Imágenes de páginas


miseries and evils, of which he afterwards availed Erasmus may be considered to have been the most himself in his published works., Happily for him he learned man of his time. This is saying much of found an opportunity, through the Archbishop of one who lived in the reign of our Eighth Henry, and Cambray, who offered to serve him, of leaving the was intimate with Dean Colet *, Linacret, Grocynt, monastery at Stein, and studying, as well as taking William Latimer, Lily, the Grammarian g, and Sir pupils, at the University of Paris ; but before his Thomas Morell; all Englishmen, and great men in removal to Paris he had been ordained a priest by the their generation. In a letter from London, in 1497, Bishop of Utrecht. Among his pupils were some to a friend in Italy, (for Erasmus lived much in English noblemen, particularly William Blount, Lord England,) he says, “ When Colet discourses, I seem to Mountjoy, who was afterwards his great friend and hear Plato himself; in Grocyn I admire an universal patron, and at whose invitation he paid his first visit compass of learning; Linacre's acuteness, depth, and to England. accuracy, are not to be exceeded; nor did nature Previously to tais it appears, the constitution or ever form anything more elegant, exquisite, and Erasmus had suffered so much, partly from overbetter accomplished than More! It would be end-exertion and partly from that accompanying fault, too less to enumerate all; but it is surprising to think common among studious men, self-neglect in point of how learning flourishes in this happy country." health, that from being a person of strong frame he

Having introduced the subject of this memoir became weak and delicate. At Oxford he cultivated with well-deserved praise, and in excellent company; the friendship of the great men whose names are reand having, moreover, endeavoured to gain the corded in the beginning of this paper, most of whom attention of our readers by quoting his high opinion were then the heroes of a literary warfare, and sucof England, and its learned men, we must go back cessfully engaged in introducing into the University in order of time, to state that Gerard, afterwards that alarming novelty, the study of Greek! In the called Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, was born attractive pursuit of the dead languages he took an at Rotterdam, October 28, 1467. His father was a amazing interest, being determined to make them physician named Gerard. This name, between which serve high purposes, namely, the interests of sacred and Desiderius Erasmus there does not, at first sight, knowledge; and, being then very poor, he declared appear to be any affinity, the son dropped early in that " as soon as he could get any money, he would life. “ But," says Dr. Jortin, “ in his youth, he first buy Greek books and then clothes." Passages took the name of Erasmus, having before gone by like these in the life of a man whose fame, even at that of Gerard, which in the German language means that time, rang throughout Europe, are a sad reflection, amiable. Following the fashion of learned men of if not upon the times in which he flourished, at least those times, who affected to give their names a Latin on those distinguished and wealthy characters who or Greek turn, he called himself Desiderius, which in affected to call themselves his patrons, and whose Latin, and Erasmus, which in Greek, has the same conduct, if it were general, would go far to justify Dr. signification as Gerard." His third name he took in Johnson's definition of the word, Patron. compliment to the city which produced him, and Our scholar had by this time published his Adages, which continues to pay back the distinction, with as well as some other learned and elegant works in interest, and constantly-reflected honour.

