof of this, till the space is enlarged as much as can be by each individual, of every age, in London, annually. In safely permitted, without risk of the roof falling in from Paris, 85 or 86 lbs. alone, is consumed by each person. the weight of the superincumbent mountains. Some of these Salt.
chambers are immediately over one another, a sufficient The chief use of condiments to food, or of those additions weight of the water when let into the upper one. In such
thickness of rock being left between them to bear the which impart flavour without increasing the nutritive qua
cases, the floor of the upper cavity is corered over with lities of it, is to stimulate digestion by pleasing the palate; well-tempered clay, carefully spread over it, in order to and, provided the substance thus employed be not positively prevent the liquid from dissolving the floor. When the unwholesome, or do not stimulate the stomach too strongly, water becomes saturated with salt, it is drawn off, and the use of condiments is decidedly beneficial. There is
carried out of the mine by means of wooden troughs: the one condiment, however, which must possess qualities of a
salt is obtained from the liquid by evaporation and boilingt. far higher kind, and must be absolutely necessary to render food perfectly adapted to digestion and assimilation, if we
A large portion of the enormous quantity of salt annually
consumed, is obtained by suffering the water of the ocean may judge by the universal use of it by all nations, by the to be evaporated by the heat of the sun, from shallow pits, craving felt for it by inferior animals, as well as by man; and by the diseases produced by absolute privation from it, to flow at stated intervals; the solid salt is thus left incrust
or pans, dug near the sea-shore, and into which it is allowed of course we mean Salt. The first remarkable circumstance attending salt is, that, ing the bottom and sides,
and is removed to sheds to drain,
and undergo subsequent purifications. with the exception of water, it is the only mineral sub
The numerous salt-springs in many countries constitute stance that is consumed with, or for food, by animals. This fact would render it probable, if not certain, that its action
a copious source from whence this article is derived: the on the constitution is entirely chemical, and not nutritive; places, the water is previously allowed to fall in showers
water of these is evaporated by artificial heat. In some that is, that salt either operates some change in the organic from a considerable height, in buildings, the sides of which matter taken into the stomach, which causes it to be more readily, and more completely, converted into chyme; or else, the cascade is broken into spray, by branches, and twigs of
admit of a continued current of air passing through them: that, by mixing with the juices secreted from ile organs of trees, placed to intercept it. By this means, a considerable digestion, it increases their energy; but that the salt itself
, proportion of water is carried off by evaporation, and the or its constituent elements, is finally ejected, and does not residuo is much stronger brine than that which comes permanently remain in the system. Salt is hardly less important to man in an economic point artificial heat than would otherwise be necessary.
direct from the springs; and is hence evaporated by less of view. Its effects in retarding the putrefactive fermentation, or decomposition, of animal and vegetable matter, * See Saturday Magasine, Vol. 1., p. 150. enable us to preserve food of many kinds for a much longer of this mine.
+ See Saturday Magazine, Vol. I., p.94., for a further description period than we otherwise could do.
Flesh is salted either by rubbing the salt dry into the meat, or by soaking it in brine, which is water saturated with Persons have perhaps been sometimes found, who, from salt dissolved in it. But this mode of application is limited their attachment to pursuits of science, and to the acquito small pieces, and is not effectual for tiesh which is to be sition of general knowledge, have appeared sceptical upon kept for a long time.
the subject of Divine Revelation. It may not, therefore, be A small proportion of salt-petre (nitrate of potash,) is inexpedient to be furnished with the remark, that others, added to brine. Experience, we presume, has shown that at least equally endowed with intellectual powers, and the action of the liquid is improved by this addition; but equally rich in intellectual acquirements, have been serious, we do not know in what way this improvement is effected. rational, and conscientious believers. Amongst these may
Beef and pork, for taking to sea, or for Winter store, be ranked the great apostle St. Paul, who has been rarely must be salted by placing the pieces, alternately, with surpassed in strength of understanding, or in the treasures layers of dry salt, in barrels or chests, and keeping it in of a cultivated mind; and in connexion with him it may be this state for a month or more; and even repeating the added, that “ Luke, the beloved physician," " whose praise operation twice or thrice, if the meat is intended for ships is in the Gospel," was professionally acquainted with the about to proceed on distant voyages.
