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will prove.

ance.

an equality in that respect with the strongest vinegar ob-handful of something soft; it felt feathery and warm, tained by the ordinary processes: when thus reduced, and and a smothered chirp told me it was living. I flavoured and coloured by the essential oil of the grape, or other fruit, it cannot be distinguished from ordinary vinegar. a look at it in the light.

brought it, wondering, to my father's house, and took The tar obtained by this process is available for all the pur

The ball consisted of four poses to which that substance is applied, while the charcoal, living wrens* rolled together, the heads under their or residuum in the retorts, is of the best quality.

wings, and their feet pulled in, so that nothing was The uses of vinegar in preserving animal and vegetable visible outside save a coating of mottled eathers. food, and as a condiment to many dishes, are well known, This I took to be their mode of keeping themselves and have been already alluded to. Acetic acid is also

warm during the cold of winter. If you ask, if I am employed in many arts, as in manufacturing white lead, and sugar of lead, and also in surger

sure my memory serves me rightly, I answer Yes ; for having allowed one of the wrens to escape, it flew

directly to where my father was reading at a candle, BIRDS CLUSTERING FOR WARMTH. and I had the misery of receiving from his hand one

of those whippings which a boy is not likely soon to THROUGH lofty groves the ring-dove roves,

forget.
The path of man to shun it;
The hazel-bush o'erhangs the thrush;

"When eighteen years old, or thereabouts, I met The spreading thorn the linnet.

with something of the same kind: there was a differThus every kind their pleasure find, The savage and the tender;

ence, indeed, in the birds, for on this occasion they Some social join, and leagues combine;

were magpies t-not birds of song, but of noise. I Some solitary wander.- Burns.

went out with my brother, now in the navy, one fine It is curious to witness the assistance which some

moonlight winter night, to shoot wood-pigeons in a animals will afford to each other under circumstances neighbouring plantation. The wind was high, and

we expected to find them in a sheltered place, where of danger or of difficulty. I have observed it in several instances, and it shows a kindness of disposi: As I went cowering along, looking through the branches

the soil was deep, and the spruce-firs had grown high. tion which may well be imitated. It is not, however, confined to their own species, as the following fact between me and the moon, I saw what seemed as

A farmer's boy had fed and taken great large as a well-filled knapsack, fixed on the top of a care of a colt. He was working one day in a field, long, slender ash-tree, which had struggled up in and was attacked by a bull. The boy ran to a ditch, spite of the firs, which you know grow very rapidly. and got into it just as the bull came up to him. The I pointed it out to my brother, and seizing the animal endeavoured to gore him, and would probably shaft of the tree, shook it violently, when, if one have succeeded, had not the colt come to his assist magpie fell to the ground, there were not less than He not only kicked at the bull, but made so

twenty dropt in a lump at my feet. Away they flew, loud a scream, for

One only remained on could be called nothing else, screaming, in all directions. that some labourers, who were working near the the spot which they occupied on the tree, and I shot place, came to see what was the matter, and extri- it, and so settled what kind of birds had been hudcated the boy from the danger he was in. I have before I shook them down for a minute's space or

dled together to avoid the cold. I looked at them seen cattle, when flies have been troublesome, stand

more, and could see neither heads nor feet: it seemed side by side, and close together, the head of one at

a bundle of old clouts or feathers.”--JESSE. the tail of the other. By this mutual arrangement flies were brushed off from the head of each animal * The Scotch call them cuttie-wrens, on account of their short as well as their sides, and only two sides were exposed tails. to the attacks of the insects. Sheep have been known Purds," on account of their colour.

+ Magpies are called by the Highlanders, “ Plack and Plug to take care of a lamb when the dam has been rendered incapable of assisting it, and birds will feed the helpless young of others.