Latin, the then general language of learned writers, A notion prevails in Holland that Erasmus was and had risen to be a perfect, though self-taught, reckoned dull as a child, though, on the other hand, Grecian. There is an old saying, that a rolling stone it appears that his father, on discovering in him early gathers no moss; to the truth of which Erasmus marks of talent, resolved to give him the best educa. seems to form an exception, for he carried his tion in his power. Both these accounts may be true. locomotiveness to a fault. We find him at Paris, The wretched and heavy kind of school learning then Cambray, Orléans, Louvain, Turin, and Bologna, in fashion was, probably, against the genius of a sharp appearing to settle in each place, but changing again and sensible boy; and, indeed, when he was afterwards for fresh scenes and faces, yet gathering additional sent, at nine years of age, to school at Deventer, at knowledge and heightened fame wherever he went. that time one of the best in the Netherlands for England, however, was the principal magnet; and classical literature, he gained such a name, that one no wonder-when, as he tells Colet in 1506, “ There of the masters pronounced of him what afterwards was no country which had furnished him with so came to pass, that “ he would one day prove the many learned and generous benefactors as even the single envy and wonder of all Germany." While a city of London." His high character of a ripe scholar boy at school he had the misfortune to lose his and a good one, travelled before him when he visited father and mother; she died of the plague at Rome; and the leading divines of that city vied with Deventer, whither she had come to see and take care each other in paying attentions to one so distinguished of her son; and Gerard, her husband, did not long for genius, and for his exertions as a restorer of survive his bereavement. The plague drove Erasmus learning. It yet remained for him to establish his from school, when he was about fourteen ; upon which fame as a Reformer of Religion, or rather a Restorer his guardians, who seem to have treated him extremely of the ancient Faith. ill, in order to get what little fortune he owned into On the death of Henry the Seventh, and the suctheir hands, resolved to force him into a monastery. cession of his son Henry the Eighth, the friends of Thus he passed some unprofitable years, changing Erasmus entreated him to visit England once more, from one convent to another, eager to escape, utterly and enjoy the patronage of the young king, to whom averse to the selfish and monotonous life of the monks, he was well known. He accordingly quitted Rome; and gaining by experience that knowledge of monastic and having arrived in England, where he lodged with

The pious and munificent founder of St. Paul's School, of Sir Thomas More, he soon began to employ his wit which he made Lily the first master.! + One of the most eminent physicians and scholars of his age ;

against the Pope, and the court of Rome, by writing founder and first President of the College of Physicians.

with wonderful rapidity a most ingenious work entitled | A distinguished Greek and Latin scholar, and one of the revivers Moric Encomium, or, The Praise of Folly; a compoof literature in this country. 6 Both Latimer and Lily greatly contributed, against vast oppo

sition, which with his inimitable Colloquies, entailed sition, to introduce the cultivation of Greek at Oxford.

upon him the unfeigned hatred of the Romish church. 11 See Saturday Magazine, Vol. IV., p. 220. Melancthon, for instance; Saturday Magazine, Vol. VII., p. 92.

At Cambridge, whither he was invited by Fisher,


Bishop of Rochester, he was promoted to the Lady stone; and in 1622 by the present, which is ten feet Margaret's professorship of Divinity. He was Greek high, and is the work of Henry de Reiser. professor at Oxford, and rector of Aldington, in Kent: still, however, he continued travelling and There is a story in the Arabian Nights' tales of a king writing, and provoking replies to the attacks, which, who had long languished under an ill habit of body, and in the struggle for truth, he repeated in all the forms had taken abundance of remedies to no purpose. At of learned controversy. Some of these answers length, says the fable, a physician cured him by the followirritated and annoyed him; while one publication of ing method. He took a hollow ball of wood, and filled it the day, in Latin, entitled, The Letters of obscure that nothing appeared. He likewise took a mall, and after

with several drugs; after which he closed it up so artificially Individuals, the authorship of which was wrongly having hollowed the handle, and that part which strikes the attributed to himself, was so amusing, that it threw ball, he enclosed in them several drugs after the same him on the perusal into a violent fit of laughter, and manner as in the ball itself. He then ordered the sultan, thus cured him of an abscess in the face : it broke who was his patient, to exercise himself early in the mornby the exertion, and never troubled him again!

ing with these rightly-prepared instruments, till such time But the writings of this remarkable man now

as he should perspire: when the virtue of the medicaments

perspiring through the wood, had so good an influence on began to tell upon the great event of the Reformation, the sultan's constitution, that they cured him of an indiswhich was then approaching, and in the advancement position which the compositions he had taken inwardly of which he greatly assisted, by opposing ignorance had not been able to remove. This eastern allegory is and superstition, while he encouraged toleration, the finely contrived to show us how beneficial bodily labour is promotion of knowledge, and genuine piety. “Eras- to health, and that exercise is the most effectual medicine. mus," it was said at the time, with reference to the Absolutely necessary, however, as exercise is, there is Reformation, “ laid the egg, and Luther hatched it.” | produces the same effects as exercise, and may, in some

