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Uranus ; the resistance of a very rarefied medium, the sea, “Thus far shalt thou come and no further,” which evidently had an influence on the course of has marked out, also, the path of the comet, and the the comet of 1819, and may have the effect of alter movements of the whole planetary system. Besides ing, more or less, the shape of a comet's orbit, and, this, a Christian may add, “ God is our refuge and consequently, of diminishing the time of its revo strength, a very present help in trouble. Therefore lution. All these circumstances may concur in baffling will we not fear, though the earth be removed, and our expectations, and may either shorten or lengthen though the inountains be carried into the midst of the the period assigned for the return of the comet to sea; though the waters thereof roar and be troubled; its perihelion."

though the mountains shake with the swelling thereof." However, the calculations such as have been made, Ps. xlvi. 1-3.

J. E. R. verified as they now are by the actual return of the comet, cannot but be regarded as indicating a great

THE FLY IN TURNIPS. and gratifying progress in the science of astronomy; In the month of August this year many of the turnipand it is satisfactory to know, that the present ap crops in Kent were totally destroyed by a small pearance of the expected comet will assist astrono black caterpillar, vulgarly called the Nigger. This mers in adjusting their calculations, and lead to the

county had not been afflicted with such a visitation attainment of still greater accuracy nd precision. for upwards of twenty years; at which time, I have The day on which it has been supposed that the

been told, that many enterprising farmers had saved comet will be at its perihelion, or the part of its such fields where the injury had scarcely began, by orbit nearest to the sun, is the 13th of November; turning in hundreds of ducks, with a boy going and it is during the days immediately succeeding, before them with a long pole, brushing the caterpillars that it may be expected to appear with its greatest off the leaves of the plants; and that it was amusing brilliancy.

enough to witness the ducks waddling after their There are then many reasons why we cannot but

courier, and devouring these insects with avidity, look with great interest on this illustrious visiter.

eyeing both sides of every leaf, lest they should miss The comet is, in itself, a beautiful and unusual spec such palatable morsels. tacle, and presents to our contemplation an astonishing In the middle of September I still observed several effect of creative and upholding Power : it has been stragglers, or perhaps larvæ of a second brood. the subject of successful scientific prediction, and Anxious to ascertain the imago, or perfect insect into will tend to shed still further light on the science of which such larvæ might turn, I captured several, and astronomy. There are but very few persons now alive placed them in a box prepared for the occasion, whose memories record its last visit; and we may feeding them with turnip-leaves fresh gathered every certain that the greater number of men of the morning, with a sprinkling of mould at the bottom present generation will not witness its next. Before

of the box. For the first few days they appeared to this comet shall come again towards the sun, our thrive; but, from some cause of which I was ignorant, spirits will have returned to God, who gave them.

they gradually declined and died off. The periods of the revolutions of this comet which

These caterpillars, or larvæ, I found to be of are clearly ascertained, are as follows:--the first,

different lengths, varying from five-eights to fourseventy-six years, two months; the second, seventy-eighths of an inch. They appear to eat only the five years; the third, seventy-six years, six months ; fleshy part of the turnip-leaf, leaving the fibres, and the fourth, or last, seventy-six years, eight-months. are not often found on Swedes or rape.

Comets have been supposed to possess an unfavour The upper part is, at first appearance, black; but able influence on the atmosphere of the earth; but upon a closer inspection, with a slight magnifier, it this opinion has been entertained, as it appears, is more of a dark slate-colour than absolutely black. without sufficient reason. Sir Isaac Newton sup Along the centre of the back is a black line from posed that these bodies, so far from being noxious or head to tail: on either side, there is a longitudinal pestilential, are of use in supplying a portion of light gray line, succeeded by a line of dark slate, the wholesome moisture to the atmosphere; and it is under part being also of a light gray: the head is reasonable to infer, from our general acquaintance black and retractile, or capable of being drawn in, with the universe, that, even if we cannot ascertain

with very short pointed antennæ, scarce perceptible to precisely in what way comets are of service, yet they the naked eye. It has six short legs articulated, and have been formed for some wise end, and accomplish eight pair of light gray stumps tipped with black. some useful and important purpose in their periodical returns to the sun. There are very many unknown benefits and mercies for which we are indebted to the Giver of all good.