The law of our constitution, whereby the regulated activity Birds also will cluster together for the purpose of of both intellect and feeling is made essential to sound keeping each other warm. I have observed swallows bodily health, seems to me one of the most beautiful clustering, like bees when they have swarmed, in cold arrangements of an all-wise and beneficent Creator. If autumnal weather, hanging one upon another, with

we shun the society of our fellow-creatures, and shrink their wings extended, under the eaves of a house. I from taking a share in the active duties of life, mental

indolence and physical debility beset our path.. Whereas have also heard more than one instance of wrens

if, by engaging in the business of life, and taking an active being found huddled together in some snug retreat interest in the advancement of society, we duly exercise for the purpose of reciprocating warmth and comfort. our various powers of perception, thought, and feeling, we The following interesting communication on this promote the health of the whole corporeal system, invigorate subject was made to me by Mr. Allan Cunningham, the mind itself, and at the same time experience the highest an author of whom his countrymen are justly proud, namely, that of having fulfilled the end and object of our

mental gratification of which a human being is susceptible; and who, I trust, will long continue to delight his being, in the active discharge of our duties to God, to our admirers with the productions of his pen.

fellow-men, and to ourselves. If we neglect our faculties “ I have once or twice in my life had an or deprive them of their objects, we weaken the organization, opportunity of answering that touching inquiry of give rise to distressing diseases, and at the same time exBurns

perience the bitterest feelings that can afflict humanity

ennui and melancholy. The harmony thus shown to exist · Ilk happing bird, wee, hapless thing,

between the moral and physical world is but another That in the merry months o' spring,

example of the numerous inducements to that right conduct Delighted me to hear thee sing,

and activity in pursuing which the Creator has evidently What comes o' thee? Whare wilt thou cower thy chitt'ring wing

destined us to find terrestrial happiness. -COMBE. An' close thy e'e ?' “One cold December night, with snow in the air, fluence of religious laws.—Southey.

NATIONAL happiness must be produced through the inwhen I was some ten years old or so, I was groping for sparrows under the caves in the thatch, where you Good sense, and Christian principle, must be in a very know they make holes like those bored by swallows languid state, when a disrelish or weariness of life is the in the river-banks. In one of these holes I got a predominant feeling.--Private Life,

He says,

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In the jungles about Tillicherry, there is a large species, mockery of their distress; he then deliberately placed the of monkey, frequently tamed by the natives, and at a captive crow between his knees, and began to pluck it with village a short distance from this celebrated seaport we the most humorous gravity. When he had completely had an evidence of the remarkable sagacity of this animal. stripped it, except the large feathers in the pinions and tail, A few yards from the house of the person to whom it be he flung it into the air as high as his strength would permit

, longed, a thick pole, at least thirty-feet high, had been fixed and, after flapping its wings for a few seconds, it fell on the into the earth, round which was an iron ring, and to this ground with a stunning shock. The other crows, which was attached a strong chain of considerable length, fastened had been fortunate enough to escape a similar castigation, to a band round the monkey's body. The ring being loose, now surrounded it, and immediately pecked it to death. it slid along the pole when he ascended or descended. He The animal had no sooner seen this ample retribution was in the habit of taking his station upon the top of the dealt to the purloiner of his repast, than he ascended the bamboo, where he perched as if to enjoy the beauties of the bamboo to enjoy a quiet repose. The next time his food prospect around him. The crows, which in India are very was brought, not a single crow approached it.—Oriental abundant and singularly audacious, taking advantage of his Annual. elevated position, had been in the habit of robbing him of his food, which was placed every morning and evening at the foot of the pole. To this he had vainly expressed his

THE FUNERAL AT SEA. dislike by chattering, and other indications of his displeasure equally ineffectual; but they continued their periodical

DEEP mists hung over the mariner's grave, depredations. Finding that he was perfectly unheeded, he

When the holy funeral rite was read; adopted a plan of retribution as effectual as it was ingenious.

And every breath on the dark-blue wave, One morning, when his tormentors had been particularly

Seemed hushed, to hallow the friendless dead. troublesome, he appeared as if seriously indisposed : he And heavily heaved on the gloomy sea, closed his eyes, drooped his head, and exhibited various The ship that sheltered that homeless one, other symptoms of severe suffering. No sooner were his As though his funeral-hour should be, ordinary rations placed at the foot of the bamboo, than the When the waves were still, and the winds were gone. crows, watching their opportunity, descended in great And there he lay, in his coarse, cold shroud, numbers, and, according to their usual practice, began to demolish his provisions. The monkey now began to slide

And strangers were round the coffinless ;

Not a kinsman was seen among that crowd, down the pole by slow degrees, as if the effort were painful

Not an eye to weep, nor a lip to bless. to him, and as if so overcome by indisposition that his remaining strength was scarcely equal to such exertion.