another great preservative of health, which in many cases In 1516, was printed and published at Basil, Eras- | measure, supply its place, where opportunities of exercise mus's edition of the New Testament, a work of infi are wanting. This preservative is temperance, which has nite labour ; labour so severe, he tells us, as, in fact, those particular advantages above all other means of health, to destroy his constitution. He also put forth the that it may be practised by all ranks and conditions, at any works of St. Jerome in six folio volumes,—a grand season, or in any place. It is a kind of regimen into which addition to sacred literature, which, while it occa

every man may put himself, without interruption to business, sioned an immense sacrifice of time and health in its all superfluities, temperance prevents them; if exercise

expense of money, or loss of time. If exercise throws off collection and arrangement, tended to raise still clears the vessels, temperance neither satiates nor overhigher the fame of the editor*.

strains them; if exercise raises proper ferments in the Yet Erasmus had his faults. Indecision, and an humours, and promotes the circulation of the blood, temundue love of great men's praise, beset hirn at a

perance gives nature her full play, and enables her to exert

herself in all her force and vigour; if exercise dissipates a trying moment; and strange to say, notwithstanding growing distemper, temperance starves it.—Spectator. his clear convictions on the erroneous and unscriptural character of the Romish Church, as evinced in A Few years ago, when the scarcity of provisions was so all his works, he shrunk from exhibiting any open severely felt throughout Italy, the inhabitants of the Tusproof of his attachment to the reformed religion. can Apennines, who rely very much upon chestnuts for He was startled at the magnitude of the change, and their support, would have been almost exterminated, from probably not a little vexed at the boldness of Luther, suaded the year before into the more general cultivation of

the complete failure of that crop, had they not been perwho did not hesitate to quarrel with him for his lack

the potato. The prejudice against it was so great, that it of courage in so good a cause. For whilst that eager was only by offering a reward to each peasant for a certain champion of Protestantism went warmly and vigor- quantity of bis own cultivation, that ihe government sucously to his work, Erasmus treated his opponents ceeded in the attempt. It is to the credit of the Tuscan with civility, or was content with playing off against character, that numbers, who in the time of famine had felt them the lighter weapons of wit and ridicule; and the benefit and importance of this regetable, when they not being openly separated from a church, the forms produced certificates of their being entitled to the govern

ment bounty, declined accepting it, declaring that they no and traditions of which he abhorred and despised, longer wanted bribing into the belief of the great utility he did not abandon its discipline. He even dedicated of a plant to which they owed the preservation of their one of his publications to Pope Adrian the Sixth, in lives. —Diary of an Invalid. language of timidity and compliment: the succeeding Pope invited him to Rome; and Paul the Third, knowing his power, and wishing, perhaps, if not to

Behold the western evening-light! gain him over, to keep him quiet, is said to have

It melts in deepening gloom;

So calmly Christians sink away, designed for him the honour of a cardinal's hat.

Descending to the tomb. But whatever might have been the real reasons of

The winds breathe low; the withering leaf Erasmus in refusing these preferments, he pleaded his

Scarce whispers from the tree; ill health and poverty—while the deeper motive pro

So gently flows the parting breath, bably lay in his objections to popery, and his distrust

When good men cease to be. of those whom he had assailed in his writings. In

How beautiful on all the hills 1536, he became exceedingly ill; and was aware for

The crimson light is shed ! some time before his death, that his disease, which

'Tis like the peace the Christian gives

To mourners round his bed. was dysentery, was too likely to terminate his life. He died in July 1536, aged 69, at Basil, and was buried

How mildly on the wandering cloud

The sunset beam is cast; in the cathedral church of that city, where his tomb

'Tis like the memory left behind, in marble is to be seen, with a Latin inscription. His

When loved ones breathe their last. statue in bronze, as represented in the engraving,

And now, above the dews of night, stands on an arch crossing one of the canals at Rot

The yellow star appears; terdam, and the house in which he was born is still

o faith springs in the heart of those shown. The original statue was of wood, and was

Whose cyes are bathed in tears. erected in 1519; it was succeeded in 1555 by one of

