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run out to sea. The weather would not allow her to

ON THE FLIGHT OF INSECTS. return until the 29th; and then the Rear-Admiral, In a former paper we drew attention to the proofs hopeless of re-assembling the fleet, decided to proceed of the wisdom and power of the Creator which are to Brest.

manifested in the capacity for flying with which He “ Others were less fortunate. The Tortue frigate, has endowed the various classes of birds. We shall two corvettes, and four transports, were taken. The now bring together some remarks from Dr. Roget's Surveillante frigate was wrecked, and a transport Bridgewater Treatise, on a subject no less wonderful,foundered in the bay, and a third frigate, l'Impatiente, namely, the Flight of Insects. was driven on shore near Crookhaven. The sailors “ To the ultimate attainment of this faculty of determined to secure for themselves alone the means flight, it would appear,” observes that able writer, of escape, leaving the soldiers to their fate. Where that all the transformations which insects undergo such a feeling could exist, the discipline required for in external appearance, and all the developments of their own safety was not likely to be found; and all their internal mechanism, are expressly directed. perished but seven, who were saved chiefly by the Wings are added to the frame only in the last stage exertions of the people on shore.

of its completion ; after it has disencumbered itself “ Part of the fleet, having been blown out of the of every ponderous material that could be spared, bay, steered for the Shannon, which had been fixed after it has been condensed into a small compass, and on as a rendezvous in the event of separation; but after it has been perforated in all directions by airthey were too few to attempt a landing, and, after tubes, giving lightness and buoyancy to every part. waiting for a short time in hope of re-inforcement, Curiously folded up in the pupa, the wings there they found it necessary to return.

attain their full dimensions, ready to expand when“ The Fraternitè, with the two commanders-in-chief, ever the bandages that surround them are removed. continued to beat against an easterly gale till the 29th, No sooner is the insect emancipated from its confinewhen the wind became fair for the bay. Standing ment, than these organs begin to separate from the towards it she fell in with the Scavola, in a sinking sides of the body, and to unfold all their parts. Their state, with the Resolution, 74, engaged in taking out moisture rapidly evaporates, leaving the film dry and the people. She assisted to save them, and the two firm, so as to be ready for immediate action. The ships continued their course towards Ireland, hoping fibres form a delicate net-work for the support of this to fall in with so many of the fleet as might enable fine membrane, like the frame of the arms of a windthem still to make a descent. But next day, not mill, which supports the canvas spread over them. having seen any of them, and their provisions be- The microscope shows that these fibres are tubular, coming short, they steered for France. On the 8th and contain air, a structure the most favourable for of January, they were very near eleven of their ships, combining lightness with strength. which they would presently have joined, but that they “In the great majority of insects the wings are altered their course, to avoid two British frigates, the four in number. They are affixed to the most Unicorn and Doris, which at the time were actually solid portion of the skeleton, which is frequently being chased by the French! Next day they again strengthened by ridges, and other mechanical confell in with the frigates, and on the morning of the trivances for support. The shape of the wings is, 10th they were chased by Lord Bridport's fleet, from more or less triangular; they are moved by numerous which they narrowly escaped. On the 14th they muscles, which occupy a large space in the interior entered Rochefort, the last of the returning ships. of the trunk, forming a very complicated assemblage

'Such was the fate of an expedition in which of moving powers. The largest, and consequently nothing was neglected which foresight could suggest, most powerful of these muscles, are those which and nothing wanting which ability could supply; depress, or bring down, the wings. The simple whose fortune attended it until success might be ascent and descent of the wings would be sufficient, deemed secure, and whose defeat was attended with without any other movement being imparted to circumstances too extraordinary to be referred to them, to carry forwards the body of the insect in the