No sound from the church's passing bell When he reached the ground, he rolled about for some time,

Was echoed along the pathless deep; seeming in great agony, until he found himself close by the

The hearts that were far away, to tell vessel employed to contain his food, which the crows had by

Where the mariner lies in his lasting sleep. this time well-nigh devoured. There was still, however, some Not a whisper then lingered upon the air,remaining, which a solitary bird, emboldened by the ap O'er his body, one moment, his messmates bent, parent indisposition of the monkey, advanced to seize. The But the plunging sound of the dead was there, wily creature was at this time lying in a state of apparent And the ocean is now his monument! insensibility at the foot of the pole, and close by the pan. But many a sigh, and many a tear, The moment the crow stretched out its head, and ere it

Shall be breathed, and shed, in the hours to come, could secure a mouthful of the interdicted food, the watchful

When the widow and fatherless shall hear avenger seized the depredator by the neck with the rapidity

How he died, far, far from his happy home!-Fixn. of thought, and secured it from doing further mischief. He now began to chatter and grin with every expression of gratified triumph, while the crows flew around, cawing in

LONDON. boisterous chime, as if deprecating the chastisement about JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. to be inflicted upon their captive companion. The monkey

PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTALT FARTS. continued for a while to chatter and grin in triumphant Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom.

PRICE SIXPENCE.

I
WIOSNOITE

EDU

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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THE VALLEY OF THE MOUOTTA,

We find no mention of this very the evening."

comfortable mode of doing business in more recent IN SWITZERLAND.

writers; it passed away, probably, with those days The Mouottathal is a valley of Switzerland, situated of pastoral simplicity in which alone it could prevail

, in the canton of Schwytz; it derives its name from and which certainly did exist at no very remote the river Mouotta, by which it is watered, and which period in some of the more retired among the Swiss flows into the Lake of Lucerne, or the Waldstätter valleys. See, between three and four miles, in a direct line, to This valley, however, derives its chief interest from the westward of the town, or rather village, of Schwytz, the sanguinary scenes of which it was the theatre at the capital of the canton. The length of this valley the close of the last century; like many other parts is nine or ten miles, and its direction is pretty nearly of Switzerland, till that time as little known, its from west to east. It has all the appearances of peaceful retirement was then rudely disturbed by the fertility, and its smiling landscape is set off by the fierce encounter of hostile armies. At the close of contrast of a stupendous rampart of mountains, the year 1798, the ancient government of the Swiss which screen it, though not too closely, on almost was no longer in existence, and their territory was in every side.

Towards its eastern extremity is the the hands of the republican soldiers of France. village of Mouotta, a small collection of cottages, Soon afterwards war was renewed between the French possessing a church, which, for a long time, held the and Austrians; and the latter, having gained the second rank in the canton, and used to be visited by decisive victory of Stockach, in Suabia, on the 21st of numerous pilgrims from the neighbouring territories March, 1799, passed on to the westward, and entered of Uri and Unterwalden. The eastern boundary of Switzerland in force, with the intention of following the valley is the lofty mount Praghel, which stretches up their success and expelling their enemies from also along a portion of its northern side; this that country. Its poor inhabitants suffered severely mountain here forms the limit between the cantons in the struggle which ensued; their inclination in of Schwytz and Glaris, sloping down upon the side general led them to support the Austrians, but many of the latter into the Klonthal, or valley of the little were compelled by the French to take up arms against river Klon.