But soon the morning's happier light

Its glory shall restort, The works of Erasmus were published at Leyden, in 1703,

And eyelids that are seal'd in deatlı, in ten large and closely-printed folio volumes,-a rare monument of

-PEABODY talent and industry,

Shall wake, to close no more. —



Although the common house-fly is so well known, How frequently it happens that the objects which in its perfect state, as to require no description, yet the come most commonly under our notice, are those places in which it is bred, and the appearance of the with which we are least acquainted. Every school- larva, is very little understood; by some it is said to boy can describe the form and the habits of a lion or deposit its eggs in the Autumn in stagnant waters, a tiger, or the wonderful luminous properties of the where they remain and undergo the usual changes, lantern-fly; but yet, with all this knowledge of the until, in the Spring, the perfect insect makes its apwonders of foreign lands, how few are there, even of pearance. According to the celebrated naturalist, the well informed, to whom the natural history of so De Geer, (from whose works figs. 2 and 3 are copied,) common an insect as the House-fly is known. The fig. 2 is a representation of the larva, which he found following observations occur, in alluding to this sub- in wet horse-dung; fig. 3 is a magnified view of one ject, in Kirby and Spence's beautiful introduction to extremity of the same larva, showing a curiously. Entomology.

contrived hook, by which the creature is enabled to “You have, doubtless, like every one else, in the move from place to place, and to secure itself from showery days of summer, felt no little rage at the removal from any occasional cause. It is most likely flies, which at such times take the liberty of biting that the eggs of our common fly are deposited in our legs, and contrive to make a comfortable meal many other substances besides horse-dung, where the through the interstices of their silken or cotton necessary qualifications of moisture and warmth are coverings. · Did it, I pray, ever enter into your con- to be found. ception, that these blood-thirsty tormentors are a Annoying as flies appear to be to us in hot weather, different species from those flies which you are wont we can form no idea of their numbers and troubleto see extending the tips of their little proboscis to a some nature in the warmer climates of the south. “I piece of sugar, or a drop of wine? I dare say not. met," says Arthur_Young, in his travels through But the next time you have sacrificed one of the France, “ between Pradelles and Shuytz, mulberries former to your just vengeance, catch one of the and fies at the same time; by the term flies, I mean latter, and compare them. I question if, after the those myriads of them which form the most disnarrowest comparison, you will not still venture a agreeable circumstance of the southern climates. wager that they are of the very same species; yet They are the first torments in Spain, Italy, and the you would most certainly lose your bet. They are Olive District of France; it is not that they bite, not even of the same genus, one belonging to the sting, or hurt, but they buz, tease, and worry; your genus Musca (Musca domestica), and the other to the mouth, eyes, ears, and nose, are full of them ; they genus Stomoxys (Stomorys calcitrans); and on a swarm on every eatable. Fruit, sugar, milk, every second examination you will find that, however alike thing is attacked by them in such myriads, that if in most respects, they differ widely in the shape of they are not incessantly driven away by a person who their proboscis; that of the Stomoxys being a horny, has nothing else to do, to eat a meal is impossible. sharp-pointed weapon, capable of piercing the flesh, They are, however, caught on prepared paper, and while the soft, blunt organ of the Musca is perfectly by other contrivances, with so much ease, and in incompetent to any such operation. In future, while such quantities, that, were it not from negligence, you no longer load the whole race of the house-fly they could not abound in such incredible numbers. with the execrations which properly belong to a quite If I farmed in these countries, I think I should different tribe, you will cease being surprised that an manure four or five acres every year with dead flies." ordinary description should be insufficient to discriminate an insect.”

JOHN SMEATON, the celebrated engineer, exhibited at a

very early age great strength of understanding, and origiFig. 1.

Fig. 4.

nality of genius. His playthings were not the toys of children, but the tools with which men work, and he appeared to take greater pleasure in seeing the men in the neighbourhood work, and asking them questions, than in anything else. One day he was seen, to the no small alarm of his family, on the top of his father's barn, fixing up something resembling a wind-mill. On another occasion, he watched some men who were fixing a pump at a neigh

bouring village; and, observing them cut off a piece of Fig. 2.

bored pipe, he procured it, and actually made with it a

working pump that raised water. All this was done while Fig. 5.

he was in petticoats, and before he had reached his sixth year.