operations of nature, and the effects of secondary causes Bacon, hams of beef, mutton, or bears-tongues of oxen and thus qualified to appreciate the miraculous and superand rein-deer, &c., after being salted in this manner, are
natural character of the works which he has recorded as smoked or dried, by being hung up in the chimneys of fire foundations of our belief.---Bishop Mant. places in which wood alone is burnt; and this wood must not be that of fir, or other trees of that order, because the meat would acquire a flavour of turpentine from the smoke Good breeding is the art of showing men by external of such wood.
signs the internal regard which we have for them. It Fish is preserved by salting, in such quantities as to arises from good sense, improved by conversing with good constitute an important article of commerce among most company. civilized maritime nations. It should be remarked, that all animal matter is ren
LONDON dered less digestible by salting, and the consequent drying. The fibre is made more tough, and the quantity of salt
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND incorporated with the meat is greater than is beneficial to
PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICK One PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTS
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
TRON WIRE SUSPENSION BRIDGE, FRIBOURG, IN SWITZERLAND.
The extensive adoption of SUSPENSION Bridges is far from falling into the river, but caused the road-way to tilt from the least important mechanical improvement which over so much, that every one on it was obliged to cling to nas distinguished the present eventful century; an account whatever he could catch hold of, to save himself from of the principles on which these bridges are constructed, dropping off into the foaming torrent sixty feet beneath. cannot, therefore, but be interesting to our readers.
None dared, for some time, to venture to the relief of the If a fallen tree, lying across a stream, served as a model party, expecting the bridge would break down every instant, for the earliest bridge, the slender stem of a creeping plant, especially if loaded with any additional weight: when, boy swinging from bank to bank, may have suggested the pos- ever, it was seen that nothing material gave way, two or sibility of suspending a rope-bridge across a river too wide three men crept along it to render assistance. The gun to be spanned by timber beams in one length, when the was with difficulty dismounted; the carriage taken to pieces, rapidity of the current, or other circumstances, precluded and so conveyed to the banks. Every one was saved, but the erection of intermediate piers.
the artillery was obliged to be sent four or five leagues So obvious, indeed, is the principle, and so easy the con- round, to a ford lower down the river. struction, of such hanging bridges, that they have appa So well adapted is this form of bridge for crossing the rently been adopted in every country where the people had mountain torrents and defiles of the Cordilleras, that, in materials, and possessed sufficient ingenuity to manufacture recent times, one of great length has been constructed over flexible ropes from vegetable fibres, or from hides. They the Santa, after a fruitless endeavour to build an arched were found to have been in use from time immemorial in bridge, at an expense of £40,000. South America, when that country was first visited by Europeans; and such a bridge, called a Tarabita, is to In all the mountainous districts of India and Central this day employed to cross the valleys and torrents of the Asia, suspension-bridges, of ropes, or chains, have been in Cordilleras.
existence from the earliest ages. Mr. Frazer, during his A cable, made of strips of hide, or fibres of plants, is tour through the snowy range of the Himmala mountains, stretched across, from a post or tree on one side, to a wheel saw, and has described, several. Many consisted, like the on the other; this wheel, or some other contrivance, being Tarabita, of a single rope stretched over posts on the banks; necessary to strain the rope tigbter when it gets too slack. a kind of wooden saddle is made to slide on the ropes, orer A basket, large enough for a man to sit in, is suspended by which loops are hung for the passenger to seat himself in, loops from the cable, and the traveller is pulled across by a and he is hauled across by a line attached to the saddle. smaller rope led to the shore. Frequently two such cables Such a bridge is called, in that country, a J'hoola. are set up, each sloping from one bank to the other, to facili Mr. Frazer was one of a large party which crossed the tate the passage of the basket.