them. To use the words of a national historian, The entrance to this valley is between two and Zschokke, “Swiss fought against Swiss, under the three miles from the town of Schwytz; it begins banners both of Austria and France; tumults and near a little village bearing the name of Schönenbuch. revolts, sometimes occasioned by carrying into effect The most direct communication between the towns the act of conscription, sometimes from the desire of of Schwytz and Glaris, is by the Mouottathal; the favouring the Austrian arms, prevailed in every road passes through the whole length of the valley, direction. **** In the mean time, in the valleys then to the summit of the Praghel, and down its in the highest Alps, and on the shores of the lakes, opposite slope into the Klonthal, traversing the whole the din of foreign arms was heard; one field of battle length also of this latter valley, which extends to was left reeking close to another, and men and horses within a short distance of Glaris. The difficulties of were seen traversing mountain-ridges known hitherto this route are very great ; the passage of the mountain only to the chamois-hunter. Never, since the occuis an especially arduous - task. Simond crossed it, pation of the country by the Romans, the Allemanni, and performed the whole journey between Glaris and and Burgundians, had Switzerland experienced such Schwytz: he speaks in strong terms of the labour overwhelming misery." which attended its accomplishment. A considerable The success of the contending armies was varied ; time was spent in the ascent of the Praghel, which rose the Grison country, and that mountain-chain which from the Klonthal, “ in all its pride, craggy, bare, and includes the sources of the Rhine, were successively gray;" the summit was deserted by all living creatures lost and won by both. In the month of June the except the birds of prey, “now hovering over its pre- Austrians, everywhere victorious, had advanced on cipices, while their keen glance explored every secret the south to the pass of the St. Gothard, and on the recess; then gliding obliquely down on motionless north to the town of Zürich and the borders of the wings, yet swift as thought in pursuit of some im- Rhine. By the middle of August they were again perceptible object.” The descent of the opposite driven back on the southern part of their line ; and slope, towards the valley of the Mouotta, is by a very the French remained undisputed masters of the St. steep winding path, or rather a succession of slippery Gothard, and of nearly the whole of the Cantons of steps coarsely cut into the rock; down this precarious Schwytz and Uri. The Mouottathal was one of the way, horses and mules laden with a weight of more districts from which the Austrians were thus expelled, than two hundred pounds will manage to find a

and their efforts to retain it were among the most passage, often with their hind feet above the level of strenuous which they displayed. They took post on their ears, and occasionally, indeed, placed in such the bridge at the village of Mouotta, and bravely situations as to need the driver to assist them and repulsed the body of French troops sent to attack hold them back by the tail.

them by the right bank of the river; of course, wher Coxe mentions, in reference to this valley, a curious a second came up along the left bank, and placed circumstance which was communicated to him by them between two fires, they could hold their station General Pfyffer, the same patient ingenious old man no longer. Soon afterwards the mass of the Austrian whose model in relief of a large portion of Switzer- forces quitted Switzerland, with the Archduke Charles, land we described in a notice of the town of Lucerne *. , to take the field in Germany; their place was supAs a proof of the astonishing confidence mutually plied by 30,000 Russians, who succeeded to the posientertained by the inhabitants, the general pointed tion which they had occupied in the town of Zürich, out to him, on each side of the road that runs on the northern border of the lake of that name, through the valley of Mouotta, in the canton of and on the northern bank of the river Limmat. Schwytz, several ranges of small shops, uninhabited, General Hotze, with the remainder of the Austrian yet filled with various goods, of which the prices are force, 29,000 men, continued the line to the south, marked: : any passengers who wish to become pur on the banks of the Linth. Immediately to the chasers, enter the shops, take away the merchandise westward were the French, under their able leader, and deposit the price, which the owners call for in

See Saturday Magazine, Vol. VII., p. 99.

Massena; their principal strength was gathered upon at the house of the British minister, to celebrate the the Albis, and upon the high ground whence they passage of the Alps by Suwarrow. Yet, in spite of could watch their opponents about Zürich.

this bad news, the boldness and energy of Suwarrow For more than three weeks after the change had did not forsake him; he wrote to Korsakow, and his been effected, both armies remained in a state of generals, that they should answer with their heads for inactivity; but, in the mean while, the allies had every further step that they retreated ;—“I am been occupied in the formation of a project, which coming," he added, “to repair your faults." He they fondly hoped would lead to the expulsion, if marched quickly towards the opening of the Mouottanot the annihilation of the French force. The famous thal, with the intent of passing round towards the Suwarrow, the conqueror of the Poles and the Turks, east, and doing something to retrieve the posture of was then, with nearly 20,000 Russians, in the north affairs; but his active enemies met him at its very of Italy, where he had been reaping fresh laurels mouth, not far from the town of Schwytz. from his successes against the French; if he could A desperate battle ensued, the chief scene of conbe brought with his veteran troops into Switzerland, tention being the bridge which is represented in our it was thought that the most sanguine results might engraving; the carnage at this point was terrible, and fairly be anticipated. Accordingly it was arranged the torrent “was encumbered for several days with that he should cross the Alps by the pass of the St. the bodies of the dead of both nations.” The guide Gothard, and march at once northward into Mas- who conducted Simond to the top of the Mount sena's rear; the troops in his front were to remain Righi, gave him an animating description of these con. quiet until this manoeuvre was executed, when the flicts; from that summit, the entrance to the MouottaFrench would find themselves placed between two thal—"a narrow gorge between high mountains, with armies.