About his fourteenth or fifteenth year, he had made himself an engine to turn rose-work; he also made a lathe by which he cut a perpetual screw in brass,--a thing but little known at that time. In this manner he had, by the strength

of his genius, and indefatigable industry, acquired, at the The annexed engraving represents the distinction age of eighteen, an extensive set of tools, and the art of between the common house-fly and that species which working at most of the mechanical trades, without the asis so frequently met with in the autumn, when ac sistance of a master. Of his talents as an engineer, the cording to the common belief, “flies bite." Fig. 1, is Eddystone Light-house, near the western entrance of the the head and proboscis of the house-fly considerably British channel, is a remarkable monument. magnified; when thus enlarged, the difference between its trunk and that of the Stomoxys, fig 4, (also mag- THERE are those who are rich in their poverty, because they nified,) is very palpable ; in one the trunk is a mere

are content, and use generously what they have: there are sucking instrument, while in the other it is a sheath, from their insatiable covetousness or profusion.—CALMET.

others, who in the midst of their riches, are really poor, containing a sharp-pointed instrument. Fig. 5 repre. sents this sheath very highly magnified, and the The day is long when it is well distributed, and afforda weapon of offence raised from the groove in which it sufficient time for serious employments, for exercise, and usually lies.

pleasure.---PHILIP DE MORNAY.

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Fig. 3.


near ?


" The star! the star! the fiery tressed star!"

“ Which now pursues its long and trackless voyage
Down the deep bosom of unbounded space.

Every liquid which is susceptible of fermentation will
And there, the angel of each separate star

yield alcohol, or spirits of wine, by distillation, after the Folding his wings in terror o'er his orb

first or vinous stage of that chemical action has taken Of golden fire, and shuddering till it passed To pour elsewhere Jehovah's cup of vengeance.".

place. Now as all liquids which contain starch or sugar MIlman's Belshazzar. of any kind will ferment if the fermenting principle is

present, the juices of all vegetables containing farina or MYSTERIOUS Stranger! whence art thou ? and wherefore on saccharine matter may be employed to obtain alcohol from. thy way?

The peculiar flavour of the different spirits obtained from Is thy bright path beset with suns which yield eternal day? these vegetable substances, depends on the presence of Com'st thou from ’neath the great white throne, a messenger some foreign matter, as an essential oil, &c., for the alcohol of ill,

or basis is the same, from whatever source it may be To pour o'er earth the vial drops that burn, and blight, and kill ? obtained. Art thou that fallen mighty One, who filled an angel's throne, different degrees of caloric being requisite to convert

The process of distillation is founded on the principle of Now wandering in immensity, there ever doom'd to roam ?

different liquids into vapour. Thus, if water and alcohol Can'st thou not view that land afar, once thine own happy seat, And sigh for the bright and beautiful which there in gladness volatilize the spirit,—but not to convert the water rapidly

are mixed and exposed to a moderate heat, sufficient to meet ?

into steam,—and the vapour arising from the mixture, be Or art thou only the red-car, the fiery-wheeled throne, collected and condensed in a separate vessel, the liquid will Of some archangel, on his way to regions yet unknown ? be found to be stronger, or to contain more alcohol in proOr the chariot of the cherubim, from the mercy seat on high, portion to the water, than that from which it was obtained. By Him on a gracious errand sent, whose glory fills the sky ? The instrument contrived to effect this separation is But art thou, as I ween thou art, a world both bright and fair

, called a Still. It consists of a large copper or boiler, with

a vaulted head, from which rises a funnel-shaped tube, The work of an Almighty Hand, the object of his care ? "Twas He who marked thy radiant course with his unerring from the fire of the boiler, in a leaden, copper, or tin tube,

which, being bent downwards, terminates at some distance line,

| made into a spiral form of many turns, and hence called And bade thee in his gem-pav'd courts in blazing beauty shine.