Touse by a rope-bridge of this kind. All got over safely, The bridge described by Baron Humboldt, as thrown with the exception of a Ghoorka sepoy, who, having his over the river Chambo, in Quito, is of a better construction wife among the troop, wished to take her across with him, than the Tarabita. The main ropes, which are four inches lest she should be frightened in making the formidable in diameter, and made of fibres of the Agave Americana", passage alone. When they had got about half way over, are laid over rude timber frames on each bank, and secured the tow-rope broke: the man, anxious to rescue his wife as behind them by being fastened to posts driven into the quickly as possible from her awkward situation, let himself ground. The road-way is laid on these ropes, and conse- down, intending to fall into the water and swim across quently partakes of their curvature, thus materially increas- with the portion of rope that remained attached to the ing the difficulty of walking on it; but the traveller can saddle, pulling the woman after him. He unfortunately walk over it, and there are side parapets to keep him from got entangled either in the cord, or in his dress, and was falling over. The bridge is named Penipe, and is 131 feet carried away by the current, and perished; thus falling a
sacrifice to his conjugal affection. Captain Hall.+ describes a bridge over the Maypo, in Captain Turner, who was sent on a mission into Bootan Chili, the main ropes of which are six in number, three on and Thibet in 1783, crossed a defile in the mountains, near each side the road-way: they are firmly secured to the rock the river Tchin-tchieu, by a formidable bridge of this kind. on the highest bank of the river, and are carried over a It consisted of two ropes, made of the twisted stems of timber frame on the other, which is lower, down to the creeping plants, stretched across the chasm, parallel to and ground, where they are fastened to trees, and to stout posts near each other; they were encircled by a hoop, in which driven into the earth. Short vertical cords are suspended the traveller sat himself, and holding one of the ropes in from the main ropes, to carry the horizontal ones, on which each hand, worked himself across. Nothing but the the transverse planking of the road-way is laid. The span alternative of having to pursue a circuitous road of many is 123 feet; and the ropes being of hide, their elasticity miles, could induce a person unaccustomed to such bridges causes such an undulation, that travellers usually dismount to cross by such means. and drive their mules over before them.
Near to this was another of a superior construction, orer The following adventure, which occurred at this bridge the above-named river itself, and called Chuka-chazum on the occasion of the passage of a body of troops, is nar from its proximity to the castle or fort of Chuka. The rated in the Memoirs of General Miller. The infantry river runs between precipitous rugged banks, of unequal passed without the smallest difficulty, as did also the height and declivity, in the steepest of which is a solid cavalry, each man leading his horse, and going a few at a pyramidal pier of masonry, having an opening through time. When the artillery came up, doubts were entertained the top for the road-way; in this opening, a strong double as to the possibility of getting it over. Captain Miller, at frame, like a door-way, is fixed. On the other side of the length, volunteered to conduct the first gun: the limber river, at a little distance from the bank, there is, on the was taken off, and drag-ropes attached to the carriage, by corresponding pier, a square building, containing a chamber which the piece was to be restrained from descending the which serves as a sort of ante-room to the bridge. From the curved road-way too rapidly, while the trail was held up by front of this building a covered gallery of timber projects two gunners; but, notwithstanding these precautions, the to the edge of the river, a distance of about thirty-five feet. bridge swung so much from side to side, that the men lost There are five main chains of iron, to form the floor of their balance, and the gun was overturned; the carriage, by the bridge, secured to the front wall of the building, and, becoming entangled in the side parapet of thongs, saved it after passing over the lower beams of the gallery, they are
attached to the bottom of the frame in the opposite pier: * This is the American Aloe, which is remarkable for the long another chain on each side of the bridge is fixed, nine feet period which elapses before it flowers. The fibres of this plant are above the former, to the top beam of this frame; and, being very tough, and well adapted for making ropes of, for which purpose carried through the wall of the chamber, pass down to the it is extensively employed in America. The French term thread of ground, where they are secured, but in what manner does these fibres, fil de pite,
It may be mentioned here, that hemp is never the material of which not appear. From these two upper chains hang vertical the ropes are made, employed in the bridges of America or Asia, suspending rods to the outer ones of the floor chains, which described in the text. The other vegetable products used for the they thus assist to support, while they form a parapet to purpose are coir, or the fibres of the cocoa-nut, the stems of the the bridge; the roadway is covered with strips of bamboo.
Extracts from a Journal written on the coast of Chili, &c., in This structure is so ancient, that it has a fabulous origin 1820, 21, and 22.
assigned to it by the people of the country,