a torrent issuing out of it,”—was distinctly visible. Suwarrow forced the St. Gothard on the 24th of The bridge was, he says, taken and retaken many September, driving before him the French troops who times; “ the mingled blood of the two nations crimattempted to obstruct his passage; he arrived on the soned the stream which carried down their floating 26th at Altorf, and finding the banks of the Lucerne bodies." Suwarrow strove hard, and was very near or Waldstetten lake to be impracticable, he boldly forcing his way; at length he desisted, and turning determined to force his way across the mountains round, sought a passage by the difficult route we have into the valley of the Mouotta, which would lead him already described, over the Praghel to Glaris, harassed to the heart of the canton of Schwytz. There was all the while by his enemies, who kept his rear conno known route by which he could traverse the inter tinually fighting. When he reached the outlet of the vening tract of country; but the bold Russian was valley of Glaris, he found it already occupied by the not to be deterred, and he resolved to explore one. French; and "having, therefore, explored another He first penetrated through the Schachenthal—then mountain route, he managed to reach the town of through the Kientzigthal; next he crossed the Coire in the Grisons, on the 4th of October, having mountain called the Kientzighoulm, and descended lost one-fourth of his numbers in the eleven days into a narrow valley, or rather water-course, which which he had spent in marching and fighting since led him into the Mouottathal, through the opening his departure from Italy. which lies opposite to the village of Mouotta. “The The inhabitants of the Mouottathal were grievously shepherds of the Alps,” says Ebel, never speak but injured by this war; Ebel tells us that at the com. with admiration of the passage of the Russians over mencement of the year 1800, between six and seven the Kientzighoulm,-a summit on which no other hundred of them—that is, three-fourths of their beast is accustomed to tread but the goat, and which whole number—were reduced to such a state of indiis visited by no human being save the herdsman and gence as to be obliged to inscribe their names on the the chamois-hunter.” “ Probably no traveller,” said list of the poor. The same was the case with onea Swiss guide to a writer we have before quoted, fourth of the remainining population of the canton, “had ever before passed the Kientzighoulm from so completely had its prosperity,—"the work of 500 Altorf to the Mouottathal; the very shepherds take years of peace,”—been destroyed in two short years off their shoes, and hold by their hands, where armies of warfare. Many resorted to emigration; and marched during that memorable campaign. The hundreds of children were dispersed into other parts precipices were strewn with bodies of fallen soldiers; of Switzerland, there to find the shelter of which they not a mossy rock beside a running spring, that had had been deprived in their native valleys. Yet all not been chosen by some of them to lay down his this misery has now passed away; “ Time," says head and die; and when, in the ensuing year, the Simond, " and patient industry, have effaced all traces melting of the snows left the corpses uncovered, the of calamities seemingly so recent, and Schwytz ravenous birds of prey became so dainty that they appears at present one of the most prosperous of the fed their young only with the eyes!”

Swiss cantons.' Suwarrow reached the village of Mouotta, with the main body of his army, on the 27th of September;

For that conceit, that learning should undermine the reve

rence for laws and government, it is assuredly a mere and bitter must have been his mortification then, to

depravation and calumny, without any shadow of truth. learn that all his combinations had been ruined; that For to say that a blind custom of obedience should be a Massena, well apprised of the project of getting into surer obligation than duty taught and understood, is to his rear, had put 50,000 troops into motion on the affirm that a blind man may tread surer by a guide, than very day the St. Gothard was forced, and attacked a seeing man can by a light. And it is without all conthe armies in his front—that Hotze was killed, and troversy, that learning doth make the minds of men gentle, his successor Petrarch in full flight to the Rhine,

amiable, and pliant to government; whereas ignorance

makes them churlish, thwarting, and mutinous; and the and that Korsakow, leaving Zürich, had been defeated evidence of time doth clear this assertion, considering that in a murderous conflict, and was also retreating in the most barbarous, rude, and unlearned times have been the direction of that river. The defeat of this latter most subject to tumults, seditions, and changes.—LORD general was, indeed, complete, -thousands of his Bacon. Russians being slain; and so unexpected was it, that It is so pleasant to talk of one's self, that one had rather Massena and his staff are said to have sat down to a

talk of one's faults than not talk of one's self at all. sumptuous dinner which had been prepared in Zürich Hannah More.

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