the Worm. This tube is enclosed in a tub, or vat, capable Or can'st thou tell what is yon zone, yon star bespangled way, of holding water, and the end of the worm terminates in a Circling the vast unbounded space with mild enduring ray ? tap, which passes out of the vessel at the bottom. Is its broad circuit a bright path to the archangels given When the liquid to be distilled is put into the boiler and Or the diamond walls and minarets of their palaces in Heav'n? is heated, the vapour produced passes through the head and Do'st thou not pause thee in thy course, nor check thy wild is condensed into a liquid, which may be drawn off at the

into the worm, and, by the coldness of the water in the tub, career,

tap. This liquid product is called singlings, and is again As those most pure and pearly gates, and crystal towers draw

returned to a still, and the process repeated,—the resulting

condensed liquid being each time stronger, or containing Do not the perfumed breezes from that land of light and love

less water,-till the spirit is obtained of the requisite purity, Waft the songs of the redeemed, all other songs above ?

or at what is termed proof. All spirit for drinking remains Hast thou never, in thy wanderings through the trackless diluted with a large proportion of water. Instead of refields of light,

distilling the products, after a certain number of times, other Met the countless armed host of Heav'n arrayed with power chemical processes are employed for the purpose of sepaand might ?

rating the alcohol from the water, and from any badNor the ransomed crowds of sinners in their voyage to that favoured essential oil which may have been distilled over shore

from the original liquid. These processes are generally Where the wicked cease from troubling, and the weary toil termed the rectification of the spirit, and vary for every

different liquid employed. Yes, 'tis to thee the azure way and silvery path is given,

There are three principal spirits used in this country; The vast unmeasured star-paved floor of cherubim-trod Heav'n; from grain of some sort, and known by the names of Geneva,

of the first of these there are several varieties, all obtained Thou art pavilioned far beyond the journeys of the sun, For when his daily race is o'er, thy journeying's scarce begun.

Whisky, Hollands, &c.

Gin, or Geneva, is procured from raw barley, oats, and Far in the blue othereal plain, no bound nor landmark there, malt, mixed together in certain proportions. Every particle Around thee are the azure wilds, the pure unbreathed air; of soluble matter is obtained from these ingredients by But the golden chain that binds thee with an ever-circling repeated mashings, (see the article BREWING, Vol. VI., band

p. 243.) The worts are then made to ferment by the Is held by Ilim who changes not, by an Alınighty hand. addition of yeast, as for brewing, but the fermentation is And e'en beyond the limits of thy far stretching chain,

continued till all the saccharine matter is converted into The frontiers of his kingdom lie, Jehovah's wide domain;

alcohol. This fermented liquor is called wash by the disAnd there in that most holy place, where angel foot ne'er trod, and the first product being redistilled, the spirit obtained is

tillers. The grains are put into the still along with the wash, The brightness of his presence dwells, our own our Fathers' rectified. The peculiar flavour is given by infusing a few God!

juniper-berries and some hops. Be thou an ensign of his wrath, the herald of his will,

The Dutch employ barley, malt, and rye meal only to Upon earth's guilty nations now, his judgments to fulfil, distil their Hollands from. Or in mercy sent to wake us from life's delusive dream

Irish Whisky, Potsheen, or Potteen*, owes its highlyJiy Him, who mighty to create, is mightier to redeem. prized flavour to the mode in which the usual processes are Yet thou with all on this fair earth, or in the sparkling sea,

conducted, rather than to any peculiarity in the grains. With the lamps of living gold that light heav'ns azure canopy,

The barley is wetted with bog-water, in order tu excite And the pictured scenes which in silver float or in floods of germination, and the malt is dried with turf instead of coal. glory roll,

The malt is mixed with about one-fourth of raw corn, and With the crimson curtain'd skies shall then be as a burning the mashing is made in a tun, the bottom of which is covered scroll.


young heath and oat-husks, to supply the place of a

false one. Wlien the wash begins to boil in the still, the When on his cloudy throne shall come, the last great husband- fire is suddenly quenched, and the spirit which runs, though

man, And o'er creation's utmost bounds, shall wave his stormy fan;

. The account of the peculiar process of manufacturing potteen, Sweeping the guilty sons of men with their pomp and pride is taken froʻ a Professor Donovan's work, that gentleman having, at away,

some pains, procured an opportunity of witnessing the whole in a But gathering his redeemed to dwell with him in endless day. genuine Irish illicit distillery. Mr. Donovan is doubtful whether

the turf used is the cause of the flavour of the spirit, but attributes Stonebrakes.