It has been asked, Is it possible for a comet to come in contact with the earth; and, If such an event Upon being touched it forms a circle, joining its should occur, what would be the consequence? To head to its tail. The skin is particularly fine and which astronomers reply, that, for aught we know, transparent, and if punctured, slate-coloured matter it is quite possible for such a collision to take place issues from the wound. in the course of ages; but that the size of all comets The colours of many insects are so difficult to which have been observed, is so very small in com describe with accuracy, that without adopting such parison of that of the earth, that the shock given to indefinite words as grayish, blueish, and blackish, one our planet would not be very great, and the damage is at a loss to describe their different tints; for there only be local. If, however, a comet at all like the happens to be in this very caterpillar I have atearth in magnitude should come into contact with this tempted to describe, a certain tint of dark blue planet, the event would produce a change in the throughout that part which I have termed "black direction of the earth's axis, and thence a vast dis- and dark slate," and that which I have called " light turbance of our system. One thing, however, is cer- gray” has a transparent horny appearance. tam ;-our earth will remain in its present position Notwithstanding the ill success of my endeavours as long as it may be the will of God, the Almighty to ascertain, by personal observation, into what these Creator, that it shall be there. He who hath said to caterpillars might turn, I flatter myself that I can

point out the fly, into which state they succeed after holding from less intellectual pursuits that attention that of the caterpillar, having found this fly in great which they demand-of curtailing the time which numbers in the turnip-fields, and in the neighbouring they require-of thus violating prudential and domesstubbles; and moreover, being strengthened in my tic interests, -and even of encroaching upon seasons conviction by an observation made by an old turnip- and duties of still deeper solemnity. The maxim hoer, to an experienced farmer in my neighbourhood. of Bishop Saunderson should be inscribed upon the This man being employed to hoe a field of turnips in closet door of every student,—To pray well is to August, said, “It is of no use hoeing these turnips, study well. for I perceive this year a fly,"—the identical fly I am It is greatly to be lamented that a disposition to about to describe"which is the forerunner of the cultivate science, independently of all connexion with nigger caterpillar."

religion, is widely and alarmingly prevalent. But This fly is, according to the Linnean System, a there should be that practical recognition of religion species of the fourth order, Neuroptera, (from two as a personal concern, and as entering into the Greek words, signifying a nerve, and a wing,) having education suited to an immortal being, which its four wings, membranaceous, transparent, and naked, nature so justly demands. There is a spirit gone reticulated with veins or nerves, and the tail being abroad among certain classes, which occasionally without a sting.

vents itself in extravagant terms, as descriptive of This fly is about a quarter of an inch in length; that era of light and glory which the diffusion of head black and small, with two large eyes, which, intellect, by its own agency, is expected to usher in together constitute two-thirds of the head ; antennæ upon the world. It is possible to carry this notion about one-eighth of an inch in length; moniliformes, of the efficiency of knowledge and mental cultivation or like a necklace of beads: the head is joined to the to an extent that will prove not only false, but also thorax by a long flexible and retractile neck. The in the highest degree injurious. There is a danger thorax is particularly strong, and the insect appears, lest the young aspirant after distinction should as it were, high shouldered. Strong nerves appear at forget that there are other duties to perform than the insertion of the wings; the thorax is of a dark the mere improvement of his own mind,-than the orange-colour, with black spots at the insertion of the mere expansion of his own faculties,-and that the wings. The wings are four, transparent, with a hour which he employs in prayer and meditation, so strong black nerve on the outer edge of the superior far from being wasted, as he may sometimes think, wings. It has six legs, of a light orange colour,—the is the hour of all others most profitably spent. In tarsus, or last joint of the leg, has black joints, with order, therefore, that science may be religiously, a double unguis, or two short claws. The abdomen morally, and socially beneficial, the pursuits of knowor belly is of a bright orange colour, W. C. ledge, however delightful in themselves, must never

interrupt the regular duties of life, and still less

those duties which man owes to his Maker. But ON THE ACQUIREMENT OF

when these claims have been fully, honestly, and KNOWLEDGE.