History records no event, notair. attended by direct miracle, in which God's providence " When the insect wishes to turn, or to pursue an is more strikingly displayed. The forces of atheism oblique course, it effects its purpose very easily by and popery had joined to overthrow a nation, the striking the air with more force on one side than on stronghold of Christian truth, and the bulwark of the other. By exerting a force with the wings just Protestant Europe. In this, so emphatically a holy sufficient to balance that of gravity, insects can poise war, no earthly arm was allowed to achieve the themselves in the air, and hover for a length of time triumph. Human agency was put aside, and all over the same spot, without rising or falling, adhuman defences prostrated; and then, when the un- vancing or retreating. resisted invader touched the object of his hope, the “ The number, form, and structure of the wings, elements were commissioned against him. That the have furnished entomologists with very convenient vigilance of a blockading force should be so eluded, characters for their classification. In the COLEOPand that unusual misfortunes should prevent a fleet tera, an order which comprehends by far the largest from sailing till nothing remained for it do; that the number of genera of insects, the lower pair of wings enemy's two commanders should be separated from are light and membraneous, and of a texture exceedtheir force when it sailed, and afterwards prevented ingly fine and delicate, and when fully expanded they by so many well-timed casualties from rejoining it; are of great extent compared with the size of the that when the fleet had actually arrived in the destined body; they are curiously folded when not in use. port, half should be blown out to sea again before For the protection of these delicate organs, the parts they could anchor, and the rest driven from their which correspond to the upper pair of wings of anchors before they could land their troops; that the other insects, are here converted into thick, opaque, returning ships should be prevented from meeting and hard plates, adapted to cover the folded memtheir commanders; and that every disappointment braneous wings when the insect is not flying, and should just anticipate the moment of success; such a thus securing them from injurious impressions, to combination of circumstances it were folly and impiety which they might otherwise be exposed from heat to ascribe to anything less than the hand of God."

* See Saturday Magasine, Vol. VII., p. 134.




moisture, or contact. These wing-cases, or elytra, with the following very pleasing lines from BISHOP are never employed as wings, but remain raised and / Mant's British Months.

D. I. E. motionless during the flight of the insect.

Disporting in the foggy air, “In the ORTHOPTERA, the coverings of the wings,

Light swarms of insects here and there, or tegmina, instead of being of a horny texture, are soft The laurel-skirted pathway o'er, and flexible. The wings themselves being broader Or by the branching fir-trees soar. than their coverings, are, when not in use, folded like Now playful round and round they wheel;

Now changeful thread the mazy reel. a fan. “ LIBELLULÆ and ÆschnÆ never close their wings,

The instinct strong, the hidden cause, but, when they are not flying, keep them constantly ex Which to their feelings speaks, and draws

The wanderers from their secret seat, panded, and ready for instant action. They fly with

Their birth-place, or their snug retreat, the greatest ease in all directions, sideways or back

Full little know we; but we know wards as well as forwards, and can instantly change

The Cause SUPREME, to which they owe their course without being obliged to turn their Life, motion, all things; and we see bodies. Hence they possess great advantages, both Proof of His vast benignity, in chasing other insects and in evading the pursuit Which ever active, o'er the earth's of birds. Bees have often been observed to fly to Broad surface spreads unnumber'd births

O'er land and air, the springs, the floods, great distances from their hive in search of food.

Which first for each their proper broods The humble-bee adopts a very peculiar mode of Aight,

Created, and preserves them all; describing, in its aërial course, segments of circles,

And feeble as they are, and small, alternately to the right and to the left; the velocity Gives to these insects, void of care, with which these insects move through the air, much Strong in his strength, to wing the air, exceeds that of a bird, if estimated with reference to

Or in the dark green fir-trees house, the comparative size of the animals.

Or lurk within the laurel boughs;

Provides them with befitting form Although the greater number of insects have four

To shun or to endure the storm; wings, there are many, such as the common house

Instructs the proper time to know, fly and the gnat, which have only two. In these, At home to rest, a-field to go, however, we find two organs, consisting of cylin With implements of joy endued, drical filaments, terminated in a clubbed extremity, And fills with gladness as with food. in the usual situation of the second pair in those which have four wings. They are named the halteres, or poisers, from their supposed use in balancing the body, or adjusting with exactness the centre of As I gazed, the air burst into atoms of green fire before gravity when the insect is flying.

my face, and in an instant they were gone: I turned round • The innumerable tribes of butterflies, sphinxes, ten thousands of tlaming torches moving in every direc

and saw all the woods upon the mountains illuminated with and moths, are all comprehended in the order Lepi- tion,-now rising, now falling, vanishing here, reappearing doptera, and are distinguished by having wings there, converging to a globe, and dispersing in spangles. covered with minute plumes, or scales. These scales No man can conceive, from dry description alone, the