W. H. BROWXLEE. this to the proportions of the grains and the mode of distillation.

no more.

weak, is of the true flavour. The singlings are distilled | this term is also applied to the corresponding liquid obagain and yield the real potteen.

tained from malt liquor. Rum is a spirit obtained from molasses, or the fluid which Vinegar is made in England by brewing from malt, and drains from the crystallizing sugar: the molasses are leaving the beer to turn sour, either by exposure to the diluted with water, fermented and distilled. In the dis sun and air in casks, the bung-holes of which are left open, tillation acetic ether passes over, and communicates a and covered up lightly with a tile to exclude the dust; or strong disagreeable flavour to the spirit, which must be else the casks are kept in an apartment warmed artificially subsequently got rid of. The leaves of different plants to the requisite temperature. It is necessary to bring on, are put into the still to give a pleasant taste to the rum. and accelerate, the acetous fermentation, by adding sour

Brandy is distilled from any wines, but the best is pro- beer, lees of wine, or vinegar, to the new beer, for though cured from weak French wines, which are unfit for ex this fermentation would ensue naturally, yet it would take portation.

some months, or a year, or more, to perfect without this In consequence of the enormous quantity of this spirit assistance. When the vinegar is completed, the fermentaconsumed, every mode of economizing labour and expense tion must be stopped by decanting off the liquid from the is had recourse to: the principal of these is the adoption dregs and lees, fining it, and closing up the vessels conof a peculiar mode of distillation, which merits description taining it. If these processes were delayed, the third here, and by which fuel is saved. Instead of a single still stage, or the putrefactive fermentation, would come on, and there are a series of copper vessels, which we shall distin- the vinegar would be spoilt. gujsh as 1, 2, 3, &c. A tube rises from the top of 1, and is The vinegar manufactured at Orléans and Saumur is bent down again to pass through the top of 2, to near the celebrated; it is procured by the following process. Wine bottom of that vessel; from the top of 2 another similar of a year old, and just beginning to turn sour, is preferred tube communicates in the same way with 3, and 3 again for the purpose. Two large vats are placed in a chamber communicates with 4, and so on. These tubes are open at artificially warmed to the temperature of about 75o, a both ends, but are soldered air-tight to the holes in the trivet is put at the bottom of each vessel, on which is laid a vessels through which they pass, so that there is no open- layer of green vine-twigs, and on this again are heaped up ing to the external air by means of them. Each of the the stalks of raisins or grapes, to within a foot of the top. vessels being half filled with the wine to be distilled, the One of these casks is filled, and the other about halffire is applied to the first only, the vapour which passes filled with the wine. In about four-and-twenty hours the over is condensed by, and mixed with, the wine in the liquor is drawn off from the full into the other vat; this second, and as this vapour, by the nature of distillation, alternate filling up one cask out of the other is continued contains more alcohol than water, the wine in the second daily for about a fortnight or three weeks, when the vinegar vessel is strengthened by the addition, while it is heated will be perfected. by the caloric disengaged from the vapour: and since a At Orléans, a vat, capable of containing about 130 galless degree of heat is sufficient to convert this stronger lons, is one quarter filled with boiling vinegar, and is left liquid into vapour, that which rises from it contains a yet for eight days. The wine is contained in another tun, in greater proportion of alcohol to the water. This vapour which chips of beech, saturated with vinegar-lees, are from 2 is condensed again in 3, the wine in which is thus thrown; at the end of that period about five or six quarts strengthened more than that in 2 was, and the heat im- of the wine are drawn off into the vinegar, and this quanparted to 3, though less than that which 2 acquired from 1, tity is added every eight days, till that vat is filled up, and is yet sufficient to distil the stronger wine contained in 3. the whole will be found to be converted into vinegar. The action is continued, if necessary, to four vessels, but The processes employed at our large manufactories for usually three are sufficient, and the vapour from the last is making vinegar from raisins, agrees in principle with that condensed in a worm in the usual manner, only instead of just described, only the implements are better constructed, water, the tub containing the worm is filled with wine, and are more complete. which, getting heated by the process, is pumped back into There are several modes of strengthening vinegar, which the first vessel, and is therefore made to boil sooner, and is not sufficiently acid. If a cask of vinegar be exposed to fuel is thus still further economized. This ingenious pro the air in a frosty night, the ice which will be found in it cess was the invention of an uneducated man of the name on the following morning, will consist of water only, conof Adam, and goes by his name.