conscientiously met, science may lawfully come in In the endeavour to acquire knowledge, it is of im- for the surplus of time which remains. portance that we do not suffer ourselves to be bewil It is essential in a well-regulated mind, and a welldered by attempting too many things at once, or by ordered frame of character, to guard against a conneglecting those gradations in the scale of intellect, temptuous feeling with regard to those who are without a due regard to which, it is impossible to necessarily destitute of literary and scientific endowarrive at the higher departments. We must begin ments. Independently of the testimony of obserwith first principles, and lay the foundation of the vation and experience, we have the declaration of edifice in a clear and comprehensive acquaintance an apostle, that, at a certain stage, and, for the with elementary facts.

most part, before habits of sound judgment and maWhen science and imagination first unfold their ture reflection are formed, “Knowledge puffcth up." treasures to an individual possessed of aptitude of There is something in the elevation of genius, and acquirement, fond of knowledge, and enthusiastic in in the dignity of science, which, like the pride of his admiration of everything elegant and sublime, he ancestry, is apt to swell the mind with imaginary is like one who enters a room splendidly illuminated. importance. He who has advanced towards this He is for a while dazzled with the profusion of lights, fancied eminence is sometimes tempted to think and the beautiful variety of colours; and it is some that he has a right to despise those who have time before he can apply his mind to the objects been left behind in ignorance, or to view with envy most worthy of his attention. Such, indeed, is the and dissatisfaction those who, perhaps, with incase with most persons in the earlier stages of their ferior intellectual pretensions, have been able by other intellectual cultivation; and it is of importance to their means to ascend to honour and emolument. Withreal improvement, that they reduce their expectations out derogating from the excellency of mental endowand confine their researches to sober limits. The ments, from its superiority over external and advengreat secret of doing much, said Locke, is to do one titious appendages of the human character, it can no thing at a time.

more justify a contempt of comparative and unavoidWith a view to the moral influence of scientific able ignorance in others, than the power of thegreat, pursuits, and to the prevention of those evils which or the wealth of tue affluent, can justify a similar they may be liable to produce, we should never allow feeling towards those who are debarred from such our love of knowledge to interfere with our duties, advantages. whether they be those which we owe to the great Happily the temptation to intellectual and literary Author of our being, or those which arise from our pride, the moment it is in danger of becoming general, relations in life. Prudence, and a sense of obligation, carries with it its own correction. Let knowledge be --in many instances necessity,--operates as a suffi- extensively disseminated-let the whole mass of the cient guard against this evil. Wherever the love of people be elevated to the utmost of their capabilities knowledge is so predominant, as in some cases it is in the scale of intellect, and the possession of a modefound to be, and the opportunities of acquiring it rate portion of literary taste and scientific informafew and rare, there is no slight danger of with tion will cease to be an object of distinction. Let it

s0 cease, and the danger of undue self-complacence

THE LOGAN-ROCK, will, of necessity, disappear; and the mass of general

CORNWALL, knowledge thus acquired, will mingle with the prin- One of the most remarkable objects on the south eiples of common sense. Let there be a movement coast of England, is the celebrated stone near the towards the higher regions of intellect, without any Land's End, called the “Logan-Rock." This stone, attempt to disturb the economy of nature, and to set