So far from are attached so slightly to the membrane of the wing, magical beauty of these glorious creatures. as to come off when touched with the fingers, to

their effects having been exaggerated by travellers, I can

say that I never read an account, in prose or verse, which which they adhere like fine dust. When examined

in the least prepared me for the reality. with the microscope, their construction and arrange There are two sorts: the small tly, which flits in and out ment appear to be exceedingly beautiful, being in the air, and a kind of beetle, which keeps more to the marked with parallel stripes, often crossed by still woods, and is somewhat more stationary, like our glowfiner lines. The beautiful colours which these scales

This last has two broad eyes in the back of its

head, which, when the phosphorescent energy is not possess may, perhaps, generally be owing to the presence of some colouring material ; but the more

exerted, are of a dull parchment hue; but, upon the animal's

being touched, shoot forth two streams of green light, as delicate hues are probably the result of the optical intense as the purest gas. But the chief source of splendour effect of the lines on the surface.

is a cleft in the belly, through which the whole interior of “ The forms of these scales are exceedingly diver the beetle appears like a red-hot furnace. I put one of sified, not only in different species, but also in dif. these nafural lamps under a wine-glass, in my bed-room in ferent parts of the wings and body of the same

Trinidad, and, in order to verify some accounts which I

have heard doubted, I ascertained the hour on my watch insect. Each scale is inserted into the membrane by its light alone with the utmost facility.—Six Months of the wing by a short root, and overlaps the adjoin in the West Indies. ing scales: and the whole are disposed in rows with more or less regularity; one row covering the next, like tiles on the roof of a house. Many butterflies ex

Though the sun scorches us sometimes, and gives us the

head-ache, we do not refuse to acknowledge that we stand hibit, in some parts of their wings, smooth pearly in need of his warmth. - Philip de Mornay. spots, called by entomologists, ocelli, or eyes, which arise from those parts being naturally destitute of scales. The number of these scales, necessary to Trees, and fruits, and flowers are humanising things, cover the surface of the wings, must, from their soothing the passions, calling forth only the peaceful energies minuteness, be exceedingly great. The moth of the of the intellect, and attaching mankind to the soil on which silk-worm, which has but a small wing, contains, they have both grown together. according to Lewenhoeck, more than two hundred thousand of these scales in each wing.

MANNERS are of more importance than laws. Upon them, Many of the insect tribes are, of course, much in a great measure, the laws depend. The law touches us limited in the extent of their flights, but this is | but here and there, now and then. Manners are what vex not the case with all. It is astonishing to what a or soothe, corrupt or purify, exalt or debase, barbarize or distance silk-worm moths will Ay; some have been refine us, by a constant, steady, uniform, insensible operaknown to travel more than a hundred miles in a short tion, like that of the air we breathe in. They give their

whole form and colour to our lives. According to their time.” We cannot, I think, better close this paper, than quality they aid morals

, they supply them, or they totally destroy




he was every moment drawing nearer to safety or destruction. At length, not fear, but labour began to overcome him; his breath grew short, and his knees trembled: he

was on the point of lying down in resignation to his fate, The cheerful sage, when solemn dictates fail, Conceals the moral counsel in a tale.

when he beheld through the brambles the glimmer of a

taper. He advanced towards the light, and finding that it Obidah, the son of Abensina, left the caravansera early in proceeded from the cottage of a hermit, he called humbly the morning, and pursued his journey through the plains at the door, and obtained admission. The old man set of Hindostan. He was fresh and vigorous with rest; he before him such provisions as he had collected for himself, was animated with hope; he was incited by desire: he on which Obidah fed with eagerness and gratitude. walked swiftly forward over the valleys, and saw the hills When the repast was over, “Tell me," said the hermit, gradually rising before him. As he passed along, his ears by what chance thou hast been brought hither; I have were delighted with the morning song of the bird of Para- been now twenty years an inhabitant of the wilderness, in dise, he was fanned by the last flutters of the sinking which I never saw a man before.” Obidah then related breeze, and sprinkled with dew by groves of spices; he the occurrences of his journey, without any conrealment or sometimes contemplated the towering height of the oak, palliation. monarch of the hills, and sometimes caught the gentle “Son," said the hermit, “let the errors and follies, the fragrance of the primrose, eldest daughter of the Spring; dangers and escape of this day, sink deep into thy heart. all his senses were gratified, and all care was banished from Remember, my son, that human life is the journey of a his heart.