gealed, and the liquid that remains will be considerably Brandy, whatever wine it may have been obtained from, stronger, in consequence of the abstraction from it of so is at first colourless; in France a good deal is used in this much water which diluted it: if the process be repeated sestate, but the greater part is coloured by different methods. veral times, vinegar very much concentrated may be obCognac brandy is put into new oaken casks, and chips of tained. The same action will take place with wine, if the same wood are also added; the oak communicates a exposed to cold, the water diluting it being alone congealed, yellow tinge to the spirit, and probably some flavour likewise. and the remaining liquid will contain the whole of the

The various liqueurs known by the names of Eau-doré, original quantity of alcohol. The chemical principle of this Maraschino, Kirsche-wasser, &c. consist of brandy, fla- process is the same as that on which distillation is founded, voured by the essential oil of different aromatic plants, and If sugar be added to vinegar, in a few weeks this liquid sweetened by sugar. Arrack is a name given in the East will be found materially increased in strength. Whether to spirits generally, and has hence been employed here to the sugar, when dissolved, passes through the vinous into designate very different liquors, as that obtained from rice, the acetous fermentation is not known, but the fact is the cocoa-tree, &c.

certain. The fermented liquids obtained from potatoes, beet, Vinegar consists of acetic acid, coloured and flavoured by carrot, turnips, the fruit of the potato, service-tree, apples, the skins of the fruit, or partaking of the tint and taste of cherries, &c. have been employed with different degrees of the fermented liquid whieh furnished it. The acetic acid success for obtaining alcohol from. In Kamtschatka, grass may be obtained from wood pure, by the following process; is made use of for this purpose, and many plants might, pieces of oak, beech, ash, or almost any wood, except that doubtless, be employed with advantage, if it were not for of the fir tribe, are put into a large cylindrical iron retort, the severity of our Excise laws; but no friend to his closed air-tight at both ends, and surrounded by fire in a species could wish to see the use of spirits as a drink in- furnace; a tube from one end is carried through a cistern creased in any country.

of water, and terminates in a worm like that of a common VINEGAR.

still; in fact, this apparatus is no other than a still for

distilling green wood. The products from the wood consist There are three stages of the action of fermentation which of water, tar, and acetic acid, the acid and water with some liquids containing saccharine matter undergo. The first, tar mixed together, will be found floating in the receiver on termed the vinous, has been sufficiently alluded to in the the top of the greater part of the latter substance, and are previous sections on wine and spirits; bút any of this class separated from it mechanically by means of a pump, The of liquids, after undergoing this stage, if left exposed to impure acid is then distilled by a low heat, and thus the air at a certain temperature, passes on to the second, another portion of tar is separated from it; but it requires or to the acetous, fermentation ; and the liquid in conse further, and more complicated chemical treatment, which quence acquires a new set of properties, not less different cannot be described here, to purify it entirely from foreign from those it possessed when alcohol predominated in it, admixture. than these were from the qualities of the original liquid. Acetic acid, when pure, is as clear and colourless as When wine of any kind undergoes this second fermenta water, and of such a strength as to require to be diluted tion, it is converted into vinegar, and, in common language, with eight or nine times its bulk of water, to reduce it to

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