as many of our readers are probably aware, is a huge at nought the collective wisdom of ages, by capri- block of granite, so singularly poised on a sort of cious change;-every planet moving in its appropriate pivot, that the strength of one man, if properly orbit, and every luminary maintaining its allotted exerted, is sufficient to produce a slight rocking moplace ;-and, then, though occasionally an erratic star tion, or to log it to and fro, whence, no doubt, its may shoot across the hemisphere, the whole system, name has been derived. thus mentally illuminated, will present a scene of The Logan-rock is situated about seven or eight moral beauty to the eye, resembling that girdle of miles from Penzance, and nearly five from the Land's refreshing light which we sometimes see encircling End. At this spot, called Castle Treryn, from the the nocturnal sky,-and its peaceful and accordant ruins of one of those ancient fortifications, so complay of operations will convey a sound of moral me mon in this part of Cornwall, several huge piles of lody to the ear more delightful than the harmony of granite rocks project into the sea, forming a bold the spheres.

and lofty promontory, around which the ocean rushes [Abridged from Davies' Estimate of the Human Mind.] with a tremendous and incessant roar.

On one of these piles the Logan-rock is situated.

It is a large block of coarse granite, of a somewhat FLIGHT OF THE EAGLE AND

regular form, resting on the small flat top of the pile HER YOUNG.

of rocks forming its base; and the actual point of In the Book of Deuteronomy, we have a very ani- contact is extremely small, to balance so large a mated and beautiful allusion to the eagle, and her mass.

From this point, however, coinciding very method of exciting her eaglets to attempt their first nicely

with its centre of gravity, the stone is as firmly flight, in that sublime and highly mystic composition and effectually supported as if it rested on a much called Moses' Song; in which Jehovah's care of his larger surface. people, and methods of instructing them how to aim

It is this circumstance which occasions the curious at and attain heavenly objects, are compared to her property from which the stone derives its celebrity. proceedings upon that occasion. “ As an eagle If a man apply his back or shoulder to the end of stirreth up her nest, fluttereth over her

the block, he is able, after several successive efforts,

young, spreadeth abroad her wings, taketh them, beareth

to produce a sensible rocking motion in it, notthem on her wings; so the Lord alone did lead withstanding its immense weight, which has been him.” (Deut. xxxii

. 11, 12.) The Hebrew lawgiver is variously estimated at from sixty to ninety tons, speaking of their leaving their eyrie. Sir H. Davy though we should suppose the former number to be had an opportunity of witnessing the proceedings of nearest the truth. The stone, however, from its an eagle, after they had left it. He thus describes great weight, and peculiar form, still rests firmly, and them :

no exertion which could be readily applied, would “I once saw a very interesting sight, above one produce any greater degree of motion, or much less of the crags of Ben Nevis, as I was going on the remove it from its place. 20th of August, in the pursuit of black game. Two

It was this circumstance, no doubt, which gave rise parent eagles were teaching their offspring,—two to an idea among the neighbouring peasantry, who young birds,—the manæuvres of flight. They began still look with a feeling of reverence (probably not by rising from the top of a mountain, in the eye of unmixed with superstition on this singular object, the sun; it was about mid-day, and bright for this that although one man's strength could rock the climate. They at first made small circles, and the stone, yet no power whatever was able to remove or young birds imitated them; they paused on their displace it. wings, waiting till they had made their first flight,

This popular idea gave rise, some years ago, to a and then took a second and larger gyration, always curious incident, with which many of our readers are rising towards the sun, and enlarging their circle of probably acquainted. A lieutenant in the navy, flight, so as to make a gradually-extending spiral. stationed on this part of the coast, and probably tired The young ones still slowly followed, apparently flying with the monotony and inactivity of his employment, better as they mounted; and they continued this determined on the exploit of putting this popular sublime kind of exercise, always rising, till they superstition to the test of experiment. He accordbecame mere points in the air, and the young ones ingly proceeded with his men to the spot; and, on were lost, and afterwards their parents, to our aching applying the strength of a party of stout English sight."

sailors, the Logan-rock soon gave evidence of the What an instructive lesson to Christian parents fallacy of the superstition with which it was regarded, does this history read! How powerfully does it ex- and which, like all mere superstitions, was immecite them to teach their children betimes to look diately dispelled on being put to the test. The Logantowards heaven, and the Sun of Righteousness, and rock was thus removed, though to only a trifling to elevate their thoughts thither, more and more, on

distance, from the spot where it had probably rested the wings of faith and love; themselves all the while

ever since the Creation, and the centre of gravity going before them, and encouraging them by their being altered, its rocking property was entirely own example.

destroyed.