day. We rise in the morning of youth, full of vigour and Thus he went on, till the sun approached his meridian, full of expectation; we set forward with spirit and hope, and the increasing heat preyed upon his strength; he then with gaiety and with diligence, and travel on a while in the looked round about him for some more commodious path. straight road of piety towards the mansions of rest. In a He saw, on his right hand, a grove that seemed to wave its short time we remit our fervour, and endeavour to find shades as a sign of invitation; he entered it, and found the some mitigation of our duty, and some more easy means of coolness and verdure irresistibly pleasant. He did not, obtaining the same end. We then relax our vigour, and however, forget whither he was travelling, but found a resolve no longer to be terrified with crimes at a distance, narrow way bordered with flowers, which appeared to have but rely upon our own constancy, and venture to approach the same direction with the main road, and was pleased what we resolve never to touch. We thus enter the bowers that, by this happy experiment he had found means to of ease, and repose in the shades of security. Here the unite pleasure with business, and to gain the rewards of heart softens, and vigilance subsides; we are then willing diligence, without suffering its fatigues. He, therefore, to inquire whether another advance cannot be made, and still continued to walk for a time, without the least remission whether we may not, at least, turn our eyes upon the of his ardour, except that he was sometimes tempted to gardens of pleasure. We approach them with scruple stop by the music of the birds, whom the heat had as and hesitation; we enter them, but enter timorous and sembled in the shade; and sometimes amused himself with trembling, and always hope to pass through them without plucking the towers that covered the banks on either side, losing the road of virtue, which we for a while, keep in or the fruits that hung upon the branches. At last the our sight, and to which we propose to return. But temptagreen path began to decline from its first tendency, and to tion succeeds temptation, and one compliance prepares us wind among hills and thickets, cooled with fountains, and for another: wc in time lose the happiness of innocence, murmuring with waterfalls. Here Obidah paused for a and solace our disquiet with sensual gratifications. By time, and began to consider whether it were longer safe to degrees, we let fall the remembrance of our original inforsake the known and common track; but remembering tention, and quit the only adequate object of rational that the heat was now in its greatest violence, and that the desire. We entangle ourselves in business; iminerge our. plain was dusty and uneven, he resolved to pursue the new selves in luxury; and rove through the labyrinths of inpath, which he supposed only to make a few meanders, in constancy; till the darkness of old age begins to invade us, compliance with the varieties of the ground, and to end at and disease and anxiety obstruct our way. We then look last in the common road.

back upon our lives with horror, with sorrow, with repentHaving thus calmed his solicitude, he renewed his pace, ance; and wish, but too often vainly wish, that we had not though he suspected that he was not gaining ground. This forsaken the ways of virtue. Happy are they, my son, who uneasiness of his mind inclined him to lay hold on every shall learn from thy example, not to despair; but shall new object, and give way to every sensation that might remember, that though the day is past, and their strength soothe or divert him. He listened to every echo, he mounted is wasted, yet there remains one effort to be made; that every hill for a fresh prospect, he turned aside to every cas reformation is never hopeless, nor sincere endeavours ever cade, and pleased himself with tracing the course of a unassisted; that the wanderer may at length return after gentle river that rolled among the trees, and watered a all his errors; and that he who implores strength and large region with innumerable circumlocutions. In these courage from above, shall find danger and difficulty give amusements, the hours passed away uncounted; his devia- way before him. Go now, my son, to thy repose; commit tions had perplexed his memory, and he knew not towards thyself to the care of Omnipotence; and when the morning what point to travel. He stood pensive and confused, calls again to toil, begin anew thy journey and thy life." afraid to go forward lest he should go wrong, yet conscious -Rambler. that the time of loitering was now past. While he was thus tortured with uncertainty, the sky was overspread with

SILENCE. clouds, the day vanished from before him, and a sudden tempest gathered round his head. He was now roused by WHERE dwelleth Silence ?—In the cloister'd cell? his danger to a quick and painful remembrance of his folly'; The moonlit-grove, when e'en the song is o'er he now saw how happiness is lost when ease is consulted; Of night's sweet choristers, and the faint swell he lamented the unmanly impatience that prompted him to seek shelter in the grove, and despised the petty curiosity Where dwelleth Silence?-On the desert shore,

Of ev'ning's latest breeze is heard no more? that led him on from trifle to tritie. While he was thus reflecting, the air grew blacker, and a clap of thunder

Where, from Creation's birth, no human voice broke his meditation.

Hath yet been heard to sorrow or rejoice, He now resolved to do what remained yet in his power, Nor human foot hath dar'd its wilds explore? to tread back the ground which he had passed, and try to | Are these thy homes, Oh! silence?-No;—e'en there find some issue where the wood might open into the plain. He prostrated himself on the ground, and commended his

A void comes awful as the solitude, life to the Lord of Nature. He rose with confidence and

That humbles nature in her sternest mood, tranquillity, and pressed on with his sabre in his hand, for And quells the fiercest savage in his lair : the beasts of the desert were in motion, and on every hand In peopled cities, as in waste untrod, were heard the mingled howls of rage and fear, and ravage Its tones are mighty,—'tis the voice of God. and expiration; all the horrors of darkness and solitude surrounded him; the winds roared in the woods, and the rents tumbled from the hills.

LONDON Chus forlorn and distressed, he wandered through the

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. 1, without knowing whither he was going, or whether




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The fishing seldom lasts more than six weeks, com CAITHNESS; WICK; CHURCH DISCIPLINE; HERRING

mencing in July: the number of boats employed in it is FISHERY; HEMPRIGGS CASTLE AND STACKS; BERRYDALE.

very great, and amounted this year to no less than twelve (A, D, 1927.)

hundred, collected from the coasts of Scotland and England. On Sunday we attended Divine Service twice, at the Ten thousand persons were added to the population of Parish Kirk at Wick, which, with Pulteney, of more mo Wick and Pulteney, during the fish-season, by the muldern date, together form an extensive town at the mouth titude then brought together, among whom were many of a small river. The church, which contains 1200 persons, from Penzance, in Cornwall. was very full: the roof needed the support of scaffolding, An introduction to the collector of the customs, and other as the building, though not of many years' standing, is persons, afforded me the means of procuring some infurma. falling; a proof of the ill-judged economy not unfrequently tion respe the state of the fishery. The boats usel displayed in erecting churches in Scotland. Another, at are large, their keels commonly measuring thirty feet in present unfinished, calculated for 1800 persons, adjoins it. length; and those built recently are even of greater A parliamentary church is building in this parish, near dimensions. It is remarkable, that notwithstanding the Keiss Castle. The want of church-room in a parish, the great number of them employed in the fishery, only one population of which amounts to 7000, and receives annually, was lost this year, and that from its being overladen. during the six weeks' continuance of the lierring-fishery, a About 200,000 barrels were exported last year, of which great additional multitude of persons from all parts of Scot- 50,000 were sent to Ireland, about the same number to land and England, will be in a great measure supplied. Leith, 30,000 to London, and the rest to Bristol, Liverpool, The minister is indefatigable in the discharge of all his and other parts. The French, though prohibited by their duties, which require two assistants. His living or stipend laws from purchasing fish of our fishermen, persist babiamounts to 300l. per annum. The congregation was as tually in the practice, hovering about their vessels, and respectable as numerous.

exchanging brandy for herrings. This deference of the The ceremony of baptism was performed in the after- French to our fishermen is not confined to this part of the noon: the parents presented the child; when the minister coast: it is well known that they purchased fish of the delivered to them a solemni exhortation, which, expanding Brixham trawlers on the coast of Devonshire, till their gra-lually, soon embraced the whole audience. The father, custom-house officers discovered and put a stop to the then receiving the child from the mother, placed it in the practice. The profit which these vessels derived from bands of the minister, who sprinkled water over the face, this illicit commerce was, doubtless, considerable; as, since and then returned it to some women who stood by ready the enforcement of the prohibitory laws, they have removed to receive it. The public performance of this ceremony is the scene of fishing to the coast of Kent, about Dover, on considered as an honour conferred only on the worthiest account of the vicinity of the London market, to which parents. The ministers in the country parishes complain they were before comparatively indifferent. The fish, when of private baptisms as forming one of the most burdensome the boat's cargo is completed, are conveyed to curingof their duties.