The affair, however, did not terminate here, as the [KIRBY's Bridgewater Treatise.]

adventure, when it became known, excited consiOpdities and singularities of behaviour may attend genius; sacrilege by the neighbouring cottagers, whose feelings

derable indignation, being regarded as little less than , The man of true genius will be ashamed of them; at least

were probably still further excited, at the idea of he will never affect to distinguish himself by whimsical losing an attraction which, as it is the means of peculiarities.-TEMPLE,

bringing many visitors to this otherwise barren and

[graphic]

THE LOGAN-STONE, CORNWALL. neglected spot, is frequently, of course, productive of the coast of Cornwall, tnere are numerous examples. some small pecuniary advantage to them.

These cubical blocks, owing to the action of the It was also considered throughout Cornwall as a elements, have a tendency gradually to become wanton and mischievous action, thus to deprive the rounded, by the decomposition of the corners or solid county of an object which, from time immemorial, angles; and thus rude spheroidal blocks, like the had been considered one of its greatest curiosities; Logan-rock, may occasionally be formed, although and in the end, the officer received orders from his an exceedingly rare combination of circumstances superiors, to replace the Logan-rock ; a task of no will be required in order to produce a block possesssmall difficulty when its weight and situation are ing this peculiar property. considered. Ropes and the necessary tackle were This explanation, it will be seen, is founded on granted from Plymouth dock-yard, for the purpose, strict observation and analogy, and we can therefore and, with admirable skill, the gentleman who had have little hesitation in preferring it to one based displaced it, hoisted the Logan-rock into its former upon mere theory or conjecture.

F. B. position again, amidst the acclamations of the surrounding neighbourhood.

THE RISING MOON. The form and situation of this singular stone will easily be understood by the reader from the accom

The moon is up! How calm and slow

She wheels above the hill ! panying drawing, which is taken from the opposite

The weary winds forget to blow, pile of rocks, on approaching it from the land. The

And all the world lies still. small vessels shown in the drawing, it may be ob

The way-worn travellers, with delight, served, are the "seine-boats," used during the pil

The rising brightness see, chard fishery, which is carried on to a great extent

Revealing all the paths and plains, on this part of the coast, chiefly during the months

And gilding every tree. of August, September, and October.

It glistens where the hurrying stream It will naturally be asked, what is the origin of the

Its little ripple leaves; Logan-rock, and does it owe its singular properties

It falls upon the forest shade, to design or accident? On this subject different

And sparkles on the leaves. opinions have prevailed. By the antiquary, it has

So once, on Judah's evening hills, always been considered as the work of art, being a

The heavenly lustre spread, Druidical monument employed in some of the cere

The Gospel sounded from the blaze,

And shepherds gazed with dread. monies and superstitions practised by them, most

And still that light upon the world probably in the trial by ordeal. Without at all

Its guiding splendour throws: disputing that such may have been the use to which

Bright in the opening hours of life, it was applied, the geologist, however, considers the

But brighter at the close. Logan-rock to be the work of nature alone, as granite

The waning moon, in time, shall fail is well Ķnown naturally to disintegrate into masses of

To walk the midnight skies; a somewhat similar form.

But God hath warmed this bright light To explain this opinion more clearly, we may ob

With fire that never dies. serve that most kinds of stone have a natural tendency

LONDON. to separate into masses of a particular shape; thus,

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. slate breaks into thin and flat pieces, and granite PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTALT PART generally into cubical or tabular blocks, of which, on

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom,

PRICE 81XPENCE.

[blocks in formation]

EDUCA

NOVEMBER

[blocks in formation]

NOILET

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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