houses erected on the pier. The Dutch mode of curing, The minister of Wick, himself exemplary and popular recommended so zealously by Donoran, the superiority of in the discharge of his office, employs the agency placed which arose from carefully gutting and bleeding the fiel, under his superintendence to much purpose. He assigns and salting and sorting them according to their different a district to each elder, who reports to him any immoral qualities, as well as from performing the process on shipconduet coming under his notice. In cases of drunkenness board, immediately on catching the fish, and from the strictor female delinquency, the offender is summoned to the ness of their custom-house regulations, was deemed too exchurch, and publicly reprimanded, whilst the partner of the pensive, and requiring too much care, to be used at Wick. woman's guilt is compelled to do penance. An old statue | The herrings exported from Wick are chietly intended for of St. Fergus, once an object of idolatrous worship, found the subsistence of the poorer classes of the Scotch and in the ruins of an adjoining chapel, has been removed to Irish, and for the slaves in the West Indies, whither they the church, where its antiquity procures due respect. The are conveyed from Bristol; and their quality is no doubt chapel itself, of which the four walls remain, is the cemetery sufficiently good for the less-fastidious taste of thoso people. of the Caithness family:

The certainty of these extensive markets for bjerrings, The minister considers the strangers, who resort to cured in the ordinary way, renders the Wick fishermen Wick, during the fishery, a portion of his tlock; and less anxious to secure a share in the continental market, preaches in the church-yard in Gaelic, for the benefit of where the Dutch have taught the people to require an those from the western districts of Scotland. He exerts his article of superior quality. The Scotch fisheries, wbich utmost efforts to urge the attendance of all at church, and have adopted the Dutch 'mode, have enjoyed a profitable till lately, his injunctions were little heeded by the English, share in the continental market. The Loch Fyne berrings -a circumstance which may be partly accounted for by the are superior to those of Caithness, being taken earlier, difference of the Presbyterian form of worship from their when they are richer and fatter; but these qualities render owy. The Cornishmen are seldom seen within the sacred the curing more difficult, as it must be more speedily walls. The French and Dutch observe no distinction of effected. days in fishing; and the minister has applied for a revenue The bounty on well-cured herrings continues, though cutter to enforce the observance of the Sabbath-day, by reduced in amount. The objects proposed by the bounty breaking the nets of delinquents.

are twofold :--the general encouragement of the fishery, The small river of Wick divides the towns of Wick and and the improvement of the process of curing the fish. Pulteney; on its bank are a new gaol and town-house, The apprehension felt here, is lest the bounty should pro which will soon be completed. The suburb, or rather town, duce a glut of fish, by attracting too great a number of of Pulteney, which contains a population of 2000 persons, persons to the fishery. The declared object of the bounty was erected, together with the adjacent piers and harbours, is to increase the quantity of fish in the market: its by the British Fishing Company on a spot which, less obvious effect will be the diminution of the price. And the than twenty years ago, was the undisturbed abode of sea persons engaged in the fishery previous to the bounty, fowl. It was chosen as a station well aslapted for the though they will share in the advantage to be derived from herring-fishery: and the most sanguine expectations of its

the bounty itself, will suffer a comparative loss from the founders have not been disappointed. To Pulteney may diminution of the profits. The government appear to have be applied the Dutch historian's observation respecting Amsterdam,—that "it was founded on the bones of her * The opinion entertained at Wick (corroborated by that of the rings." The houses are neat, and occupied almost exclu- superintendent of a herring-fishery in Sutherlandshire, whom I sively by the families of persons employed in the taking from that I heard expressed by the general superintendent at Edt

afterwards visited,) respecting the policy of such a bounty, difters or curing of the fish,


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